The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of consolidation the sustainabletourism indicators have when applied to Coastal Rural Communities (CRC), with the aim of identifying these indicator’s roles and the basic elements that each indicator most fulfills, in order to monitor and control the CRC. The conceptual and methodological frameworks were identified from the global and local perspectives, asking the question: How and who are developing sustainable coastal rural communities within the CRC? Pursuit of scientific information about the topic was carried out throughout four digital repositories: the Wiley online library (17 articles), the Web of Science (6 articles), academic Google (29 articles), and Scopus (20 articles). In total, we recognized 72 articles according to their title parameters and keywords. Out of all the studies, only 15% focus on our definition, studying the sustainable indicators in coastal areas, but acknowledge 580 indicators that are grouped into the three basic components of sustainability: those that are economical, socio-cultural or environmental. The databases used indicate that there is little literature on topics related to SustainableTourism Indicators (STI) in CRC. Finally, the criteria and codes we established for the analysis of the articles allow us to have a clear overview about the process of design, application and evaluation of STI in CRC. It is understood that indicators can be applied in different territorial contexts; however, it is necessary to have a specific foundation, so that the indicators can be compared in dissimilar stages.
To establish or further develop the commitment between the protected area authority and its individual Charter business partners the signing of a European Charter Partnership Agreement should form the basic approach. A ‘model’ agreement in Annex 1 shows the minimum content drawn from the Principles of the European Charter for SustainableTourism in Protected Areas which identifies protected area and business commitments as well as setting out actions and monitoring indicators.
The concept of sustainable development, rooted in the environmental awareness of the 1970s, is associated to the impossibility of reaching unlimited growth in a world of limited resources. Defined by Brundtland (1987) as the «development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs», it has been adapted to tourism, and sustainabletourism is understood as that which «meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems» (UNWTO, 1993). However, there is no generally accepted definition of sustainabletourism. In view of this lack of preci- sion, the concept has often been relegated to a mere rhetorical use (Hughes, Weaver and Pforr, 2015; Gössling, Hall and Weaver, 2009). The breadth, complexity and evolution of the concept make it difficult to understand or hinder its practical man- agement and cause possible confusion with other concepts such as resilience (Farrell and Twining-Ward, 2005; Lew, Ng, Ni and Wu, 2016).
Consequently, this requires not only the territorial planning of potential tourism zones, but also the introduction of tourism planning models or methodologies based on integrated global strategies that foster development in general. In this way, we approach a conceptual position in which tourism is presented as an instrument for development rather than an end in itself. The weak socio-economic situation deriving from the decline in agricultural structures, together with the healthy aspect of tourism and service industries may help to generate synergies in other activities that to one extent or another form part of the tourist industry itself.
8. AWARE of the role of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in addressing issues of tourism and wetlands, RECOGNIZING that the UNWTO conceptual definitions for “sustainabletourism” and “ecotourism” (annex 1 of this Resolution) are consistent with application of the Ramsar wise use principle, and WELCOMING the report and analysis of case studies provided in the joint Ramsar- UNWTO publication on “Wetlands and sustainabletourism” launched at this meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties;
⁵⁹ Forum for the Future and The Travel Foundation. 2012. Survival of the Fittest: SustainableTourism Means Business. July 2012. Bristol, UK, p. 17. ⁶⁰ Dan Shapley. 2011. “Study: Ecotourism has Significant Benefits.” The Daily Green, September 29, 2011. www.thedailygreen.com/ environmental-news/latest/ecotourism-benefits-0911#ixzz2Ct7hpzbX. ⁶¹ Based on government statistics from the Costa Rican Tourism Institute. ⁶² Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiasa. 2011. The Travel & Tourism Com- petitiveness Report 2011: Focus on Moving beyond the Downturn. World Economic Forum. Geneva. 2011, pp. 166, 192. www.weforum.org/ttcr. ⁶³ SustainableTourism Certification Alliance Africa. 2011. “Tourism for Tomorrow Awards 2010 – Winner.” http://www.sustainabletourismal- liance.co.za/oldsite/2011/02/tourism-for-tomorrow-awards-2010-winner/. ⁶⁴ “Putin Backs Ecotourism Spending.” 2010. The Moscow Times. August 27, 2010. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/putin- backs-ecotourism-spending/413755.html.
