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REPORT OF THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 26 AUGUST-4 SEPTEMBER 2002

REPORT OF THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 26 AUGUST-4 SEPTEMBER 2002

2. In addition, more than 150 parallel events, several of which were organized by civil society organizations and major groups, were held in conjunction with the Summit. A Civil Society Global Forum, organized by the South African Civil Society Secretariat, was held from 19 August to 4 September at the Expo Centre in Nasrec. This Forum included a “women’s tent”, and was attended by more than 25,000 people. Outcomes included a Civil Society Declaration and Programme of Action (see http://www.worldsummit.org.za). Major groups were also involved in a number of other parallel events, including “Lekgotla: a business day”, hosted by Business Action for Sustainable Development on 1 September. It brought world business leaders together with other major groups and government officials to discuss initiatives and partnerships for sustainable development (see http://www.basd- action.net/activities/business.shtml). A local government event, “Local action moves the world”, organized by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and other partners, was held from 27 to 30 August. The outcome was a local government declaration to the Summit (see http://www.iclei.org/lgs/). The “Ubuntu village” event featured the International Best Practices Exhibition. It served as a central venue for people from diverse backgrounds to interact and to share their unique cultural heritages and show their impacts on sustainable development, through entertainment and exhibition activities (see www.joburgsummit2002.com). Several water-related events, including conferences, workshops, press conferences, side events and exhibitions, were held from 28 August to 3 September at the Water Dome. The event entitled “No water, no future” aimed to increase awareness of water as a key issue in sustainable development (see www.waterdome.net).
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WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION

WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION

(g) Take concrete action to implement the Monterrey Consensus at all levels. 141. Good governance at the international level is fundamental for achieving sustainable development. In order to ensure a dynamic and enabling international economic environment, it is important to promote global econom ic governance through addressing the international finance, trade, technology and investment patterns that have an impact on the development prospects of developing countries. To this effect, the international community should take all necessary and approp riate measures, including ensuring support for structural and macroeconomic reform, a comprehensive solution to the external debt problem and increasing market access for developing countries. Efforts to reform the international financial architecture need to be sustained with greater transparency and the effective participation of developing countries in decision -making processes. A universal, rules -based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system, as well as meaningful trade liberalization, can substantially stimulate development worldwide, benefiting countries at all stages of development.
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62 Lee mas

Sustainable Development: A Challenging and Contested Concept

Sustainable Development: A Challenging and Contested Concept

The future envisaged by transformationists takes a different view, starting from the view that envi- ronmental degradation, poverty and a lack of justice are not a historical coincidence. The linkage is not simply moral; it is rooted in a society of domination and exploitation of the environment and most people. In what O’Connor (1989) describes as combined and uneven development, some communities and people are rich because others are poor and vice versa. O’Riordan states that ‘wealth creation based on renewability and replenishment rather than exploitation . . . is a contradiction in terms for modern capitalism’, so that real sustainable development requires a ‘massive redistribution of wealth and power’ (1989, p. 93). Transformationists emphasize justice and equity, believing that if these are not central to any analysis the ecological problems will be blamed upon a common ‘us’, who are held equally to blame. This trend is evident in some deep ecologists’ thinking that holds all humanity responsible for the eco- logical crisis, thus masking divisions of race, class and gender. In an unequal society it is those who are least powerful who suffer poverty and lack of access to resources. The poor also have to bear the heav- iest burden of ill-health, war and ecological problems (Sachs, 1999; UNDP, 2002; Agyeman et al. , 2003). Transformationists’ view of the connection between environmental degradation and human exploita- tion encourages the building of alliances between environmental and social justice movements. The challenge they face is how to mobilize a coalition that is powerful and cohesive enough to realize the needed changes. The core values of sustainable development as outlined by Haughton are environment protection and justice. The issues that transformationists are facing, of how to combine these two, will increasingly become main stage as society faces the challenges of the future.
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15 Lee mas

