ricular and organisational aspects in place in this stage. This research aims to evalu- ate students’ perceptions of the operation of the Initial Professional Qualification Pro- grammes and compare it with their previous experience in Compulsory Secondary Educa- tion. The study was performed as a census; the questionnaire was sent to all students (N = 1045 students) from the 89 groups of stu- dents of the Initial Professional Qualification Programmes in Gipuzkoa. The response rate was 73.97%, with 773 students participating in the study. The results show that the stu- dents’ scores regarding knowledge acquired in the Initial Professional Qualification Pro- grammes are higher than those for their previous experience in Compulsory Second- ary Education. Similarly, the students’ eval- uation of the teaching processes performed by the teachers on the Initial Professional
Abstract: Academic studies show that one of the main predictors of early school dropout at secondary education is student truancy behaviour, usually beginning at primary education. This is a problem that gets worse in socially vulnerable environments. This study analyses the prevalence and types of truancy in a population ofstudents with high social risk in Madrid city, studying the relationship between truancy and their school performance. A questionnaire was answered by mentor teachers ofstudentsat the preschool and primary stages (N = 120), who reported information from a total of 433 students from 12 different schools. Results showed a high level of prevalence in the different types of truancy (Active and Passive). Among these behaviours, 46.86% ofstudents skipped entire days without a valid excuse and 42.51% did not usually do their homework. Overall, 60% showed underachievement and great rates of curricular gap. In 6th grade, the last year of primary school, 74.42% ofstudents had repeated one grade and 27.91% more than one. Moreover, significant correlations were found between truancy and school performance. The detection and early action against truancy in primary education with this type of student will reduce early dropouts and make school a key actor for the development of these students.
theory (Clary et al., 1998), volunteering can be a way to express values related to altruistic and humanitarian interest towards others. In fact, studies have shown that interest in others is typical among volunteers, and is a characteristic that differentiates volunteers from non- volunteers. (Allen & Rushton, 1983; Anderson & Moore, 1978). In the same vein, volunteering can also have a social function by presenting opportunities to spend time with friends or to do things that will be viewed positively by the people who are important to us. In relation to the benefits gained from engaging in volunteering most of the young volunteers described their experience in very positive terms to the staff who administered the questionnaire. For example, some frequent comments were "I'd like to spend all my life with them, at their side", "I have been able to devote my time to people who needed it", "It has allowed me to learn from them" or "It makes me feel a better person". Despite this, quantitative analysis reveals only that after completing the academic year, the young volunteers had a more positive view of volunteering and showed greater willingness to volunteer in the future than their non-volunteer counterparts (the second difference was found also before initiating the academic year). In accordance with this, Ling and Chui (2016) identified prior experience in community service as a main predictor of the willingness ofstudents to participate in future volunteering. However, there is no support for what was previously described by other authors. For example, volunteers were not found to be happier; quite the opposite. No increase in self-confidence or improvements in communication skills, such as assertiveness, were observed, either (Dosomething.org, 2012
Schizotypy is understood as a multidimensional construct which is a precursor of psychotic disorders, and this relationship has traditionally (Meehl, 1962) and widely been referred to in the literature on the subject (see Fonseca, Muñiz, Lemos, García-Cueto, Campillo, & Villazón, 2007, for a review). Schizotypy extends over a continuum (Johns & van Os, 2001) from non-pathological personality to psychosis, and the variations over this continuum describe different degrees of proneness or risk to schizophrenic disorders. In fact, several different studies have demonstrated that high scores on the schizotypy scale seem to indicate certain proneness to the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Chapman, Chapman, Kwapil, Eckblad, & Zinser, 1994; Gooding, Kathleen, & Matts, 2005, Domínguez, Saka, Lieb, Wittchen, & Van Os, 2010; Domínguez, Wichers, Lieb, Wittchen, & Van Os, 2011). Thus, schizotypy in what is called the “psychometric high risk paradigm” (Fonseca-Pedrero, Lemos-Giraldez, Paino, Villazón, & Muñiz, 2009) is understood as a marker of vulnerability to schizophrenia spectrum disorders (mainly in symptoms associated with thought disorders and negative symptoms, such as withdrawal and blunted affect). Schizotypy has also been associated with alcohol and drug abuse (Fumero, Santamaría, & Navarrete, 2009). Indeed, some studies have shown the relationship between the use of cannabis (and alcohol) and schizotypy (Dumas et al., 2002; Mass, Bardong, Kindl, & Dahme, 2001; Nunn, Rizza, & Peters, 2001; Skosnik, Spatz-Glenn, & Park, 2001).
