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Value creation through demand and supply chains: evidences from Spanish companies

Value creation through demand and supply chains: evidences from Spanish companies

Abstract: The global context in which companies operate nowadays is extremely complex. This fact pushes organizations to a continuous search of the best strategy that will enable them to stand out in the market. Supply Chain Management, in its dual concept of coordinated demand and supply chains, represents an excellent opportunity to enhance the competitive advantage of companies. In relation to the demand chain, it can help to improve the knowledge of the customers and their needs, to de- velop their capacities for innovation and response, as well as to differentiate their products. With respect to the supply chain, it will focus the attention on increasing the flexibility in production capacity and delivery of products and services with less use of resources. For this reason, this study proposes to analyze the relationship between value creation and business results in some Spanish companies through supply chain processes. In order to do so, it describes a transactional non-experimental research employing the Technological Innovation Panel Database (PITEC).
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8 Lee mas

Optimising contract design in modern food supply chains: The case of paprika sector in Central Malawi

Optimising contract design in modern food supply chains: The case of paprika sector in Central Malawi

Contract farming remains one of the most e ffi cient tools for integrating small-scale farmers into modern food markets. However, the literature lacks evidence on best practices in designing contracts for food supply chains in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to analyse the design of an existing contract in the emerging Malawian paprika sector using a qualitative analytical approach. The study compared a contract design in Malawi’s paprika supply chain with four similar contracts from the horticultural sector in Malawi, India, Zambia and Cape Verde. This study employed a thematic qualitative analysis and developed 17 categories for analysing contracts. The findings showed that the Malawian contract contained in total eleven defined clauses. There were missing clauses that influenced the risk and power distribution between parties in the contract. The comparison of the Malawian contract with other contracts revealed that none of the analysed contracts included all clauses necessary for a sustainable and fair relationship. The study proposed improved contract design and future actions to contribute to decreasing inequalities between parties engaged in the Malawi’s paprika supply chain. The implications of the study include initiation of changes in public policies related to contract farming strategies as the findings suggest that vulnerable small-scale farmers might be left unprotected and generate low gains through supply contracts due to poorly formulated contract clauses.
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				DIFFUSE APPLICATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SUPPLY CHAINS

← Volver a los detalles del artículo DIFFUSE APPLICATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SUPPLY CHAINS

By making a global definition, it is possible to define the supply chain as a process formed by all those groups of activities directly or indirectly involved in satisfying supply needs, these sets include suppliers at all levels; places of storage of raw material, the production line, warehouses of finished products, distribution channels, wholesalers, retailers and the end customer. Within each organization there is a different supply chain depending on the item that the company manages. There are three types of companies: industrial, marketing and service. [1]. Service companies have very short supply chains. Industrial companies have supply chains with a lot of logistics depending on the raw material they use, the production lines they have and the market segments to which their products are directed. Marketers, for example, have very little use of stock, so their supply chains are less elaborate [1-3]. All the functions that
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Incorporating small-scale farmers into sustainable supply chains: the Manobi case

Incorporating small-scale farmers into sustainable supply chains: the Manobi case

and very little empirical research has been done. This is the reason why using a case study approach was considered suitable. The objective of the case study is to under- stand the dynamics present in a particular setting: the participation on equal terms of impoverished Senegalese farmers in local vegetable supply chains. The unit of analysis of this case study is the Senegalese horticulture local supply chain: all the actors and functions that enable to move agricultural products from the fields to the local markets. An initiative of Manobi, a Senegalese firm whose activities aim to streamline the link between small-scale producers and local markets, motivated the research.
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8 Lee mas

