Although comparable data on the prevalence statis- tics and the associated demographics related to depres- sion has become available, very little is known about other proximal risk factors associated with depression among Mexican adults. Some ofthe risk factors re- ported in the literature are both acute and chronic stres- sors, as well as the lack of psychosocial resources, which otherwise may help an individual to cope with stres- sors. Thus, at the work place stress could be a poten- tial risk factor. A lower socioeconomic level could be another important risk factor. It has been observed that individuals from lower socioeconomic levels are more likely to be depressed than those who are rela- tively well off. This is because of differences in their levels of exposure to stress and in their accessibility to psychosocial resources (Aneshensel et al., 1990; Of- ford et al., 1987; Pearlin, 1989; Turner et al., 1995). Chronic diseases could also be a risk factor. Emerging research suggests a link between chronic diseases and depression (Frasure-Smith et al., 1995; Ziegelstein et al., 2000; Nemeroff et al., 1998; Anderson et al., 2000; Ciechanowski et al., 2000). These studies report that, even though it is not clear which comes first, what is clear is that the presence of one aggravates the other. Hence, individuals suffering from chronic diseases are at a greater risk of becoming depressed, and vice versa. Our research examines the effect of work stress, socioeconomic level and chronic diseases on depres- sion. The data used is a sample of health workers in Mexico. We analyze our data separately for men and women to evaluate if the aforementioned risk factors affect men and women differently. We do so because women are nearly twice more likely to be depressed than men, and because gender may modify some ofthe effects ofthe stressors on mental health (Roberts and O’Keefe, 1981). Understanding the role of work stress and chronic diseases could be useful in design- ing treatment and prevention programs for depressed individuals.
Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare Federal Labor Law (Norma Oficial Mexicana, 2016) the problem of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace is addressed (project oriented to the prevention) and indicates, among other things, that they are aspects to be considered within the psychosocial risk factors, those that derive from the nature ofthe functions ofthe job: the dangerous conditions inherent in it; when performed under unsafe conditions; which carries high responsibility, or requires intense concentration and attention for long periods. This project provides for the identification of psychosocial risk factors and the evaluation ofthe organizational environment. For this purpose, it has implemented two identification-oriented tools that allow us to define actions to prevent the effects and consequences of psychosocial risk factors, in order to determine the strategies to be followed. It is suggested, in addition to the researcher's own evaluations, to follow the indications that the rules govern.
A third point that must be made clear is that the concept of work process emerged in association with the conformation ofthe urban industrial proletariat which, in the last years, has suffered profound transformations deriving from a new logic of productivity that resulted in changes in the composition ofthe labor force, and in the introduction of new patterns of outsourcing, subcontracting, and employment precarization. Today the world of work is much more complex and varied. For example, research studies on service sectors constitute a challenge for those used to working with the concept of work processes, since what is at stake are different forms of “work in process.” Although in the service sector some characteristics exist that are analogous to industrial work, attributes of great significance and specificity can be found in the interaction between workers and clients/users/recipients/consumers. Similarly, modifications are required for the study of sectors which are not directly determined by the law of value or are not dependent on wage labor. Similarly, some issues not previously taken into account have begun to draw the attention ofthe professionals who study workers, as is the case ofthe relationship between mental health and work. Today notions such as moral harassment, suffering and stress appear as problems in diverse economic sectors, and about which very little consensus exists. Consequently, beside the need to adjust and adapt the use ofthe concept of “work process,” scholars are facing the challenge of finding adequate categories and concepts to comprehend the multiplicity of new points of entry ofworkers into the world of production.