TRADE, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER

TRADE, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER

The overall coordination of preparations of the Expert Workshop and the present volume on Trade, Sustainable Development and Gender was undertaken by a team led by Gloria-Veronica Koch, UNCTAD’s Focal Point on Women. The present volume has benefited from the assistance and cooperation of a wide circle of persons and the contributions which make up this volume were submitted to UNCTAD on a voluntarily basis by authors from different backgrounds. In particular, various substantive contributions and advice as well as logistic support were received from UNCTAD staff members and external experts, which are herewith gratefully acknowledged. These include Erna Borneck, Sarah Combette-Molson, Robert Cook, Andrew Crosby, David Díaz- Benavides, Cathi Eisenring, Estela Erb-Paniagua, Anna Fälth, Fulvia Farinelli, Günter Fischer, Frederick Glover, Charles Gore, Khalil Hamdani, Michiko Hayashi, Gabrielle Koehler, Dieter Koenig, Willa Liburd, Christopher Macfarquhar, Daniel Martel, Mina Mashayekhi, Assad Omer, Diego Oyarzún, Chitra Radhakishun, Matfobhi Riba, Lorraine Ruffing, Masoumeh Sahami- Malmberg, Angela Thompson, Anna Tibaijuka, Susan Trachsel, Sophie Twarog, Francisco Vendrell, René Vossenaar, Aurelie von Wartensleben and Simonetta Zarrilli. Finally, we would like to express our thanks to the Government of Sweden for its contribution to the material production of this book through project INT 99 A42.
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Clean development mechanism : profitability drivers and sustainable development profiles

Clean development mechanism : profitability drivers and sustainable development profiles

In this research first the profitability drivers associated with CDM renewable energy projects in Latin America are studied by replicating 44 cash flows. The different assumptions taken by project developers for projects with similar characteristics in Chile are also studied, aiming to expose that no methodologies are used to choose parameters for evaluating projects. Then sustainable development benefits are studied for a sample of 180 renewable energy CDM projects from Latin America. Since these types of projects are associated with the highest sustainability benefits, their analysis aims to portray the best possible scenario for the contribution of CDM towards sustainable development. The results show that for the sample the plant factor is the key driver for profitability, followed by electricity price, investment cost and a one-year delay. It also suggests that project developers may choose the parameters that most accommodate them so that their projects can be registered under the CDM. For sustainable development while no trends exist between host country, scale or type of project with sustainability, all of the evaluated projects claim to deliver at least one type of benefit. Nonetheless, technology transfer, which helps countries to build their own capacities, is left behind.
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Making the Sustainable Development Goals work.

Making the Sustainable Development Goals work.

The achievement of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals approved by the UN General Assem- bly in 2015 will depend on whether or not the last goal, “global partnership for sustainable deve- lopment,” will work. The paper suggests that the leading principle for effective global partnership should be the rebalancing of the negotiating power of the different stakeholders. Section I briefly sketches some changes to the notion of development and of cooperation since 1950. Section II describes the process which has led to the SDGs and to the idea of cooperation as a global partnership. Section III focuses on two major economic changes which have taken place since the seventies: economic growth in Asia and the rise of international finance. Both of which have huge implications for the SDGs and for global partnership. Section IV presents three steps which could help to implement “global partnership for development” according to the principle of rebalancing. Developing countries need more policy space especially in their trade and fiscal policies.
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25 Lee mas

Green certification to achieve sustainable development goals

Green certification to achieve sustainable development goals

The present article initiates the idea of certifying sports facilities for compliance with innovations in the field of resource saving. The search for mechanisms to stimulate sports complexes to move to rational models of resource use led to the development of the Green Ball environmental certification program. "Green Ball" is a protocol for environmental auditing of sports facilities, summarizing all the current proposals for environmental management; website for online certification and recommendations; model of effective environmental management. If a sports facility meets these criteria, it needs to be awarded the Green Ball environmental certification mark, which, by analogy with the TRP program, can be Bronze, Silver, and Gold, which is reminiscent of hotel stars and can become a recognizable brand in the sports industry. The advantage of the site is the possibility of self-auditing to obtain recommendations that will help optimize resource use, as well as call the auditor to the object. The developed project is environmentally, economically and socially effective, which contributes to the implementation of the ideas of the concept of sustainable development in the field of sports.
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6 Lee mas