A management model for closed-loop supply chains of reusable articles

A management model for closed-loop supply chains of reusable articles

The PhD research project started with a systematic review of the body of literature per- taining to the …elds of reverse logistics (RL) and closed-loop supply chains (CLSC). Confer- ence proceedings, key monographs, previous PhD dissertations on the topic and scienti…c arti- cles published in journals (included in related subject categories, such as Industrial Engineer- ing, Manufacturing Engineering, Operations Research & Management Science, Transportation, Management) were reviewed. As a result, an overall understanding of this subarea of Opera- tions Management that theoretically frames our research was acquired. This result has been presented in Chapter 2. In this chapter, we introduced how the reverse logistics concept has evolved throughout the last years: from an initial notion focused on the materials ‡ow “sense” (direction), to a more restricted concept in the nineties mainly related only to environmen- tal (basically recycling) issues. In the next decade, the term reverted to the original concept, focusing in the sense of the material ‡ow, regardless of its purpose. During the last decade, the reverse logistics notion has evolved to be integrated in the broader concept of closed-loop supply chains, that emphasizes the need of considering the forward and reverse ‡ows in sup- ply chain networks with a holistic perspective. The links of RL and CLSC with other border disciplines such as waste management, green supply chain management, industrial ecology and eco-e¢ ciency have also been explored.
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221 Lee mas

Coffee, cooperatives, and choba-choba: the role of non-market labor networks in building equitable supply chains (Tema central).

Coffee, cooperatives, and choba-choba: the role of non-market labor networks in building equitable supply chains (Tema central).

Agrarian marketing cooperatives are potentially important tools for rural development. However, many cooperatives experience significant outside sales to private intermediaries, even when offering price premiums through fair trade or organic certification programs. Outside sales weaken coop- eratives by increasing supply uncertainty and making advance contracting more risky. This paper studies the problem of outside sales in a single coffee cooperative in northern Peru. Empirical results from an instrumental variables (IV) probit model suggest that coffee cooperative members’ farm labor practices exert significant influence on their level of outside sales. Coffee growers that use more intensively cooperative labor networks known as choba-choba, as well as family household labor, engage in fewer outside sales and more sales through the cooperative as a proportion of their total harvest. These results suggest a linkage between the strength of coffee growing families and communities, and the robustness of agrarian marketing cooperatives.
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21 Lee mas

Knowledge Management in Food Supply Chains

Knowledge Management in Food Supply Chains

The object of the present article is to discuss Knowledge Management (KM) in the Agrifood Supply Chain (ASC). In the 21st century, the ASC is under strong tensions. This is evident in the drastic changes in the global scene. For example, in the year 2008, food prices were high and unstable. In the last years, the importance of knowledge as a source of competitive advantage for organizations has increased considerably, so it is necessary its management in the ASC in order to surpass the challenges of the 21st century. KM is a direction tool that focuses in determining, organizing, directing, providing and supervising the practices and activities related with the knowledge (intangible active) required to achieve the strategies and objectives of the business or industry, generating a value for the organization at the moment to reach capabilities and competences. In inter-organizational environments, KM is centered on horizontal alliances between two or more partners. However, there are few authors who have analyzed the vertical alliances between suppliers and customers (the supply chain). The existing KM models are applicable for the ASC, as long as a series of conditions are present in the same one. Among these conditions there is one which prevails: The different enterprises that integrate the ASC must coordinate themselves in order to constitute a dynamic network, in which learning barriers are eliminated, so knowledge can flow freely through them.
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18 Lee mas

A management model for closed-loop supply chains of reusable articles: defining the issues

A management model for closed-loop supply chains of reusable articles: defining the issues