The empirical evidence for Europe is relatively sparse. Studies by Lefranc (2003) for France, Carneiro and Portugal (2006) for Portugal, Eliason and Storrie (2006) for Sweden find the long-term losses to be large and concordant with the earlier studies for the US. Other results for Germany, confirm these findings. Burda and Mertens (2001) and Schmieder et al. (2010) found wage losses to be around 4 and 14%, respectively. For the British economy, Arulampalam (2001) reaches similar conclusions. The author also stressthe importance ofthe source of unemployment and report significant scarring not only after dismissals and layoffs, but also after non renewal of temporary contracts and among workers from declining industries. More recently, Garcia Perez and Re- bollo Sanz (2005) and Arranz et al. (2010) using the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data analyze the effects of job mobility on wages, and particularly the effects of a spell of unemployment and inactivity on reemployment wages. The results found confirm that workers experience important changes in their real wages as a conse- quence of involuntary job mobility. According to Garcia Perez and Rebollo Sanz (2005), German workers tend to experience larger wage losses compared to the rest of countries (Spain, France and Portugal). When compared to stayers, German workers have much larger wage penalties, around 22%, followed by French, Spanish and Portuguese work- ers, who suffer wage losses of 10%, 9% and 8% relative to stayers, respectively. At the same time Arranz et al. (2010) found that spells of both, unemployment and inactivity, scar future wages. These scars are deeper in France if individuals move between jobs due to inactivity. Unemployment (but not inactivity) also brings about wage losses in Ger- many, Italy, Spain and Portugal. This study focuses on wage losses after a mass-layoff using a unique dataset from social security records distinguishing between workers hold- ing permanent and fixed term contracts.
Finally, based on the literature reviewed, the perceived injustice was linked to the low job identification. In some researches, this relation has been valid (see O’Driscoll and Ramdall, 1999); however, we cannot confirm this hypothesis in the chosen study scope. That might be because, while the perceived injustice affects pressure and stress due to a need for higher salaries, the low job identification comes about because of a labor force that does not provide jobs according to the area of formation oftheworkers. Both facts are divergent, and although both affect stress separately, the data indicates that there is no direct link between them. Therefore, it seems important to mention that in those companies where thestressofthe seller is a problem, they should reduce the perceived uncertainty by their sales force, since it is proven that this variable affects thestress experienced by the salespeople. So, it is important to create a stable environment for the seller. The literature indicates how quality and frequent communication from the part ofthe manager can reduce uncertainty (Tanner and Castleberry, 1990) by making clear the importance ofthe sellers to the company, and reduce their fear of losing their jobs. However, the literature also indicates the importance ofthe managers following the sellers’ results without generating too much pressure (Flaherty et al., 1999; Rizzo et al., 1970). This will produce a higher job identification perceived by the seller, since it has been established that uncertainty affects job identification. What’s more, this variable (job identification) has been found to have an influence on stress, thus, as long as stress is a personal or organizational problem, the com- pany should hire experienced salespeople; in turn, helping to reduce the problem of low job identification. In addition, we propose that the company provide some incentives to the sellers, such as compensation at different times ofthe year when the benefits are higher, giving special remuneration when exceeding set goals, or paying for expenditure made by the seller on behalf ofthe company (travel, com- pany, uniform etc.); these incentives help increase the job identification ofthe salespeople. There are also a series of non-quantitative incentives which can be very useful in order to decrease stress and increase job identification, such as the verbal appreciation ofthe managers in regards to the seller’s work.
Salinity and heat stress are a major cause of damage to agricultural crops worldwide [15, 16]. Salinity stress can cause Na + toxicity that affects K + uptake, and results in the impairment of enzymatic activities as well as inhibition of metabolic pathways [17, 18]. Heat stress can cause alterations in membrane fluidity that affect the function of membrane-bound ion trans- porters [19 – 21]. Some ofthe plant responses to salinity and heat stress are regulated by abscisic acid (ABA). Abscisic acid mediates stomatal closure to prevent water loss caused by osmotic stress under high salt stress . In contrast to salinity stress, ABA-dependent stomatal closure might be disadvantageous for the acclimation of plants to heat stress because it could prevent leaf cooling via transpiration. In addition to its role in stomatal responses, ABA was shown to play an important role in the regulation of transcript expression during heat stress . A recent study demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide can enhance ABA-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and enhance the tolerance of plants to heat stress . In addi- tion, temporal and spatial interactions of ABA with reactive oxygen species (ROS) signals (the ROS wave) were shown to play a key role in the regulation of systemic acquired acclimation of plants to heat stress [24, 25].
