A strong pinch compression of the focus plasma is necessary to generate the energetic electrons necessary to obtain the ablation of the anode and, with this, the titanium ions and atoms that will be part of the generation of the thin layer. Even so, there is a range of good performance, with evident compression of the pinch, for each technological parameter possible to manipulate in the device, which could induce several effects on the resulting material. With this motivation, an experimental design was applied as a screening method to evaluate the most significant effects of the technological parameters that influence the Ti deposition. Specifically, a central composite design 27 was created (face-centered) to study the effects of 4 factors in 26 executions, see Table I. The design runs in a single block and with the order of the experiments randomized completely, to protect against the effects of hidden variables. The parameters variations were within the scope of our device and considering previous results of deposition, 19 using: A) Voltage, as the charge voltage of the capacitor bank, between 26 – 28 kV; B) Pressure, as the working pressure, between 5 – 7 mbar; C) Distance, as the distance from the top of the anode, between 9 – 21 mm; D) Pulses, as the number of focus discharges, between 20 – 80.
The demographic data were obtained from the appro- priate national statistics institutes of each country. The selection of the households was design in four stages. In the first stage, total urban population was employed to define main regions proportionally in each country first, and then select cities representing each region - main cities and other cities representatives of the region, mix- ing a random method and sampling criteria, and trying to fulfill urban population coverage to the maximum possible. This mixed criterion enabled an increase in the efficiency of the fieldwork according to the study charac- teristics. In the second stage, sampling points (census tracts) of each city were randomly selected. In the third stage, a cluster of households was selected from each sampling unit. Addresses were chosen systematically using standard random route procedures, beginning with an initial address selected at random and selection of households with three systematic jumps, that is, the selection of a given household was made by randomly picking the first home and subsequently skipping 3 households. Finally, in the fourth stage, selection of respondent within a household was performed using two criteria: in each sampling unit, half of the house- holds the participant was selected by the next birth- day criteria; in the other half selection was by quotas of gender, age, and SEL.
Other non-well defined issue related to design based on competences is the choices which must be done for each competence. For instance, it must be define the expected level of proficiency of student (domain levels) and it must be scheduled a progressive develop along degree by using the proper learning methodologies and assessment tools. Additional previous issue must be considered in the particular case of GC: their usually inaccurate description. The competence “team work” is a good example. When you say “student must be able to work in groups”, you are talking about a set of skills (e.g. conflict´s resolution, leadership, oral expression) what can be non-well define for all curriculum design actors (professor, students, employers). European [7-9] and non-European [10-11] authors have addressed these issues. All of them agree that, to improve the design, large competences must be split in more simplex ones and all of them must be related to LO.
Reduction oxidation reactions are chemical transformations of great practical importance, since study phenomena such as combustion of many substances, the oxidation of metals and production processes of energy from the batteries. Likewise, the redox reactions are particularly important in the metabolism of living beings. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis, for example, are metabolic pathways that pass through such reactions.
of Yunus and Chien (2016), who said a high percentage of their Pre University students were really engaged with mapping because it helped them understand, organize, and relate ideas. Likewise, in this study, the students concluded that the most important part in the writing process is to plan before writing. They also found online clustering beneficial for conceiving and organizing ideas to create written texts; as a result, they strongly recommend the use of the strategy. Collaborating with his peers online was something that interested them. For instance, someone expressed: “It is good to interact; it makes learning manageable”. Likewise, they expressed that the strategy facilitated the flow of information, helped them deepen knowledge, and also managed to improve interpersonal relationships with their peers fomenting critical thinking. Another student manifested: “The clustering activity was fun and enriching because I could learn many things from my friend; things that I did not even know about the class. Also, it helped me to know my friend a lot”.
Levitate an object is possible, and there are variants within the electromagnetic theory to perform this process. Already by itself only an electromagnet and its ferromagnetic core forms the basis for levitating an object, with an array of polarities of the metallic object. A current flow through the wound coils of the electromagnet generating a magnetic field, being that the ferromagnetic core provides a path of reluctance in which the magnetic field is concentrated which induces an attractive force on the object to be levitated. Now, if we understand the theory of Superconductivity , we know that cooling an object at sufficiently low temperatures causes a distance to be separated from its initial base by positioning itself at a height that we can call a gap, until the temperature again decays. There is levitation by repulsion and suspension, in both cases a study of field forces must be performed, because positioning the object at the midpoint that will be the equilibrium-stable point to levitate, will depend a lot on the circuit, the coils and the distance between them, how to calibrate until the objective is achieved. When we speak of coils through them, an electric field flows generating a force field, requiring an adjustment in the flowing current.
