State of exception

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The exception in the law. A discussion of the state of exception in juridical and political theory

The exception in the law. A discussion of the state of exception in juridical and political theory

Es la relación entre norma y decisión y/o entre norma y poder lo que muestran este tipo de legislaciones, y lo que en la teoría del Derecho podría analizarse a través de figuras como l[r]

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Portable Document Format (PDF)

Portable Document Format (PDF)

Thus, articles by Atiles, Rodríguez-Maeso and Coleman deal with the theoretical and historical analysis of the state of exception in three different contexts of colonial rule. Together they articulate a deep analysis of the legal, political history and constitutional precedents of the development of state of exception in Western countries’ colonial projects. Those articles tackle case studies on US-Puerto Rico, European anti-racist policies and corporate violence in Latin America. Articles by Rojas and Bernat show how the state of exception had become a legal dispositive of economic development that instead of promoting just development has led to impoverishment of societies and of their legal, economic and political systems. Together, those articles reveal the connections between the state of exception and neoliberalism in the context of the current economic crisis and how the state of exception is central to the development of economic development and poverty policies. Cases that will be analysed here include the brutal assault on Southern European countries in the name of neoliberal austerity, and the continuum of state violence to secure an economic order in Colombia that was underpinned by an unremitting resort to exceptional powers. Whyte provides an overview of how the concept of the ‘corporate citizen’ can illuminate a series of exceptional political and legal interventions that at the same time masks class power and secures the economic dominance of a narrow elite, whilst Ciocchini and Khoury show that the Investor-State Dispute Settlement mechanism used in bilateral treaties acts as an exceptional set of rules to neutralise major conflicts around corporate violence. As a result, this special issue constitutes a unique effort to illuminate what has been forgotten and has remained invisible in the state of exception literature. The special issue aims to rethink the state of exception from below, from the place of those whose lives have been affected by both the economic crises and exceptionality.
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Portable Document Format (PDF)

Portable Document Format (PDF)

Agamben (2005) proposes the paradigm of the state of exception to exemplify the exercise of sovereign power in the contemporary era. In his philosophical and genealogical analysis, Agamben (2005) shows that the history of the state of exception is the history of its progressive separation from periods of war, to become the administrative paradigm of contemporary democracies. Agamben (1998, 2005) argues that from WWI onwards, the state of exception has become the norm, leaving aside its provisional and temporal character. For Agamben (2005), this separation from its earliest definition triggers the technification of governmental power and the depolitizaction of politics. In this way, the state of exception has become the administrative dispositive of the post 9/11 era (Butler 2004) and of neoliberalism. The implicit argument in Agamben’s work is that the global north has lived in a permanent state of exception since WWI, given the crisis generated by capitalism. To be sure, economic crises, political violence, and natural disasters are (in)direct products of capitalism, since it operates through the commodification of every aspect of life (including life itself), and the massive exclusion of socio-political sectors and plunder of natural recourses. In this sense, the neoliberal technification of politics is the latest version of the modern-liberal aspiration of configuring a society free of conflict, in which decisions are based, not on democratic debates, but on effectiveness, efficiency and productivity criteria. Thus, the state of exception has become the governmental technology or dispositive that facilitated the neoliberal legal and political transformations of the state and society. As a result, the neoliberal implementation of the state of exception in contemporary democracies is changing the definitions of citizenship and sociopolitical inclusion/exclusion (Ong 2006). To exemplify these processes of depoliticization, Agamben (1998, 2005) proposes a bidimensional interpretation. On the one hand, Agamben considers the politico- philosophical and ontological dimensions of the state of exception. This tradition is studied through a genealogy of power in Western democracies. On the other hand, Agamben (2005) engages in the analysis of the legal history or the jurisprudence of the state of exception. This tradition is explored through a philosophical archaeology of the political and constitutional history of the state of exception. In this context, the analysis of the state of exception gravitates around the codification of the state of emergency, siege and exception in the global north.
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Ectoparasite occurrence associated with males and females of wild rodents Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse) and Akodon azarae (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in the Punta Lara Wetlands, Argentina

Ectoparasite occurrence associated with males and females of wild rodents Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse) and Akodon azarae (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in the Punta Lara Wetlands, Argentina

