c. Read to critically evaluate a text or book. Previous educational experiences (your previous academic preparation) should help you develop opinions about the facts. When reading different points of view, be impartial and once you know the consistency of the author's ideas, judge them or assess them objectively. You must discover the ideological influences or implications that it presents, to weigh the validity and foundations of the partial theses. The important thing is to read with an open attitude. When possible, consult at least two points of view before forming a definitive opinion on the subject. d. Read to understand the contents of the topics that make up a text or book. It is the type ofreading that is done with the purpose of acquiring new knowledge, which implies the realization of a series of activities, such as writing notes, consulting the dictionary, reviewing, etc. These activities that provide an understanding of the contents will be discussed extensively later.
Similarly, different authors as: Rowe and Rayford (1987), Echeverri and McNulty (2010), Cummins (2009) propose two strategies to activate background knowledge: visual aids in texts and asking questions. Visual aids such as charts and graphs and formulating questions related to the content of the reading can all be used to build and stimulate students’ background knowledge about aspects of what is depicted, and encourage students to predict what the text is likely to be about. Asking questions can also be a cue to guide the content of the text. Answering questions may provide helpful cues for activating background knowledge, facilitating a high level of knowledge construction and linking prior knowledge with the content of the text. It is difficult to think of presenting a text to beginners without offering them support or scaffolding of knowledge before the reading. They probably will not have a general idea about what the text is, nor will they be able to identify the basic concepts. In summary, learning to think about the text before reading greatly enhances comprehension.
“It was the day of the application of the third reading strategy (semantic mapping); doing the activity the students started to establish connections in two ways. For example, the students 2 and 16, started to confront the ideas they have interpreted from the text – here, items related to communication were necessary-. Student 16 initiates a kind of “negotiation of the meaning”, trying to establish a common final conclusion, finally, it was reached; here, the connection was established between the ideas they had regarding the particular information they found in the text – cognitive elements were required-. The second way to establish connections they use was taking into account previous knowledge – where cultural aspects are taking into account - . It was seen in students 3 and 10. Student 3 started the conversation by mentioning a laboratory practice they had the last year, in this, he mentioned that he could experience what density is; the two students remembered the experience and based on it and the information available in the reading passage they could complete their work” (Teacher’s journal, Application of semantic mapping strategy).
The while stage provided gradual training to students in the use of the readingstrategies. In this stage, the lessons were applied using the methodology of flipped learning while the teacher’s journal was developed. For the implementation of these strategies through flipped learning approach, the teacher created a platform Moodle where some videos created by her and online activities were made available. In those videos the teacher explained how and why to use the skimming and scanning readingstrategies and modelled them. In the lessons, the students were asked to watch the explanatory video at home and developed the activities suggested. Students had the opportunity to develop exercises where they could recognize and practice the features of the strategies with some additional texts. They did a warming up activity like a game according to the topic of the lesson and they read a short text with while-reading activity and a post-reading activity in which they were advised to use the reading strategy learnt. Five lessons were implemented; in each lesson, the students used approximately one hour at home watching the videos and doing the activities; then, they attended to the face to face lessons with a five hours’ duration each one (Appendix F).
It is widely assumed that each reader can develop individual readingstrategies or the ones they find useful. Nevertheless, a good reader is one who is able to achieve a balance between comprehension (end) and the reading process (means) by using the adopted strategies. Consequently, a poor reader will need to change his/her readingcomprehensionstrategies to overcome deficiencies. For that reason, the role of the teacher is to come up with the necessary set ofstrategies to increase students’ awareness and love for reading, as well as the improvement of their reading skills to overcome reading difficulties. The English teachers should be familiar and capable of selecting those most appropriate strategies to meet their students´ needs, due to the fact that EFL learners need to identify and simultaneously understand the importance of the language (Lee L. , 2002).