CO2 emissions, energy and sustainable development in Ecuador 1980   2025

CO2 emissions, energy and sustainable development in Ecuador 1980 2025

• Does EKC follow a sustainable development path? EKCs represent the pat- terns of flows of pollutants, whereas environmental impacts are often char- acterized as a stock problem (Arrow et al., 1995) [104]. The EKC, therefore, does not necessarily reflect a sustainable time path of pollution (Dinda, 2003a [105]; Ekins, 1998 [106]; Gruver, 1976 [107]; Zang, 1998 [108]). Max- imum level of pollution depends on costs and benefits of pollution abate- ment, which differ among countries. Differences in absorptive capacities, social preferences and discount rates give rise to different cost–benefit struc- tures, which implies different optimal levels of pollution among countries. This limits the policy relevance of an estimated collective turning point for a whole sample of countries. There is no guaranty that the rising part and top of EKC bypass ecological thresholds and sustainability constraints beyond which environmental deterioration will become irreversible (Arrow et al., 1995 [104]; Panayotou, 1997 [109]). Note that a positive answers to these questions would grant the EKC policy relevance. Negative answers would indicate that the validity and policy relevance of EKCs is partial with respect to countries, indicators, time and cost-effectiveness.
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285 Lee mas

Sustainable Development Goal #3, health and well being, and the need for more integrative thinking

Sustainable Development Goal #3, health and well being, and the need for more integrative thinking

Recently, the United-Nations adopted 17 sustainable development goals for the 2030 Agenda. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 “Ensuring a healthy life and promoting well-being for all ages” is one of the most trans- versal goals, which is interconnected with the other SDGs. The health and well-being are the aim of this goal and also, they are the result of other goals that empower people to develop better in different social, economic and productive areas. The SDG 3 is a multiple and universal resource on which sustainable development policies can be based, in particular for the most needed countries, and can lead to the sustainable maintenance of well-being and health. However, SDG 3 faces a high sectorization, so there is a risk of not being able to achieve the stated objectives. Only a national and international reflection on human population and animal health surveillance devices, environmental health, implementation of appropriate indicators and specific research funding will ensure the balance between the legitimacy of society’s demands and the needs of scientific and medical excellence. The health and well-being indicators that are needed to achieve the agenda goals are based on reliable and relevant quantitative data, which are currently rare or even non-existent in some regions. Therefore, it is now necessary to ini- tiate a more integrative international animal and public health and research strategy in order to collect new data, particularly those relating to current emerging infectious diseases that affect public and animal health, especially in de veloping countries.
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RENEWABLE ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Renewable energy (RE) and sustainable development (SD) are two key ex- pressions for human being since fossil fuels tend to exhaustion, have higher and higher prices that are going to be unbearable for humanity and are the main responsible for GHG emissions and unsustainable development. Renewable energies, on the contrary, among other things, are clean and almost safe and are fundamental for SD, the one that preserves resources for the future generations. Some topics that are important and need discussion are renewable energy, SD, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), the concept of SD, the interactions between SD and renewable energies, the SD goals for renewable energy, some SD indica- tors, the social and economic development in this framework, the question of energy access to the whole humanity, the question of energy safety, the climate change mitigation and the reduction of environmental and health impacts.
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28 Lee mas

TítuloPrecarius work and sustainable development

TítuloPrecarius work and sustainable development

In last years, we are going through a period of economic and humanitarian crisis. Wars, refugees, hunger, etc. are the real main problems that our society is facing nowadays. The United Nations (2018) has launched an initiative known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which is composted by a total of seventeen objectives which main goal is to deal and improve the current situation. This initiative was born in 2015 when the worldwide leaders agree a set of objectives to eradicate poverty, to protect the planet and to ensure a sustainable development. Specifically, it was in 2016 when it comes into force until year 2030. Before SDG the United Nations also carried out another initiative known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which was composed by eight objectives. Focusing on the SDG, their main aim is to achieve a sustainable and inclusive development through the consecution of the seventeen goals which are in Figure 1.
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27 Lee mas