of the control of their owner. However, given the low unitary value of each individual reusable ar ticle, it has been difficult to justify a tight monitoring over each unit in the past. Neither big administrative effor ts nor impor tant IT investments (Kelle and Silver, 1989a) seem to have been justified in the past. The value of the information that could have been obtained about the “customer-use” phase did not overcome in many cases the costs of obtaining such information. As a result, historically, in many businesses reusable ar ticles were not serialized and were only controlled based on account management. Item-level tracking was rare and, therefore the management of RA CLSC was carried out with ver y limited visibility in the cus- tomer use stage of RA life cycle (unobser vable par t of the supply chain). It was difficult to obtain accu- rate information about how many ar ticles are lost in the unobser vable par t of the supply chain, how long does it take for a reusable ar ticle to return to a de- pot and be ready for reuse again or how many ar ti- cles are available in each location of the supply chain. In the last few years, however, the cost of tracking technologies (RFID, bar codes, associated software) has steadily decreased. Many companies have star t- ed to experiment with RFID technology by launch- ing pilot applications in their reusable ar ticles fleets. As a result, the number of item-level tracking appli- cations for medium value reusable ar ticles has been increasingly growing in the last few years. Some re- cent case studies include Hellström (2009), Ilic et al. (2009) or Carrasco-Gallego and Ponce-Cueto (2009c). In all these experiences, authors coincide to highlight that enhanced visibility over the customer- use stage of RA lifecycle, accompanied by proper ac- tions and continuous management attention, results in a reduction in the number of units in circulation (fleet size reduction) and in a reduction of fleet shrinkage rates.
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8 Lee mas

MODELO DE DISEÑO DE NODOS DE INTEGRACIÓN EN LAS CADENAS DE SUMINISTRO / DESIGN MODEL OF INTEGRATION NODES IN THE SUPPLY CHAINS

MODELO DE DISEÑO DE NODOS DE INTEGRACIÓN EN LAS CADENAS DE SUMINISTRO / DESIGN MODEL OF INTEGRATION NODES IN THE SUPPLY CHAINS

The weak integration between companies in the supply chains, the fact that companies do not have a procedure that enables them to identify the parameters and indicators of coordination that should be established between their operating processes, the inefficient integrated management of resources and capabilities and the inadequate use of contracts as a tool of coordination between the actors in the supply chain; are elements that characterize Cuban business practice of supply chains. This paper studies the bases of the Model for the Design of Integration Nodes in supply chains and applications thereof. The proposed model is intended as a design tool and at the same time, it supports the decision making on the processes. It is showed that with the application of the Model and its procedure, the chain performs better and increases its integration. As the fundamental conclusion it is obtained that the Model is fully applicable and it provides multiple positive results for the Cuban business practice.
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12 Lee mas

Analysis of supply chains with multi channel distribution

Analysis of supply chains with multi channel distribution

Backed up by empirical analysis made at the Helsinki University of Technology, they suggest that the critical factor for the e-grocery business is sales per geographical area. Since delivery costs go down as customer density increases, the objective is achieve enough customers in an area for that area to be profitable. Besides, the firm must aim to supply as many products as possible, since delivery cost is virtually the same for a 20€ or a 200€ order. Customer loyalty has been recognized as many authors as a crucial path to profitability in e-Commerce, because of the high cost of acquiring new customers. Webvan spent 133$ on marketing and administration for every order during its lifetime. Coupled with low margins, it’s clear that profits are only achieved after several transactions. Thus, occasional shoppers are less interesting than loyal ones (Srinivasan, Anderson, & Ponnavolu, 2002).
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48 Lee mas

Impact of implementing industry 4 0 in Colombia’s supply chains

Impact of implementing industry 4 0 in Colombia’s supply chains

The supply chain is a set of interrelated processes that can be grouped in to two large areas: evolution and planning [4]. It is a set of functional activities that are repeated many times over the productive flow channel in order to convert raw materials into finished products. Value is thereby added to the product for end user [5]. The man- agement of the supply chain uses advanced technology, information management, operational research and organizational planning with the purpose of correctly pro- gramming and controlling factors to better produce and deliver the products and ser- vices to satisfy the customer [6].
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11 Lee mas

Portable Document Format (PDF)

Portable Document Format (PDF)