The teacher’s journal was an instrument used along all stages of the process of this study. This instrument was really useful as a qualitative source, since it provided the researcher with a lot of relevant information. As mentioned by Sagor (2005), data collected through observation by the researcher in a journal will serve as a complement to other instruments and will provide more information when analyzing data, which facilitates validation processes. At the end of every face to face session during the intervention stage, the researcher registered information in the teacher´s journal, such information was registered in a specific format (see Appendix C). The format included basic information about date and topic of the session as well as number of students who attended the session. In addition, and with the purpose of reflecting about students’ strengths and challenges related to strategy knowledge, strategy use, students’ interests and motivation, positive aspects; aspects for improvement and suggestions for improving were also taken into consideration in the design of the teacher´s journal format. Supplementary, a space for additional comments was also included.
The Ecuadorian Ministry of Education has proposed the communicative competences as a point of reference for proficiency levels in English, students have to reach: A1 at the end of general basic education, A2 at the end of the first year of baccalaureate, and finally, B1 at the end of the third year of baccalaureate. Based on these aspects the proficiency of the reading ability plays an important role in the development of the English language proficiency for the basic education and baccalaureate students. The learners will be able to understand and identify longer, more complex expository, procedural, narrative, and transactional texts as well as simple persuasive texts with a satisfactory level ofcomprehension. Use appropriate interpretation strategies to deal with the corresponding text types (expository, procedural, narrative, transactional, and persuasive). In the city of Riobamba, students find difficulties in understanding written texts due mainly to lack ofreading habits, even in their native language.
In the globalized world of the 21st century, the high school´s mission is to help students enter to a global society in order to interact, negotiate and find solutions for local and global problems. Therefore, education nowadays is no longer about transmitting knowledge; but instead it is about teaching students how to learn and encouraging them to make their own decisions regarding what to learn and how, according to their context. In order to get students actively involved in learning, teachers should take into account their differences, plan real-life and culturally relevant activities that let them relate new information to prior knowledge, teach them effective and flexible strategies, and foster reflection and self-regulation (Vosniadou, 2001).
But it is something certain that even when those technological and innovative resources are presented not all the people see those as good strategies to learn because of the pre conceptions about education. To try to change the educational system from a moment to the other one is a challenge, not just for institutions and teachers, also for some students, the same author Baker, Wentz, & Woods, (2009) explains that “Student willingness to try new technology needs to be weighted. Some students do not enjoy online interaction, and some might have anxiety about learning to use to virtual spaces". Even when the use of technological tools looks like new or interested not all the students can find this as good as it seems, that is the reason why it is necessary to think in all the students, their likes and preferences and their learning styles.
The philosophy of education which supported this pedagogical intervention is Meaningful Learning (ML) this theory was worked by Ausubel (1961) where it proposes mainly the retention of verbal information through the reception of data and knowledge. According to this theory, the school learning is giving by presenting to the students what they are going to learn. As was explained before, students are only asked to understand the material and incorporate it in their cognitive structure so that learners can reproduce it, related it or solved future situations. Learning is truly meaningful when students can relate new information to the topics they already know through authentic material. But if teachers want this to happen, it is necessary the material used to have a meaning by itself and should be potentially meaningful for the student too, as they will make an effort to relate new information, signifying what they know. In consequence, an interaction is produced that modifies not only knowledge but the cognitive structure of individuals taking into account that normal teaching processes can lead students to have both significant and memoristic knowledge.