Education for the sustainable development through fuzzy logic

Education for the sustainable development through fuzzy logic

Just as the economic indicators, the social indicators do not measure the sustainability by themselves, but they do it on the whole with the other indicators of a system. These indicators are used to evaluate the level of well-being in a society [12]. The access to the public health, the right to the culture, the demand of satisfying basic needs of people and in general, all those standards in connexion with the quality of life, as an integrant part of a totally sustainable development. In other words, the use of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) can be fixed for the social assessment, which considers the National Income and not the Benefit, ie, it allows seeing how the project contributes to the increase of a country or of a region income. This is made by measuring the national income through an aggregated index, the added Net Actualised Value (NAV), which evaluates the main impact of the project in the economy. Other complementary qualitative criteria could be: the effect on the employment, on the income distribution by regions and by social groups and its impact on the balance of payments, which may have a great socioeconomic importance. The qualitative criteria cover all those valuations of the project effects that could not be quantified because of their size, lack of information or peculiarity. As the environmental impacts assessment is concerned, the use of indicators is suggested, whenever possible, for the quantification of the effect that has already been fixed, in order to make more explicit the reached size by it. If we begin with this supposition, the necessary actions must be developed in order to avoid or to counteract the impact, if it is negative; or in order to seize the opportunity of the benefit if it is a positive impact.
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7 Lee mas

The age of sustainable development

The age of sustainable development

The economic sciences have evolved and include new disciplines of analysis. While in 2014, Professor Jeffrey Sachs published his book The Age of Sustainable Development, the United Nations prepared an ambitious agreement for sustainable development, which implies the imposing of measures on country’s actions in order to achieve this. In 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals were approved and the Vatican published the Papal encyclical, Laudato Si, which establishes life preserving guidelines and recommendations for ethical conduct. In parallel, Paris played host to the XXI COP21 United Nations Climate Change Conference, in which agreements were reached on reducing the emission of polluting gases, undoubtedly implying a rethinking of uncontestable issues such as economic growth which has dominated the agendas of the past decades.
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6 Lee mas

Community based learning for Sustainable Development

Community based learning for Sustainable Development

(2015–2019) was launched with five themes: 1) Advancing policy; 2) Trans- forming learning and training environments (whole institution approaches); 3) Building capacities of educators and trainers; 4) Empowering and mobi- lizing youth; and, 5) Accelerating sustainable solutions at the local level (U nesco 2015). Forums of network partners under each theme were created

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Socioformative Teacher Training for Sustainable Social Development

Socioformative Teacher Training for Sustainable Social Development

ABSTRACT: This article constitutes an analysis of the challenges that the societies of the 21st century represent. It addresses key aspects to guide the use of new systemic approaches, highlighting the socioformative approach, and which are the debates of various investigations at an international level. The argument used allows us to identify the academic debate regarding said approach and how its characteristics are oriented to the construction and develop- ment of sustainable societies; in the same way, it allows to verify relationships in scenarios, real contexts, where it is necessary to show an authentic capacity to face the challenges and dangers of our environment. It contemplates an educational vision from three guidelines: the school curriculum, teacher training and continuous training. The educa- tional system is an ally to erect the transformation towards an effective socioformative approach, which contributes to generate a more human society, capable of addressing the real problems that afflict us now and in the future. Keywords: sustainable development, teacher training, lifelong learning, knowledge society, socioformation Dany Vazquez-Ayala | Universidad Continente Americano- MÉXICO |
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ENHANCING THE CONTRIBUTION OF FDI TO DEVELOPMEN : A NEW AGENDA FOR THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY COMMUNITY , INTERNATIONAL LABOUR AND CIVIL SOCIETY , AID DONORS AND MULTILATERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