Rodents. Samples of rodents were obtained in accordance with the regulations and policies of the Dirección de Administración y Difusión Conservacionista del Ministerio de Asuntos Agrarios de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Rodents were captured from March 1990 to December 1991 in 22 trapping sessions. Captures were conducted with 7.5 cm x 15 cm x 8 cm live-trap cages, arranged in a 3 x 10 grid (30 traps total) with an inter-trap distance of 3 m. Traps were baited with oiled bread and set for one night in each trapping session. Rodents were killed with sulfuric ether and frozen in individual plastic bags in order to avoid contamination with ectoparasites from other rodents. Ulyses F. J. Pardiñas (Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina) and Carlos Galliari (Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores, La Plata, Argentina) identiied the rodents.
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TítuloSteady  and transient state operation of a two stage bioreactor for the treatment of a gaseous mixture of hydrogen sulphide, methanol and α pinene

TítuloSteady and transient state operation of a two stage bioreactor for the treatment of a gaseous mixture of hydrogen sulphide, methanol and α pinene

transfer resistance becomes negligible, but transfer from the liquid to the biofilm becomes limiting;30 and (iv) changes in flow pattern at high liquid trickling rates, as the liquid trickling rate increases, the rivulets will grow in size and an enlargement of the existing channels or the formation of an additional channel would occur. However, in order to ascertain the exact reason and to find a proper trickling rate that ensures higher removal at high pollutant loads, more studies on the hydrodynamic critical factors such as property of support matrix, amount of biomass present, bed void fraction, pressure drop, liquid hold-up, liquid distribution, partial wetting and stagnant water, are needed. In the BF, for ILR up to 88 g m −3 h −1 , > 95% of α-pinene was removed, irrespective of the loading rate of H 2 S and methanol, reaching a maximum EC as high as 83.4 g m −3
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La violencia escolar desde los medios de comunicación y el poder legislativo en México

La violencia escolar desde los medios de comunicación y el poder legislativo en México

places (Killingbeck, 2001). By so doing, media promotes application of punishing, sanctioning, authoritarian, and vertical actions which threaten the rights or girls, boys, adolescents and young individuals. In contrast, vertical opinions of some actors committed to and responsible for defense and guarantee of human rights, such as government authorities, are unable to reverse such negative effect of those campaigns performed in media spaces, even when their arguments are solid, as shown by the following citation: “The Inter American institute of Human Rights considers that it is important to recover [school violence] as a question of dignity and rights, and yield light on its various artists, with a clear approach of human rights, instead of prejudices and stereotypes, arbitrary apocalyptic hypothesis, opinions without true basis, and repressive proposals of ‘hard hand’. The latter are particularly dangerous, not only because specialized research has demonstrated that they are inefficacious, but because they trend to condone or promote violation of other human rights on behalf of an ‘order’ or a ‘peace’ unilaterally defined by those holding power positions”. (IIDH, 2011: 36-37)
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Portopulmonary hypertension: state of the art

Portopulmonary hypertension: state of the art

tients with Child A or B class liver cirrhosis and severe POPH were treated for up to three years with either ilo- prost (n = 13) or bosentan (n = 18) and the effects on exer- cise capacity, hemodynamics and survival were evaluat- ed. Event-free survival rates, such as survival without OLT, severe right heart failure or clinical worsening (p = 0.017), requiring the initiation of a novel therapy for PAH, was significantly better in the bosentan cohort study group. Bosentan also had significantly better ef- fects than inhaled iloprost on exercise capacity, deter- mined by the six-minute walk test, as well as on hemody- namics. In this series, therapy with both inhaled iloprost and bosentan appeared to have a positive response and was safe, but with higher survival rates in the bosentan group at 3 years when compared to the iloprost group (94, 89 and 89% vs 77, 62 and 46%, respectively). This retrospective analysis had some limitations that included the small number of patients, was not randomized, treat- ments were not blinded and the impact of the treatment on portal hypertension was not investigated. This will be an important issue for future studies, especially since two
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BiFeO3: A Review on Synthesis, Doping and Crystal Structure

BiFeO3: A Review on Synthesis, Doping and Crystal Structure

polymer at high temperatures. The basic chemistry of this process is the dehydration reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol; i.e. esterification. The resulting product of the ester contains one alcoholic hydroxyl group in its left end and one carboxylic acid group in its right end, so that the former can react with another di-carboxylic acid and the latter with another di-alcohol to form a tetramer. This type of reaction occurs in sequence, leading to a polymer molecule. In fact, the original patent for the Pechini process describes the formation of a polymeric resin produced through polyesterification between metal chelate complexes using hydroxycarboxylic acids (citric acid and malic acid) and a polyhydroxy alcohol such as ethylene glycol. Citric acid and ethylene glycol are most widely employed in the Pechini process. Table 4 shows BiFeO 3 obtained by
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Modelling and State Estimation of Batteries