Anxiety is an uncomfortable feeling of fear, uneasiness, and worry. The source of these symp- toms is not always known. However, the function of human anxiety response, and homologues in other species, is to prepare the individual to detect and deal with threats . Our outcomes show anxi- ety was slightly associated with clicking (or = 1.30, 95% ci: 0.38-4.38, p = 0.67); however, Velly et al. states anxiety (or = 2.40, 95% ci: 1.01-5.73) was positively related to disc displacement as one diag- nosis related to clicking . In this study, there was an augmented riskof clicking when individ- uals had stress and anxiety simultaneously (or = 2.80, 95% ci: 0.69-11.31). Stress is an external stim- ulus that signals danger, often by causing pain. Fear is the short-term response such stress produce in men, women or lab rats. Anxiety has many of the same symptoms as fear, but it is a feeling that lin- gers long after the stress has lifted and the threat has passed . This risk was higher when those variables were adjusted by pain (or = 4.90, 95% ci: 0.78–30.80, p = 0.07). Anxiety may contribute to muscle tension that can exacerbate pain  and pulls the disc forward and out of place with respect to the condyle. Stress and anxiety together play an important role in triggering and perpetu- ating parafunction (bruxism), which is associated to both pain and disc position and mobility .
In this study, seven students were interviewed by taking into account their language proficiency, class participation and attendance (owing to the reasons previously explained in the Introduction). Students were interviewed individually after previously arranging an appointment. Similar questions were asked to all students in order to explore similar aspects. However, since the interviews were semi-structured, it was also possible to analyse some individual particularities by asking additional questions as the need arose. The interviews were recorded and, owing to students‘ English level, carried out in Spanish, which significantly reduced their anxiety. The aims of these interviews were to analyse students‘ relationship with L1 and L2 reading, to explore their perception of reading in English inside and outside the classroom, and to identify the reading difficulties that, in their opinion, affected their reading in English. In addition, these interviews helped to identify the type of strategies students made use of when reading in English. After collecting the data by means of these methods, I proceeded to analyse and verify the data.
Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study in 52 students using intentional sampling non-probability. Weight, height, and body mass index were evaluated. According to waist circumference, the waist-to-hip ratio and body fat the riskof metabolic syndrome was identified. Family history, personal, weight at birth, weekly intake of food, alcohol, tobacco and coffee, level of physical activity, depression and stress were recorded. Differences between means, correlations, and linear regression models were analyzed.
The case of Bankinter has similitudes with the case of Abertis. However, the distance between the two approaches until the fifth expected return of 0,0835% is bulkier. In the Markowitz’s (1952) approach the weight of Bankinter is firstly around 1% and then it falls to the minimum that it could be, one part per thousand. In VaR approach at the 90% of confidence level, the invest until the fourth expected return of 0,0808% is moderated, between 15% and 10%, but when the expected return increases more than those levels, it falls to the minimum condition too. Bankinter is complicated to perform from Solver point of view. On one side, both methods are coincident from an expected return of 0,0835%, point at which this asset becomes also not convenient to minimize risk measured according to the approach that employs VaR as risk measure at the 90% of confidence level. On the other side, it seems that Markowitz’s (1952) approach discards Bankinter since the beginning (at least for these levels ofrisk) but, VaR approach at 90% of confidence level invest one significatively part in their portfolios until the fifth expected return of 0,0835%. Maybe the results of VaR approach at 90% of confidence level does not invest a large proportion of this company in their portfolios, but the results suggest that this method considers Bankinter a good asset to diversify and reduce the risk levels.
Panel (a) of Table 4 presents backtesting results based on population quantiles of 95, 99 and 99.5 percent. The conditional-t, conditional-normal, conditional- EVT and the unconditional-EVT approaches were computed as described above. Our rule is that the null hypothesis is rejected whenever the p-value of the bino- mial test is less than 5 percent. Our results show that the conditional-normal approach is the one that rejects the null hypothesis most often (in 7 out of 12 cases). As expected, this approach tends to work worse the higher the confidence level. For instance, for the 99.5 percent quantile this approach rejects the null for all return series except for copper. Bacchini, Rey, Belliard, and García Fronti (2003) reached a similar conclusion when applying EVT to a US$100,000-invest- ment on Telefónica de Argentina over 2001-2002. In particular, the authors find that the normal distribution tends to underestimate the portfolio losses.