Multi-national corporations all share the same legal requirements of maximizing profits. Lower labor costs permit companies to produce cheaper commodities and, in-turn, increase market share and profit margins. Since profits are a derivative of production price and consumer demand, linking trafficking awareness to the marketing of a product provides the required incentive to ensure proper corporate recognition of forced labor. A 2011 U.S. Department of Labor study found 130 products from 71 countries were made by forced and child labor (U.S. Department of Labor 2011, p. xi) – mostly originating in Asia, Africa, and South America. With California’s sought-after consumer based economy, the State Legislature wanted to provide consumers with informational disclosures upon which societal pressures could be leveraged. Many anti-slavery groups hoped the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 “would create an opportunity for California companies to demonstrate leadership in eradicating slavery and human trafficking from their supply chains and empower consumers to reward companies that proactively engage in such efforts” (Gebauer 2011).
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18 Lee mas

Social issues in sustainable supply chain networks: state of the art and further research directions

Social issues in sustainable supply chain networks: state of the art and further research directions

Most sustainable supply chain scholars acknowledge the importance of integrating poverty concerns in supply chain management, but few have explored how to provide opportunities for impoverished communities. However, some papers about the subject have been recently published in supply chain management magazines [36, 37]. Hall and Matos [38] underscore the difficulties of incorporating poor communities as suppliers, as they often lack basic business knowledge and capacity, and entrepreneurial dynamics within these communities remains largely unexplored. A need of actors capable of bridging the gap between impoverished communities and the next agents of the chain has been identified. Shodi and Tang [40] propose social enterprises to play the role of supply chain enablers for the poor. Social enterprises could facilitate access to credit, information, clients and suppliers, fostering the opportunities of these communities to become part of global and demanding supply chains.
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8 Lee mas

Structural and vibrational study of PCBM

Structural and vibrational study of PCBM

into the linked chains; for example, all the C-H distances are around 1.09 Ǻ and there is not “short bonds”, as in isomer 1. The triangle (cyclopropane-like ring) formed between the (6,6) bond and the C atom of the chains has two angles of 57.87 degree, and one of 64.29 degree, while their oppose bonds were of 1.52 Ǻ and 1.62 Ǻ, respectively. This last bond length indicates that the isomer 2 has a more open structure, compared to isomer 1 (see Fig. 2).

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Parallel metropolis chains with cooperative adaptation

Parallel metropolis chains with cooperative adaptation

It is important to remark that PAIM is able to distribute the computational efforts efficiently. Indeed, let us consider the initial use of a huge number N of parallel chains, with proposal pdfs localized randomly over the state space. A l l the chains using a badly located proposal pdf would be quickly deactivated, i.e., only the chains with proposal pdfs located close to high probability regions would survive. However, the algorithm is also able to start up again certain chains if, after some steps, new states have been assigned to them. Finally note that, in the description of the algorithm, the parameters are updated using a block procedure, but efficient recursive update formulas can be employed (e.g., see [5]), so that PAIM can be efficiently applied in high dimensional problems.
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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management

El éxito histórico de la logística impulsó a las empresas a adoptar, rápidamente, sus principios y a adaptarlos en consecuencia a su realidad cotidiana. En primer lugar, se integró en sus principios identificándolo a la distribución física. La dirección logística tuvo por objeto principal la coordinación de los flujos de los productos terminados de los centros de producción en los puntos de consumo final. Esta concepción evolucionó con el paso del tiempo para referirse a otros segmentos del proceso de explotación. En realidad, las empresas se dieron cuenta de que existen aún yacimientos de productividad en los otros procesos de realización de los productos como el suministro, el almacenaje de las materias primas y productos terminados e incluso en la producción. En adelante, la logística engloba todas las actividades de gestión material y da lugar a nuevos conceptos y técnicas Supply Chain Management, Just In Time…. Los flujos materiales deben coordinarse en una única esfera de fase preliminar antes y después y la logística se convirtió en una función de arbitraje que se situaba al cruce de todas las actividades de las empresas. Una función de máximo aprovechamiento de los costes y de seguridad de los niveles de servicio a los clientes que reconcilia así Eficiencia y Eficacia de la empresa según el triángulo del control de gestión [Eficacia, Eficiencia Pertinencia].
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23 Lee mas