Figure 3 depicts the flow of data gathering and analysis techniques (labels are defined in Table 2) employed throughout the study. Data were analysed using the elements of the data condensation diagram of Figure 2 as the initial set of codes. Coding was carried out by three researchers, although the codes themselves were discussed and agreed by the whole research team, as suggested by Saldaña (2015). The closed items of the questionnaires and the activity logs from the ILDE were treated quantitatively, using descriptive statistics, so as to confirm (or not) the findings from the qualitative analysis. In order to contribute to the quality and credibility of the study, several steps were taken, including (Guba, 1981): triangulation of techniques and data sources; peer-debriefing between the three researchers that analised the data and the rest of the members of the research team (including the discussion and agreement of the data condensation schema); and, collection of thick descriptions of the context of the study.
The statistical analysis has consisted of a rectilinear adjustment following the minimum squares method. In this, the aim is to construct a straight line to join Variable Y – identified with percentage increase in the building cost module of the School of Architects (M)- with each of the X Variables identified with the 14 characteristics or parameters under study. Thus, for every condition there will be a straight line of the type Y = aX + b, where “a” and “b” are unknown quantities to be discovered following the method above. This way, a mathematical link is obtained between the various determining factors and the percentage increase which qualifies the scaling based on the modules of the School of Architects.
design partners work together with adults to design technology. The main difference is that informants are called upon at various times during the design process when their input is necessary, while design partners (see Figure 1) are equal stakeholders throughout the design process. An additional manner for children to be involved in design processes is through bonded design  which utilizes many of the same techniques as design partnering, while at a slightly less intense level of involvement. While there is the potential to study children at all levels of involvement in the technology design process, it is likely that design processes which have the most substantial impact on children would be those involving children which require greater commitment. Thus, we feel it is most appropriate to first consider children who are involved in technology design processes as informants or design partners, or those involved in bonded design.
During the last decade, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been evolving towards more advanced applications using the latest technology breakthroughs. This evolution leads to an important increase of the resources required to cover the needs of these new scenarios. Even though the use of hardware-based solutions had been avoided by the majority of WSN designers, new approaches are being opened to this kind of devices due to their much higher powerful processing capabilities. In this Master Thesis, a novel hardware-based wireless sensor node architecture with specific energy saving methodologies is presented. This research work covers all the design steps beginning with the study of high performance WSN requirements, following with the design and development of a new node architecture and final prototype, and finishing with validation tests in order to illustrate the feasibility of the platform in terms of power consumption, size and performance.
The companies usually tend to have the need to calculate with a high degree of precision how the different products or services undertaken by the entity consumes the resources of it, this has led to the managers of the various organizations to review their systems consider costs and improvements in order to have information with a more detailed level of consumption of resources of the entity breakdown, and with this information to improve management systems and production. One of the measures that more often opt these managers is to implement a system that allows them to identify the different activities of the company throughout the entire production process in order to allocate the costs to each cost center which the activity is performed. But often to do this is not easy since there is always a role model or it is not known for sure at what point is the entity to have this as a starting point. On this basis, one of the systems cost management that has gained importance over the last decades is the cost model based on activities or ABC model, as this model has a way of expressing exactly the cause-effect relationship between resources consumed and activities throughout the production process. This model of cost management will be the subject of our study and to play a fundamental part in it, to implement this first we must know its structure and this is what we will do next.
Author contributions: AJC contributed to the data analysis, statistical analysis, interpretation of the data and drafting of the manuscript. LK, EGB, JEP, MT, VI, MBD, FJB, FC, SP, NH, KA, JDF, EC, AZM, BSH, PTG and FJC contributed to the study concept, acquisition of data, interpretation of data, revision and final approval of the manuscript. DB contributed to the study concept, acquisition of data, interpretation and statistical analysis of data and drafting of the manuscript. JDY and LRR contributed to the study concept and design, interpretation of data and drafting of the manuscript. JDD contributed to the study concept and design, interpretation of data, drafting of the
The cost analysis performed in the present study may have some limitations. First, there may be inaccuracies arising from the use of people in charge of health facilities themselves as a source of information. However, this was the only possible source of information. Second, the simple before–after com- parison design employed in this cost analysis can only provide insight into general trends – it is not a randomized controlled trial. Nonetheless, no other coincidental interventions were identified during the study period in the area where the EHAS project was developed. Third, it is difficult to separate the economic effect of the voice communications and the data communications. We suspect that the urgent referral saving was related to the voice communication, and the personnel trip savings to the data commu- nication, but this could not be confirmed in the present study.