So we see that the more general and key EU economic policies failed, both the more discretionary ones and those completely implemented by the MS, as well as the structural reforms and numerous EU rules and sanctions based on the SGP. European economic governance is a cemetery of wishful-thinking slogans: Open Method of Coordination of Economic and Social Policies, Sustainability of Public Finance, Excessive Deficit Procedure, Early Policy Advice and Warming Procedure Macroeconomic Dialogue (Köln Process), Multilateral Supervision, Employment Pact, European Employment Strategy (good practices, excellence, flexisecurity), Convergence and Reform Programs and Structural Policies Coordination (Cardiff Process)… (House of Lords. EU Committee, 2012) Underlying the deficit and failure of European economic governance, there is one even bigger failure: that ofthe Constitution for Europe, published in the Official Journal in 2004, abandoned in 2007 after the negative results in the Dutch and French referenda (Jabko, 2011).
Besides providing insight regarding their molecular effects, herbicide-specific changes in gene expression provided an opportunity to analyze whether the combined expression signature of any genes could establish a collective molec- ular marker for differentiating responses among closely related herbicides. Metabolite profiling has been useful to diagnose herbicide treatments on plants (Aranibar et al. 2001; Sauter et al. 1988). However, metabolites may differ depending on the actual enzymatic activities in different plants or species and measuring mRNAs is much more standarized than quantifying metabolite levels. Therefore, identifying mRNA markers to develop a signature that is sensitive enough to classify even related herbicides that have either similar chemical backbone or a common pri- mary target would be very useful to diagnose herbicide treatments on plants. To identify such a signature, we used stringent statistical thresholds to obtain a set of gene transcripts that could characterize each herbicide response (Fig. 1a, Table S4, ‘‘Materials and methods’’). First, a change larger than twofold in at least one experiment with opposite or no response in at least one other treatment was required. Besides differentiating the herbicide responses, this measure also antagonized the selection of general stress responsive genes. Second, genes had to be well expressed in control experiments in order to select reliable Fig. 1 Composite signature of transcriptional responses of 101 marker genes to herbicide treatments and selected stresses. a Clustering ofthe responses to five herbicide treatments (Table S4). Group 1 marker differentiates all ALS-inhibitors from EPSPS-inhibitor and group 2 marker differentiates among four ALS inhibitors and towards EPSPS- inhibitor. The TIGR/TAIR 6 genome annotation code was used as the gene identifier. b The two top correlated stress response patterns with each herbicide (Table S8) were assorted to the gene matrix of panel A showing a signature clearly distinct from all herbicides in all seven cases. Red color indicates up-regulation of transcripts in treatment group compared to control; blue indicates down-regulation and black indicates no change. Abbreviations: ARS [Arsenal TM , imazapyr active ingredient (a.i.)], BEA (Beacon TM , primisulfuron a.i.), FIR (First- Rate TM , cloransulam a.i.), OUS (Oust TM , sulfometuron a.i.), ROU (Roundup Original TM , glyphosate a.i.), Nor norflurazon, UV-B ultra- violet B, P infest: Phytophthora infestans; P syrin p: Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola; P syrin t: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato avr Rpm1; Met jas: methyl jasmonate
2,6% and 2,8% in the general population, its frequency among workers has been very little explored. Objective: To determine the prevalence of CFS in workers at a zipper factory in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Methods: Cross- sectional study included a non random convenience sample of 137/152 (90%) workers in a factory zippers located in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico, and who were explored in several sociodemographic, clinical and labor variables; for CFS diagnose criteria ofthe Center for Disease Control (CDC) 1994 were applied. Simple descriptive analysis was performed to estimate punctual prevalence. Results: We determined prevalence of 19,71% in the working population studied, no differences in proportion ofthe studied variables, except sex distribution (p <0.05) with female predominance. Conclusion: CFS prevalence in the group ofworkers studied was higher than that reported in general population. Results agree with the idea that work could contribute significantly to CFS development.