Modelling and State Estimation of Batteries

to do this, we transformed the subsystem of our battery in MapleSim into a Simulink block, using one of the functions of the MapleSim connector which allowed to export a MapleSim model to Simulink using Simulink s-functions that is called “Simulink Component Block Generation”. Firstly, it was necessary to convert our MapleSim model workspace into a subsystem with the inputs and outputs desired for our Simulink block. This tool identifies the set of modelling components that you want to export as a block component. Since Simulink only supports data signals, properties on acausal connectors such as mechanical flanges and electrical pins, must be converted to signals using the appropriate ports [17]. The subsystem created in MapleSim is shown in Figure 3.30 and the outcome of this transformation (Figure 3.31) permits us to implement our reference battery directly in Simulink (See Annex to have a further knowledge on the procedure).
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Acoso y violencia política. Testimonios de síndicas regidoras veracruzanas.

Acoso y violencia política. Testimonios de síndicas regidoras veracruzanas.

For me, machismo has been the main difficulty. In the Town Council we have had that sort of problem and we are swimming against the current because, since men are the majority, they pressure me, try to chase away the citizens that come looking for me, who come in sandals and shorts. The have lost their ground, they don’t remember who put them there, and it is because of those same people that we are there and it’s not fair. The main obstacle is that I swim against the current because I can’t find and don’t have the support of my co-councilors, because if we would come together, really, we would be one of the best municipalities, yet we are badly organized and if there is no organization, we have nothing. The same regidora points out that they do pass on her invitations from the Veracruz Women’s Institute (Instituto Veracruzano de las Mujeres) which arrive at the Town Council, and that she does not get enough travel allowances, in addition to other harassment actions that have resulted in her Town Council ignorign the way of creating the Municipal Women Instance, an issue about which the rest of the council showed a complete lack of interest.
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State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

Since the 1930s, economic, social and political processes in most Latin American countries were coordinated through what Marcelo Cavarozzi has called a state-centred matrix ( SCM ). This concept implies a double dependency in state-civil society relations (Cavarozzi, 1993, 1994). Social actors such as industrial workers, state bureaucrats, mem- bers of the middle class, all forming part of the urban-industrial complex, became a factor of social- political importance, but they depended on the state for the realization of their demands and as- pirations. The state, in turn, needed the support of these actors to give it a certain basis of legitimacy. The SCM was obviously the stereotypical confi- guration under populist rule when those sectors associated with the model of import-substituting industrialization were integrated into corporatist structures, and formed the social basis and political force for the state. However, the presence of SCM was not limited to populist rule. Populism was not the only political formula that emerged under the model of desarrollo hacia adentro (inward directed development), although − admittedly − it was the most important one (Stein, 1980). These political solutions to a highly complex economic and social situation shared a common emphasis on an all-en- compassing trend toward state intervention in all spheres of economic, social, political and cultural life. The trend was supported by politicians of widely differing political persuasion. The specific content of policies, however, depended on the composition and orientation of the supporting class alliance (Collier and Collier, 1991; Smith, 1998). The state thus became a 'development state' that not only provided most of the infrastructure that supported the development process, but −in the long term− extended its power and influence to a 11 those areas that had developmental impact. In this manner, in addition to the essential concerns with internal order, the continuity, and the external relations of the societal system, state action came to include an ever-increasing number of interven- tions. At the same time, however, the state had not strengthened its capacity to define policies that went beyond the interests of the many narrow
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The Late Construction of Portugal Welfare State: The Failure of the Social Corporatist State (1933 1974)

The Late Construction of Portugal Welfare State: The Failure of the Social Corporatist State (1933 1974)