Propuesta de implementación del modelo scor para incrementar la efectividad de los procesos de la cadena de suministro de la empresa Import y Export Panita  e i r l

Propuesta de implementación del modelo scor para incrementar la efectividad de los procesos de la cadena de suministro de la empresa Import y Export Panita e i r l

Quevedo Cassana, Juan Gonzalo Isaac (2010) en su investigación “Análisis, diagnóstico y propuesta de mejora de la cadena logística y de planeamiento de las compras de una empresa peruana comercializadora de productos químicos”, tesis para optar el grado académico de Ingeniero Industrial, publicada on-line presentada en la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú en la ciudad de Lima – Perú, cuyo objetivo general fue: “Realizar un estudio que permita determinar cuáles son las mejores prácticas y políticas para la gestión de la cadena de suministros de una empresa comercializadora de insumos químicos, así como el analizar las brechas que existen entre el modelo de trabajo actual y el modelo de trabajo propuesto.”, llegando a las siguientes conclusiones:  Se demostró que el modelo de referencia sugerido por el Supply
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Identificación de Procesos del Supply Chain Management, según THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN FORUM

Identificación de Procesos del Supply Chain Management, según THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN FORUM

La caracterización de la logística en Colombia está avanzado a pasos agigantados cada día, pues está trascendiendo barreas significativas en cuanto a la competitividad internacional que hoy por hoy está tomando más fuerza para estandarizar todos los proceso logísticos en un solo idioma; permitiendo que estas técnicas profesionales puedan mejorar la ingeniería en Colombia de una forma eficiente. Es por ello que cada día las compañías se fortalecen en cuanto a conocimientos se refiere ya que estas se están empezando a aferrasen a los elementos 13 elementos de modelos referenciales logísticos que aporta la cadena de suministro del Supply Chain Management (SCM), pues instrumentos tan importantes como los conceptos logísticos, su integración del (SCM), su destreza con la que cuente su área de recursos humanos, barreras o dificultades que se puedan presentar en sus entorno y como saber las enfrentar y por ultimo su logística de reversa la cual les permitirá gestionar su retorno de mercancía; desencadenara en futuras empresas fortalecidas a nivel mundial en cuanto a competitividad logística se manejare.
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Modelling interstate migration in México: Static Markov Chains versus Dynamic Markov Chains with Moving Average

Modelling interstate migration in México: Static Markov Chains versus Dynamic Markov Chains with Moving Average

The Markovian method usually supposes the temporal homogeneity of the phenomenon it tries to model, so it estimates the transition possibilities (i.e., the change from one situation to another, or move from one place to another) with statistical techniques (Modica and Poggiolini, 2013). How- ever, migration is a highly dynamical socio-spatial phenomenon that is influenced by a series of factors whose effect is not always well known and complicated to anticipate (Castles et al., 2013). Maybe because of these reasons, Markov chains, used as of the 1980’s in Mexico (see the excel- lent pioneering contribution by Partida, 1989), have lost impulse in recent years as an instrument to model and project migratory flows, but not as instruments to project population (in this topic it is key to review the note- worthy contributions made by Bustos, 2013, for the Mexican case).
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Análisis de los cuellos de botella en la logística internacional de las PYMES de confecciones en Colombia

Análisis de los cuellos de botella en la logística internacional de las PYMES de confecciones en Colombia

 Conocer la importancia que tiene el Supply Chain Management para el éxito de las empresas, ya que esta le suministra herramientas que le permite crear ventajas comparativas frente a sus competidores. En el Supply Chain Management, la meta más importante es lograr la satisfacción del cliente, motivo por el cual todos los procesos del Supply Chain se enfocan a este fin y deben trabajar en conjunto para ello.

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