2. Britos señala que una correcta interpretación de esta temática se encuentra en la relación de la cuestión social con “el proceso transitivo del capitalismo competitivo al capitalismo monopolista”. BRITOS, Gabriel, Asistencia Social en Rosario. Historia de su formación profesional, UNR, Rosario, 2003, p. 28. Ver también ROZAS PAGAZA, Margarita, Intervención profesional…, Op. Cit. 3. La categoría de profesionalización la utilizamos en este trabajo para referirnos a un proceso histórico que incluye la existencia de profesionales que ejercen la actividad a tiempo completo; la formulación de reglas para el ejercicio de la profesión organizadas en un código deontológico; la creación de espacios de formación y escuelas; y la formación de una cultura profesional. Sobre el origen de las profesiones y los procesos de profesionalización, además de los clásicos, se puede consultar ABBOTT, Andrew, The System of Professions.
Literacy should be on everyone’s agenda because it continues to be a reli- able indicator for levels of poverty, vio- lence, and disease, and because profi- ciency is alarmingly low in underserved areas worldwide. Skeptics will question the cause for alarm, alleging that com- munication increasingly depends on audiovisual stimuli, especially for poor and disenfranchised populations. They’ll even say that teaching classic literature reinforces social asymmetries because disadvantaged people lack the back- ground that privileged classes can mus- ter for reading difficult texts. Audiovisual stimuli on the other hand don’t discrimi- nate between rich and poor and seem more democratic. But public education in the United States is now returning to “complex texts” and to the (literary criti- cal) practice of “close reading” through newly adopted Common Core Standards that value difficulty as grist for cognitive
By definition, a pension formula implies a transfer of income from the period during which a person works to their retirement period. As the public system in Argentina is a PAYG system, there is also an income transfer from current workers to current pensioners, because benefits are funded directly by current workers’ contributions and taxes. In this case, the analysis of pension distribution has typically been approached from two perspectives: the intergenerational dimension (i.e., distribution analysis across generations), and the intra-generational dimension (i.e., distribution within the same generation). For example, using a lifetime income approach, Rofman (1995) concluded that older workers will receive better returns from the pension system (either public or private) than younger workers. Arza (2006) estimated the internal rates of return (IRRs) for dif ferent birth cohorts ofworkers, and concludes that earlier generations ofworkers benefited from higher pension IRRs than later generations. 1
Something we noticed while studying the “Branca case,” and later confirmed with the other “user-guides,” was that we could generate maps of her ways of existence that were non-linear and non-hierarchical within the design of her ways of life. Many times, these ways of existence were triggered at the same physical time, which did not mean the same logical time, obliging us to construct an image based in a unique field of meaning, to which certain relations and en- counters with others – people, services, facilities, events, etc. – pertained, allowing us to speak about specific existential connections. Various types of networks appeared at the same time, which produced meaning in and of themselves and also spilled into others without asking per- mission and without maintaining relations of sub- ordination or determination among them.
result has the following consequences. The incentives to discriminate are smaller when (i) there are no significant variations among workers’ centralities (ii) the cost of researching the partic- ular structure ofthe network is high, and (iii) there are ethical reasons against discrimination. If the gains in productivity derived from discrimination are not significant, the firm is better off not discriminating wages in the account of network position. We relate profits to aggregate measures ofthe network as a guide to when to discriminate salaries. Therefore, this allows us to assess the profitability of bearing the informational costs of researching a particular network technology. Since we model situations in which the nature ofthe productive activities is im- pacted directly by the network, we contribute by broadening the applications and demarcation of network technologies.