Abstract: The Welfare State´s construction in capitalist of democratic countries the post- World War II European must be understood as part of a modernizing process of societies. The Welfare State created by European democra- cies is therefore distinguished from authoritarian, fascist, or communist state models. The corpo- ratist Estado Novo , which was in force in Portu- gal between 1933 and 1974, assumed a kind of third way capable of overcoming the liberal and socialist models of social protection. Compared with those achieved by Welfare State countries, the Portuguese Corporatist Social Security model failed in all its dimensions (education, health, social security). Portugal in the post- World War II, was unable to disconnect itself from a conservative, authoritarian and retro- grade ideology and, despite having an economic growth never seen before, it remained deprived of two of the main engines of social moderniza- tion of the 'golden age of capitalism' : political democracy and the Welfare State model. This was only to take place on 25 April 1974. Very late, three decades late, and at a time when the Welfare State was beginning to fall victim to its own success.
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Reformas del estado democrático: subsidiariedad y visión del gobierno limitado

Reformas del estado democrático: subsidiariedad y visión del gobierno limitado

But it is equally relevant to observe that the first foundational form of every democratic government is personal self-government, based on the autonomy of free and responsible individuals. Unfortunately, however, people today are naturally inclined to look on government aid as a right, regarding themselves as perfectly entitled to every public assistance. This prevents them from considering their self- worth and making attempts to preserve their self-respect. Rather, the philosophy of state paternalism unmistakably discourages any such virtues, ‘giving money first and then fostering dependency, forgetting entirely about self-respect, and then discouraging a path to independence.’ 9 After describing the moral costs of state paternalism,
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Un nuevo esquema para polarímetros basado en semiconductor de estado sólido

Un nuevo esquema para polarímetros basado en semiconductor de estado sólido

Future progress in this work should focus on examining deeply possible causes of inconsistent response, and possible solutions as well, for an incident beam with azimuth between 140 to 150 degrees. More work should concentrate on the estimation of the ellipticity which was not reached in this work. One solution to these issues can be the selection of more than four beams for the solution of the equations. Another can lead to test several combinations of beam sets to choose the best array in order to achieve more accurate results. For reducing the deep error dependency on the power oscillation of the incident beam the calculation of the ratio between the input and output intensity should be attempted. For better results, one set of lenses to project diffracted beams direct on the sensor of the CCD camera should be probed. This might lead to more accurate intensity measurements.
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Argentina GCC relations : the role of state and no state actors (2003 2015)

Argentina GCC relations : the role of state and no state actors (2003 2015)

In April 2010, another mission was sent to Kuwait and Qatar headed by the Minister of Science and Technology, Lino Barañao, in order to promote an agreement to exchange information about the activities carried out by both countries regarding science, technology, and productive innovation, and to define the future of joint activities 18 . In that opportunity Minister Barañao held meetings with the Ministers of Health, Industry and Commerce, Electricity and Water, and Communication, as well as with the General Director of the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, Abdulwahab Al Bader. A few months later, in January 2011, an institutional agreement on scientific-technological cooperation between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation of the Argentine Republic and the Qatar Foundation was signed during the visit of the Argentine president. Moreover, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET, for its acronym in Spanish) has a partnership agreement with the Qatar Energy and Environmental Research Institute (QEERI).
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The state of the nation in sustainable human development summary

The state of the nation in sustainable human development summary

The 2004 Report shows some signs that Costa Rica has entered a new and more dangerous phase. In light of this, two important questions must be asked: What does this new phase consist of? How serious is the situation? With regard to the first question, we can say that Costa Rica, our common home, is debilitated. Unlike in the past, when achievements were insufficient to meet the country’s needs, 2004 was characterized by a significant and simultaneous deterioration of core aspects of national life in an increasingly difficult international setting. The real income of the Costa Rican population declined for the third consecutive year, to the point that the current minimum wage is similar, in real terms, to the minimum wage of two decades ago, despite the considerable economic growth experienced during that period. Today, the foundations of economic stability are increasingly shaky. In addition to the lack of growth in tax revenues, indispensable for maintaining and increasing public investment, serious institutional problems affected the management of resources allocated. The decision to cut back social investments in order to maintain fiscal equilibrium and prevent further risks to stability has primarily impacted low-income groups and is squeezing the middle class. Among the poorest households, the income received from public social welfare institutions was almost three times that earned through work. In addition, cutbacks in public investments in infrastructure affect both the quality of life of the population and undermine competitiveness and productive investment, both national and foreign, which are of key importance for the country’s further development. Finally, environmental protection is still under-funded, and the problems associated with growing urbanization, industrialization, and intensive agriculture continue to be neglected. In short, Costa Rica has begun to “consume its future” so as to maintain, in the short term, the (appearance of) normalcy.
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During the protests, tents, encampments, tarpaulins, and fabric tents perform the ad hoc instant dissident architecture, in which ad-hoc structures and activities suited the common space. Sanitation facilities, feeding spots, space for cooking, eating, media zone were present in Tahrir Square, Gezi Park, St Paul’s Cathedral and so on; hence this architecture assembled into a kind of collective viral process. Though they were located in different spatial coordinates and at different times, their context and conditions set a number of processes that were resonated. During the 79 days of the Umbrella Revolution, the movement succeeded in creating a model of civil society based on non-violence, it appropriated a large part of the business district in Admiralty, separating affectively the government headquarters from the city. For days and nights, these dissident bodies built a temporal city, consolidating spatial and social structures in an expression of new spatial conditions, a temporal dynamic, and a multi-dimensional structure. Then, this dissident spatial practice is about context innovation, with innovation of content somewhat limited. Marshal McLuhan famous words: “the medium is the message” means that the person and social consequences are
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Health Exception: lawful termination of pregnancy, ethics and human rights