The property of Banks can be in hands of few or lots of investors. As Laeven and Levine (2009) and the Corporate Governance theory suggest, the capacity of owners to guide managers’ decisions concerning risk depends on the banking property distribution. The higher the ownership concentration the higher will be the risk in a banking institution, since capital owners obligate the manager to increase profits by seeking higher levels ofrisk. Conversely, in banks with a low property concentration, the separation between the ownership and the control of capital lead to a problem of corporate governance that consists in the mismatch of the preferences for risk among shareholders and the manager. According to Caprio and Levine (2002), small shareholders fail to exert corporate control on managerial decisions by two main reasons. The monitoring costs to control the manager are extremely high, so that, shareholders have no option than accepting his portfolio decisions. Second, the shareholders may lack of voting rights or are not properly represented in the management board, which empowers the manager with absolute control over risk. In absence of a compensation scheme additional to the salary, the manager usually adopts a risk adverse position in controlling the capital by selecting a more conservative but less profitable portfolio.
Recent years have seen black university students in South Africa rallying against institutional racism and mobilising for systemic change in higher education, in response to the slow progress of transformation. Against this backdrop, little is known about white students’ perceptions. In this paper, we examine white students’ understandings of non-racialism and their roles in racial transformation. A Whiteness Studies framework was used to investigate how white students talk about transformation and race at the University of Cape Town (UCT), and what role these discourses play in transformation. Four focus groups were conducted in 2015 with 27 white UCT students from different programmes of study, and a discourse analysis incorporating Foucauldian principles was used to analyse these discussions. Three discursive sets of Old Order Whiteness, Defensive Rainbowism and a developing set of counter-discourses were identified, according to the influence that broader discourses used in constructing race and transformation had on white students’ positioning. The use, interrogation and challenging of these discursive sets by participants demonstrates a discursive negotiation and fracturing within this sample group, with potential implications for non-racialism and the transformation process.
Beginning with the theoretical definition ofrisk, we build from the stylized facts a dynamic methodology, consistent empirically such as theoretically with what must be for a key indicator for fixed income portfolios management. In contrast to a univariate Garch type model estimated to the historical returns for the portfolio, our approach take into account the sensitivity of each position to a change in the shape of the term structure of interest rates. Also for portfolio recomposition, the incremental VaR could be estimated changing inputs in the model and so simulating the effects of new positions in the portfolio, characteristic that seems impossible if we follow an univariate approach. The estimation of the dynamic correlations modeled in an adequate way fits agents positions movements making the model consistent with those multiple equilibriums dominant in financial markets under uncertainty. The model is consistent with market microstructure. Econometrically, an unidentified multivariate problem in a computational way is solved generating a “coherent measure” ofrisk in the limit.
in group social exclusion in the total sample, is importance of democracy. This finding is quite different from that found in the previous two models. It implies that those who do not consider democracy important tend to be more exclusionists. When examining the re- lationships between the independent varia- bles and the dependent variable, group so- cial exclusion, we find that most variables reveal a similar relationship to that found for total and personal social exclusion. For Spain, only one variable out of the twelve shows a statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable: ideology, imply- ing that individuals who define themselves as on the right are more likely to be exclusion- ists of the four groups that respondents per- ceive as not based on the choice of their members.
The Global Risk Assessment of GAR 13 had as main outcomes the Annual Average Loss (AAL) and the Probable Maximum Loss (PML) for a return period of 250 years. Risk indicators and rankings were defined based on those two risk metrics. For GAR 15, an improvement on the risk calculation outcomes allows to compute the complete Loss Exceedance Curve, which is the complete representation ofrisk and is directly related to any other risk metrics (AAL, PML, etc.). In this section, the general framework for probabilistic risk assessment is presented, as well as the mathematical definition of all risk metrics used to define indicators and rankings, as well as other metrics that advanced readers may find useful for purposes different than the once of GAR. Risk assessment must be prospective, scientifically anticipating possible events that may occur in the future. For the case of seismic events, seismological and engineering bases are used to develop earthquake forecasting models that allow for the estimation of damages, losses and secondary effects as a result of catastrophic events. For the case of tropical cyclones, the hydro-meteorological information available of the historical tropical cyclones that have affected the area of study is used together with engineering methodologies. The effects of these phenomena upon the exposed assets are estimated. Due to the uncertainties inherent to the models of analysis regarding the severity and frequency of occurrence of the hazardous events, the risk model is based on probabilistic formulations incorporating these uncertainties in the risk assessment.