Coordination mechanisms between institutions and across sectors facilitated sharing and understanding of information and improved planning and delivery of joint activities. These were most effective when roles and responsibilities were clearly defined. In some cases, a dedicated committee or task team was established at national and local level or individuals were assigned to coordinate specific activities between implementing entities. In other cases, existing sector coordination platforms were used as an opportunity to review WASH and disease data and identity priorities for action. Coordination mechanisms created a sense of shared purpose by acknowledging the equal contribution of all partners and were reported to be valuable whether established at national or subnational levels.
FIGURE 8 | Targets and pathways influenced by miR-92a-3p. Targets were evaluated using Target scan and the pathways associated with genes that are predicted to be targets of miR92a are shown (P < 0.05, Fisher’s Exact test). (A) Top-10 biological functions identified by Ingenuity pathway analysis showing physiological and pathological functions that may be influenced and (B) Canonical pathways associated to miR92a (P < 0.05, Fisher’s Exact test). The ratio was determined as the number of genes in a given pathway divided by the number of genes that make up the pathway. The P-value for a given process annotation is calculated by considering the number of genes that participate in a process and the total number of genes that are known to be associated with that process in the selected reference set. Significance of upregulated or downregulated pathways was determined using Fisher’s exact test and is presented as the negative logarithm ofthe P-value [–log (P-value)]. A multiple corrections test is not available for IPA; therefore, all values are reported as unadjusted P-values. The predicted activation state (upregulated or downregulated) of significantly expressed pathways was determined by a z-score algorithm that compared the gene expression data set with the expected canonical pathway patterns (http://ingenuity.force.com/ipa). Pathways with positive (orange) and negative (blue) z-scores indicate that the pathways are activated and inhibited, respectively. Gray indicates that there is no report. Ratio is calculated as the number of genes that overlap with the corresponding pathway.
Before going deeply into the analysis that this process brought, the previous situation in Miami to the boatlift was the following one. At that time the place was composed by a considerable fraction of immigrants, concretely 35.5% of foreign-born individuals. There were different groups: black and white non-Hispanics groups, Cubans and other Hispanics. Black population could be found in more laborer and service-related occupations, while Cubans and Hispanics represented craft and the operative ones.
is sufficiently large in relation to the grain size and the probability distribution ofthe orientation vector is uniform then such a material might be considered isotropic. Another example is rubber which consists of many long molecules that wrap around each other in a mostly random fashion. Indeed, if you take a rubber ball, it will feel the same and bounce the same however one rotates it. Finally, many materials are not isotropic but can still be modelled by isotropic resonse function to a certain degree of accuracy.
Although increased GC responses to stress are another indicator of a hyper-reactive HPA-axis (Francis et al., 1999), the laboratory rodent literature does not indicate a consistent response. Rat pups that receive low rates of LG/ABN have higher, stress-induced GC levels (Liu et al., 1997; Weaver et al., 2004), but maternal deprivation studies report higher (Banerjee et al., 2012), lower (Ogawa et al., 1994), or unchanged (Schmidt et al., 2014; Weaver et al., 2000) stress-induced GC levels in offspring subjected to repeated, acute maternal deprivation. Studies that directly manipulated maternal stress levels also found mixed results, with some showing increased (Levine and Thoman, 1969; McCormick et al., 2001) or decreased (Catalani et al., 2002; Macri et al., 2007) stress-induced GC concentrations in offspring with stressed mothers. Since maternal stress can affect several different maternal be- haviors (Brummelte and Galea, 2010), and because different maternal behaviors may have opposing effects on the development ofthe offspring stress response, it is perhaps not surprising that the data on stress-induced cortisol did not meet our original predictions. Addition- ally, we found that our treatment groups did not signi ﬁ cantly differ in their cortisol response to ACTH injection. We had no a priori predictions concerning this as there are no studies, to our knowledge, that have ex- amined effects of maternal stress or maternal care on adrenal sensitivity in a mammalian species. However, a recent study on song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) found that nestlings fed GC-laced food had increased adrenal sensitivity as adults (Schmidt et al., 2014). Future studies are needed to determine if maternal care and stress may affect the development of offspring adrenal sensitivity in other vertebrate species.