Health Exception: lawful termination of pregnancy, ethics and human rights

The ethical duty of non-maleficence is compromised when access to a termination of a pregnancy on the basis of the health exception is hampered, for example delaying it to the point where carrying out the procedure becomes very difficult or too risky. It is also compromised when this situation leads to death, produces suffering or incapacity in the woman, when it prevents her from continuing in the education system or in the labour market and when it causes anxiety or depression or other medium or long term consequences. In general, any action aimed at hindering, delaying or obstructing the termination of a pregnancy may lead to harm by affecting the woman’s well-being, health and/or life. The same occurs when someone acts without due diligence. To fulfill this ethical duty it is necessary to actively care for health, particularly when there is a legal right to a termination of a pregnancy, avoiding complications that can arise if it is continued, exposure to unsafe abortion and the risks of a late termination. This obligation to actively care for women’s health includes the provision of quality services for access to the termination of a pregnancy. Quality is understood in its contemporary meaning that includes not only technical aspects of medical services, but also interpersonal relationships. It is a dynamic concept that connects different institutional arenas of care and it is multidimensional. It is a fundamental element for guaranteeing the highest standards for the provision of LTP services. The aspects of quality that contribute to this aim and that are important to take into account in LTP service provision are :
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State of the knowledge management in two groups of enterprises of state of Carabobo and state of Tamaulipas

State of the knowledge management in two groups of enterprises of state of Carabobo and state of Tamaulipas

The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree of implementation of the knowledge management process in two selected groups of companies of the states of Carabobo (Venezuela) and Tamaulipas (Mexico). A non-experimental research was made, with a transactional - correlational design, in which a questionnaire was used as instrument for recollection of information and it was applied to executives of the area of human resources or administration of 16 companies of the great industry which formed a part of a nonprobabilistic sample. From the obtained results, can be affirm that the various activities of the KM process are present in the administrative practice of the selected companies, and with almost no difference can be conclude that the Venezuelan companies have more homogenous answers and develop more activities of knowledge management than do the Mexican ones.
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Interrogating the neo-pluralist orthodoxy in American anthropology

Interrogating the neo-pluralist orthodoxy in American anthropology

This position advocates far more than a rejection, for instance, of the bankruptcy and morbidity of actually existing workers parties. It is the rejection of the very idea of such would be coherent and unitary entities that at one time were the political expression of movements that won the 8 h day in places like Australia, the US, and France. Similarly, it is a radical rejection of the idea of the political parties that helped end colonialism and defeated the US army in South East Asia, Korea, and Cuba. It is also the rejection of the type of state-level politics that were part of winning civil rights for African-Americans in the United States; the right to vote for Aboriginal Peoples in Australia; and the end of Apartheid (1989) in South Africa. If we are indeed in ‘‘new times’’ and the Hardt and Negri argument (2000) that power is everywhere and nowhere at the same time is correct, then such a choice to leave state oriented political action to those who cling to the error of statist discourses makes perfect sense, since it will never be possible to create a coherent and satisfying alternative to an incoherent imaginary entity. But what if the state is indeed a res? What if it has a coherence based on hundreds of years of accumulated capital and institutional knowledge about political organization, ideological struggle, and the use of force.
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