It is noteworthy that Sheorey and Mokhtari’s (2001) and Mokhtari and Sheorey’s (2002) recommendations pertain mostly to teaching readingcomprehension. Little reference is made to language testing which has, however, become somewhat dominant and omnipresent in L2 classrooms, a situation triggered by an ever-increasing demand for statistically manageable results obtained from more or less uniform tests that are externally administered, evaluated and validated. Therefore, it is imperative that the question of a potential correlation between the reading strategy use and test performance be adequately addressed, especially in light of the well-reported examination effect on L2 teaching—the ‘washback effect’—i.e. the (positive or negative) impact of high-stakes tests on classroom practices (see, for example, Buck, 1988, and Ahmad and Rao, 2012). It seems, however, that whenever we try to connect readingstrategies and testing, we enter a slippery slope. In his ground-breaking and statistically well-supported research on the relationship between the cognitive and metacognitive strategy use and L2 test performance, Purpura (1997) concludes that this relationship is extremely complex, with neither set ofstrategies bearing direct consequences on the test performance. Rather, it appears that metacognitive processing “exert[s] an executive function over” cognitive
● Predicting: For students to be good readers, they should set and objective in order to have motivation and a purpose for reading. Based on students’ experiences and previous knowledge about certain topics, students are able to make predictions about future events and situations that might happen, formulating ideas while reading (Block & Israel, 2005). This strategy also allows for more student interaction, which increases student interest and improves their understanding of the text (Oczkus, 2003). It is important to compare the outcome in the actual text with the prediction process as it will lead the learner to improve his understanding. If students are not given a chance to make predictions, if will be difficult to improve the readingcomprehension. (Duke & Pearson, 2002). There are some activities in order to predict information such as using the pictures, the table of contents, the titles in the book, the keywords presented at the beginning, using a diagram or graphic, making predictions about certain specific parts of the book and sharing with classmates the ideas in order to compare and evaluate predictions.
T his study deals with the implementation of the Reciprocal Teaching Model (RT) and its relation to the development of writing skills in the tenth graders of a public school in Cartagena, Colombia. The participants were selected according to Cozby’s (2008) convenience sampling, which considers availability, schedule, members, and characteristics.The Action Research approach related to the quelitaive research allowed to identify the problem, gather data, interpret , to act on evidence and to evaluate results. Consequently, a diagnostic stage was carried out which indicated difficulties in generating thoughts, translating ideas into readable texts, using accurate grammar, vocabulary, and punctuation, and establishing cohesion and coherence. Therefore, it was clear the need for the implementation ofstrategies to improve the writing skills in this school. This introspection led the researchers to consider the use of the RT Model because it encourages students to take into consideration their own thinking processes during reading and it helps them to be actively involved in their comprehension process, which is reflected in their written production. The outcomes of the study reported that through the implementation of the workshops under the RT Model, the students developed and improved their writing skills in English. The findings established the usefulness of this model since it raised the confidence of the students towards writing which contributed to the improvement of the skill. Additionally, the practicality of portfolios and the collaborative and cooperative strategies allowed students to learn from their peers and teacher by recognizing writing as a more meaningful and pleasant.
This research is based on a quantitative and qualitative study. It consists on the research of students who will be in a controlled measurement of data oriented to increase motivation and the interest ofreadingcomprehension. This project will apply different fun activities to encourage students to participate with real life experiences to develop vocabulary in class through the use of metacognitive techniques. The aim of this study was to contribute with the process ofreadingcomprehension learning. It highlighted the relationship between cognitive and metacognitive strategies and the textual structures throughout the reading process. This process was carried out in a private school where 30 students of the fifth basic year of primary participated. With the instructions received during this process, students develop cognitive and metacognitive strategies specific for reading, as well as knowledge of superstructure (narrative, expository) and macrostructure (main idea) of the text. The results revealed that the experimental group was benefited by this contribution to the process ofreadingcomprehension, in regard to the rest of students of the variables investigated.