The main objective of this study was to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial variables capable of predicting risk eating behaviors (REB) in high school students. Participants were 988 adolescents (541 women and 447 men) between 14 and 18 years of age (M = 16.79, SD = 1.50). In addition to the REB (Binge-purge, Compensatory behavior and Restriction), examined through the Brief Questionnaire on Risk Food Behaviors, the following psychosocial va- riables were also evaluated: family and friend support, school adjustment, victimization, suicidal ideation, academic stress, body dissatisfaction and depression; finally, the sociodemographic variables included were: sex, age, hours of sleep per day and hours dedicated to the Internet or social networks. Through three multiple linear regression analyzes, one for each REB (R 2 = .36, .16 and .55, respectively; all with p < .001), different predictive variables could
be experienced by adolescents in the family (e.g., “ parental divorce”), school (e.g., “ important problems with teachers”), peer contexts (e.g., “ breaking up with boy/girlfriend”) and personal event (e.g., “ pregnancy”). Each item was scored “ 1” if the specific event had occurred and “ 0” if the event had not occurred in the last five years. When adolescents answered that an event had occurred, they were asked to rate the emo- tional impact that this event had on their lives from 1 (none) to 10 (very high). A total score of Stressful Life Events was achieved by adding up all negative events experienced. A second score, Emotional Impact, was obtained by the sum of the emotional impact data divided by the sum of stressful life events. The reliability analysis of this sample showed = .72 for Stressful Life Events and = .81 for Emotional Impact.
awareness talk, activity time, reflection time); a number of challenges prevented a progression through all of the levels. First, the nature of the alternative school was such that youth were in constant flux, as they were in different stages and types of care, ranging from community youth in need of an alternative school setting, to foster youth, to youth in closed custody in relation to under-age criminal activity, to transfers to different agencies and in distant parts of the province (up to 1500 km away). Often, the most committed youth in the program were also the youth who were integrated back into the regular school system because of their behavioural and/or academic improvement. Although integration back into the community and regular school system was a positive outcome and a goal of the alternative school, the constant movement of youth in and out of the school resulted in having to continuously integrate new youth in to the ongoing programming. This constant flux of participants made it difficult to really progress through all of the various TPSR levels for each participant, especially to leadership and transference out of the program since consistent attendance in the program over time is often necessary to develop leadership skills and to adequately address the concept of transfer outside of the program. To deal with this issue, the program leaders re- introduced the basic TPSR guidelines of respect for others and instructors to the new youth joining the program. However, the program leaders recognized that it was difficult to maintain a cohesive group due to relational and trust difficulties that occur between youth when there is instability present. This constant flux also affected the ability of the program leaders to establish long-term relationships with many of the youth as they would often leave the program abruptly. In addition, new youth would enter the program at various stages and, at times, lead to a shorter time period to establish relationships with the youth. As a result, the program leaders felt that they did not have as strong an impact as would have been possible with a more stable and consistent group of participants.
a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter (par. 3). Before 2014, the terms Flipped Classroom (FC) and Flipped Learning (FL) tended to be used interchangeably. The term Flipped Classroom is understood as a model of blended learning in which students watch videos or read texts before the class and then do homework during the classroom time (Bergmann & Sams, 2014). On the other hand, Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach that allows teachers to implement different teaching methodologies in their classrooms, for example combining Flipped Learning with project- based learning, tasked-based, inquiry-based or any other active learning methodology, in which student-centered learning spaces are provided to participants. It is important to recognize that many teachers might have been “flipping” their classes (delivering content to study at home and doing homework during classroom time), but this does not necessarily mean that Flipped Learning is happening. This is the reason why the Flipped Learning Network (FLN) composed a definition for this term in 2014, establishing four “pillars” (Flexible Environment, Learning Culture, Intentional Content, and Professional Educator), which, according to the FLN, teachers must include in their practices to engage in Flipped Learning.
The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the rela- tionship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate nutrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.