Digital Work Environment (DWE), Singapore: This study was based on the design, development and implementation of a task-based digital library for an academic community in Singapore. At the beginning a small scale study was done in order to assess general users’ views on information access in digital libraries. 57 Master students, one associate professor and one library professional were part of this study. Three digital libraries were demonstrated to participants, and then a demonstration was given to the participants on how to use the libraries. Then, an interview was handled to get their perception on these libraries. The inputs of these sessions were noted and tape recorded by the researcher (Meyyappan, Schubert & Chowdhury, 2004).
This research study is innovative in several ways; first for me as a teacher researcher and materials developer. The teacher-designed materials offer the possibility to use the creativity, knowledge of the academic discipline, and theoretical background, focused on the planning, design and implementation of worksheets. It is also innovative for my students who will face materials designed especially for them centered in developing their inquiry skills for observing, predicting, interpreting and communicating. In addition to that, the use of the PBL approach in real contexts, represents an opportunity for innovation since, as mentioned by Boud and Felleti, (1997) it is a relatively new approach in education field that centers the attention in modeled situations rather than immediate and domestic problem solutions, which is one of the objectives of this research study.
Funding: The research on which this paper is based was organized and funded by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) as part of a program to measure the impact of diabetes in low- and middle- income countries. To fund this program, IDF solicited and combined unrestricted research grants from several commercial pharmaceutical organizations into an Economic Studies Fund. The contributors to this fund were Merck and Co., Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly and Co., Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, and GSK, Inc. These contributors did not select the African countries to be studied and had no role in the design, conduct and reporting of the study in any country, including Mali.
In the context of a remarkable increase of social awareness about the problem of physical inactivity in the population, in May 2009 the Spanish National Sports Council launched the Integral Plan on Physical Activity and Sport (A + D Plan). The main aim of this Plan was to drive coordinated actions to promote PA and sports in the Spanish population. The plan emphasised the need of objective information in order to develop nation-wide promotion strategies. Moreover, in 2005 the NAOS Strategy (Strategy for Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Obesity) was set up by the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, with the aim of making the population more aware of the problems obesity means for health, and of promoting any initia- tives that help to encourage citizens, particularly chil- dren and young people, to adopt healthy lifestyles, mainly through healthy diets and regular physical ac- tivity. Thus, the UP&DOWN objectives will contribute to this plan and strategy in several aspects: (i) PA and health promotion; (ii) promotion of PA and sports in school population; (iii) promotion of PA and sports in disabled people; (iv) gender issues related to PA and sports; and (v) PA and sports in people at deprived social risk. Therefore, the results obtained from the UP&DOWN study will be valuable for future develop- ment of the Spanish A + D Plan, and in addition they will be helpful to produce relevant scientific informa- tion and contribute to the NAOS Strategy to inform public opinion about the risks of obesity and physical inactivity for health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the design, procedures and methods used in the UP&DOWN study.
– Design patterns help you identify less-obvious abstractions and the objects that can capture them. For example, objects that represent a objects that can capture them. For example, objects that represent a process or algorithm don't occur in nature, yet they are a crucial part of flexible designs. The Strategy (315) pattern describes how to implement interchangeable families of algorithms. The State (305) pattern represents each state of an entity as an object. These objects are seldom found
Moreover, one of the things we have to keep in mind is Health Education, due to 2/2006, May 3rd Organic Education Law. (B.O.E nº 106). In our autonomous community, it is developed in 130/2007 of 28 June Decree, therefore galician autonomous curriculum is established (D.O.G nº 132). Because of this, and keeping in mind that teachers task is not only to transmit knowledge, we consider so important to study the situation of primary students according to their healthy lifestyle and habits, and also their level of physical activities.
Apart from sand filled geotextile tubes and containers, the subject of this section, there also exist slurry fillled geotex- tile tubes and containers. These can be used to dewater the slurry (tubes) or to have some containment around the slurry. These structures have different design aspects and will not be dealt in this paper. An example of such applica- tions can be found in Lawson (2010). In principle sand filled synthetic tubes and sand filled geosynthetic contain- ers are quite comparable. Geotextile is wrapped around sand or slurry to make a large structure that is stable in current and wave attack. Tubes are used on shore or in shallow water. A large geotextile tube is filled with sand by means of hydraulic fill. Dimensions can be up to 4 m high. Figure 7 and Figure 8 show a moment during construction of a geosynthetic tube and the final result of dams con- structed with a sand filled geosynthetic tubes (as a core) respectively. It can be seen from the first picture that the geosynthetic tube is kept in the desired position by fixing it with piles. No geotextile is visible in the final result, be- cause it is covered with gravel.