To emphasize this matter, Brassell D. and Rasinski T. (2008) consider that pre-readingstrategies allow students to think about what they already know about a given topic and predict what they will read or hear. Before students read any text, teachers can direct their attention to how a text is organized, teach unfamiliar vocabulary or other concepts, search for the main idea, and provide students with a purpose for reading or listening. Most importantly, teachers can use pre-readingstrategies to increase students interest in a text. Nevertheless, teachers have to deal with some common problems with reading materials. “Learners lack motivation; teachers are uncertain as to how they should carry out language preparation; teachers are unsure about selecting and devising reading-related activities” (Williams, 1996, p. 51).A good method of approaching these problems is to look at the reading session in terms of three phases: pre-reading, while-reading, and post-reading. In other words, the aim of pre-reading is to arouse interest in the topic by drawing on the learners' knowledge of the world and on their opinions. It can also generate relevant vocabulary. It is carried out before learners have seen the text. When a teacher starts the lesson saying “please turn to page 34, read the passage and answer the questions.” is hardly likely to motivate the learners because as Williams (1996) claims: “What the pre-reading phase tries to do is:
“schema” theory is: the connection between the text and the knowledge of the world the reader has (An, 2013). In such a theory, reading is always intertwined with the reader’s background knowledge. In order for students to reach higher levels of thinking, it is necessary to provide them with readingstrategies they can use to face reading from different perspectives and eventually improve this skill (McNamara, 2007). Among the existing readingstrategies, Raphael (Raphael, 1982) elaborated the question-answer relationship strategy, which combined with information and communication technologies (ICTs) for readingcomprehension could be an opportunity to provide students with enough tools to understand texts fully. QAR provides a rather simple taxonomy and structure to guide readers in how to approach distinct types ofcomprehension questions, thus achieving better understanding of texts. consists in identifying specific types of questions in relation to any given text and the diverse ways to answer those questions.
5.3.1 Overall category mapping. Data analysis of this research was carried out through three phases of coding: open, axial and selective coding. We started to work on open coding after all data was collected from the three instruments and organized in a matrix. We compared data collected before, during and after the implementation. Then, we both compared the analysis made by each other, finding many similarities which were categorized in different codes. These codes were differentiated by colors in the matrix (Figure 1. Color Coding Procedures ; red to stand out the students’ use of dictionary showing participants’ responses and results of the test, blue to refer when students managed to identify the meaning of a word, brown the difficulties with vocabulary students still had and grey when they understood the gist. The most predominant group of data was the students’ improvement in reading, the importance of vocabulary in
This project was carried out in an official high school, located in the urban area of Pereira, Risaralda. This school had approximately 1006 students. In the morning and in the afternoon, this institution ran from kindergarten to eleventh grade, where twenty-five teachers worked and taught the different subjects in there. The school had three teachers in English as a foreign language, which oversaw teaching from sixth to eleventh grade. Teachers have completed their degree as Licenciature English teachers. Students at the secondary level attended a regular English Language course that lasted three hours per week. One teacher was directly in charge of the curriculum design with the school Principal’s approval.
The article seeks to explore the manner in which readingcomprehension is taught and evaluated in translation and interpretation courses in college. It argues that syllabi are designed to foster a binary interpretation of texts based on the underlying belief of language as a transparent medium. This view not only contradicts post-structuralist theories which have been in effect for over 40 years, but, more importantly, it goes against the current concept of the translator/interpreter’s role as a linguistic mediator. The article exemplifies the incongruent interpretation of a paragraph which may be typical in international tests and in the language classroom in order to show how a closed reading fosters under-interpretation. Implicit in this view is also the idea that this form ofreading is ultimately designed to maintain a power structure which is not meant to be challenged. The article proposes a more open approach to teaching reading activities.
Readingcomprehension represents a huge challenge for students and the low proficiency level of students´ readingcomprehension is evident in both external test results and academic performance in class (Quiroga, 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to provide students with a range ofstrategies that help them overcome readingcomprehension problems so that they can acquire the abilities they need to analyze, infer, and predict information as efficiently as possible. The development of the reading skill is a good starting point that will, without doubt, positively influence the other language skills. One type of these learning strategies is metacognitive strategies such as prediction, visualization and text structure. The present study aimed at examining the effect of metacognitive strategy instruction on EFL learners‟ readingcomprehension performance and their metacognitive awareness as well as to reinforce students‟ readingcomprehension ability that improves and motivates them to successfully carry out readingcomprehension tasks. Consequently, this intervention might provide valuable information regarding how to improve readingcomprehension teaching practices in Colombian public schools.