ENHANCING THE CONTRIBUTION OF FDI TO DEVELOPMEN : A NEW AGENDA FOR THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY COMMUNITY , INTERNATIONAL LABOUR AND CIVIL SOCIETY , AID DONORS AND MULTILATERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

sustainable development policy community therefore is to understand each type of FDI on its own terms. It makes no sense to jumble recommendations for how to deal with FDI in Nigerian oil, FDI in Argentine electricity, FDI in Kenyan cut flowers, FDI in Honduran sweatshops, FDI in Malaysian disk drive plants, and FDI in Mexican retail chains. From an analytical point of view, moreover, mixing data, and trying to come to overarching conclusions about how one phenomenon (“foreign direct investment”) affects another (“development” or “growth”) is likely to lead to mistakes and errors. Many of the best known studies – such as the widely cited article on “How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth?” by E. Borensztein, J. De Gregorio and J. W. Lee – get into trouble by combining FDI data from all sectors into one single variable. 4 The Borensztein team concluded that FDI can have a positive impact on economic growth only when the host country already surpasses a certain human resource threshold, despite abundant evidence elsewhere (see infra) that manufacturing FDI can bring substantial benefits to even poorest host economies. The Borensztein result
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SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

One of the most interesting results is the role of tertiary education, as in Nordic countries. In a highly industrialized area, this index helped to represent individual freedom with more efficacy than a simple literacy rate. Furthermore, linking data on the formation of human capital with consumption of environmental resources allowed an assessment to be made as to whether consumption of natural capital has been replaced with adequate investments in other capital assets. Norway, which consumes a large portion of exhaustible resources (oil and natural gas), remains in the highest part of the SHDI ranking due to investment in education, suggesting a development approach that is geared towards long-term sustainability. On the contrary, transition economies such as the Russian Federation have a high consumption of natural resources and a relatively low increase in human capital, with lower rank orders in the SHDI 2002 compared with 1992 values. However, more attention must be paid to the policy implication of depleting natural resources for export revenues. Accession countries with a less sustainable development path should not be left on their own in their struggle to become sustainable. Unsustainable resource exploitations in less developed countries are often encouraged by Western countries who want to import resources as cheaply as possible (as is probably the case with the Russian Federation).
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23 Lee mas

TítuloSustainable Development, Poverty, and Risk of Exclusion for Young People in the European Union: The Case of NEETs

TítuloSustainable Development, Poverty, and Risk of Exclusion for Young People in the European Union: The Case of NEETs

Achieving sustainable development worldwide requires an equitable and balanced social and economic environment. The people who are currently looking for their first job are mainly young people known as “millennials”. These young people are facing their access to the labor market under very special conditions. On the one hand, the economic situation, which has just emerged from a severe economic crisis; on the other hand, the changing dynamics of the labor market, which requires workers with high levels of training and mastery of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Then, sustainable and balanced development should be understood in the context of a smart growth, which is essential for developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation, and a connected digital single market, which can boost growth in Europe and generate multiple new jobs for younger job seekers together with a lively knowledge-based society [1]. In these circumstances, some young people face barriers that are very difficult to overcome and they become discouraged. This discouragement can affect both the continuation of studies, enrolment in training, and/or in the search for a job. The economic situation of the country and the social support are factors that influence the youth discouragement and, depending on it, young people could become part of the group known as
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15 Lee mas

TítuloSustainable development and rural tourism in lithuania

TítuloSustainable development and rural tourism in lithuania

 the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.’ All definitions of sustainable development require that we see the world as a system where space and time are included. Thinking of the world as a system over space, it can be understood that air pollution from Asia affects air quality in Europe, and that pesticides sprayed in Sweden could harm wild life on the coast of Lithuania. Thinking of the world as a system over time, it is easy start to realize that the decisions our ancestors made about how to farm the land continue to affect agricultural practice today. In addition to that the economic policies endorsed today will have an impact on the future world.
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10 Lee mas

Disaster Mitigation and Prevention Policies for Sustaintable Development

Disaster Mitigation and Prevention Policies for Sustaintable Development

Prior to the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, Yoko­ hama, May 1994, the meeting constitutes an informal policy dialogue at executive level and aims at contributing to an update and review of acti­ vities, progress and deficits, observed during the first half of the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). The discussion will focus on policy aspects of the correlation between disaster mitigation and sustainable development, recognizing that further consolidation is needed at national and international leve! in order to achieve a better understanding of its relevance.
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9 Lee mas

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