Although Mexico has vast natural and cultural resources which could be smartly utilized as a tool for establishing a truly sustainabletourism sector, investors and government authorities have repeatedly evidenced their lack of interest for improving social conditions of mexican communities, especially when potential economic benefits are involved, therefore, it is no surprise that, even though Mexico has the richest psychedelic flora in the world (Labate, 2015), national plans of tourism don’t even take into account the attractiveness that such traditional indigenous medicine represents, you can’t certainly build a thirty ‑story all ‑inclusive resort out of a mystical experience.
Resumen: The Charter for SustainableTourism of Lanzarote, signed in 1995, is a key document in setting the sustainability commitment of tourism. Later it became a part of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET), which defines Tourism Ethics. However a question prevails: how does tourism assumes this duty? And more specifically, how does tourism assume sustainable development? Based on an assessment of 360 degrees on tourism in Cancun (tourists, residents and tourism professionals), the present study explores the perception of sustainability in this destination under the guidelines of GCET. The results show that the per- ception of tourism as a factor for sustainable development is not uniform among the central players, showing a better assessment by tourists, and a more critical view by the resident population and professionals. Palabras Clave: Turismo sostenible; Competitividad; Modelo de ecuaciones estructurales; Constructos for- mativos; Competitividad de destinos; Modelo de medida; Brasil.
This recognition represents the fulfilment of one of the targets of the city of Bar- celona Strategic Tourism Plan 2010-2015 and, together with the implementation of the responsible Tourism system, helps position Barcelona as a high-quality, innovative and responsible tourist destination. The Biosphere recognition posi- tions the city as a leading tourist destination of quality, innovative in responsibility and sustainability, which translates into specific actions such as corporate social responsibility, quality of service or proper environmental management. The certification was officially presented during the Global sustainable Tour- ism council (GsTc) annual meeting on 29th June 2011. This organisation, a united nations foundation, works to promote sustainabletourism.
The Ephesus area is considered to be one of the most important values of cultural tourism. It is one of the richest ancient cities in history formed by Greek and Roman cultures. Furthermore, it is one of the best examples of the ancient age, recognized by archaeologists and historians. The largest ancient theatre of Turkey and houses on the slopes with well -protected mosaics and frescoes, symbolizing the past, can be found in this area. In addition to this, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, “The Temple of Artemis” was built in Ephesus. Taking all these facts into consideration, the Ephesus area has been accepted as a symbol of history and culture (Eser, Dalgin and Ceken, 2013). One of the main ideas of sustainabletourism is based on the stance that tourism industry is responsible for the state of degradation of natural and cultural environments. Users of local resources are obliged to pay attention on conservation issues. In that respect, the potential of tour guides for minimizing negative impacts of tourism traffic is rarely perceived and used (Rabotic, 2010). Furthermore, even though tour guides are one of the most visible players in tourism industry but, to date little scholarly attention was given to tour guides and guiding profession, not to speak of the links that tour guides may have with sustainability of tourism (Hu, 2007). Tour guides are - particularly in the eyes of tourists - representatives and “ambassadors” of tourism destinations but they are also their “protectors”. Hence, they should be treated as one of the destination stakeholders and due to their direct and often intense contact with tourists, actively involved in the implementation of sustainabletourism (Rabotic, 2010). In this context, this study addresses the gap by promoting an understanding of how tour guides can assist to moving tourism in a sustainable direction. Additionally, this study aims to question valorization process of Ephesus Ancient City as one of the cultural heritage sites of Turkey in relation with tour guiding practices. In doing so, several specific objectives are to be achieved: to understand sustainabletourism and the relation between sustainabletourism and tourism; to explore the roles and responsibilities of tour guides and their implications for the promotion of tourism sustainability and valorization process of cultural heritage sites such as Ephesus Ancient City; to examine to what extend tour guides exert their functions to support tourism development. By fulfilling these research objectives, it is expected to enhance the comprehension of the linkage between tour guides and sustainability, which is beneficial to both practical tour guide management and cultural site managers. In addition, this study will contribute to the literature on sustainabletourism development and cultural heritage site valorization process.
Sustainable rural tourism is seen, therefore, as an opportunity to improve the tourism sector; generating activities in both urban and natural environment. It is an instrument of innovative planning; improving sustainabletourism in protected areas and combin- ing economic, cultural, social, and environmental aspects. Their strengths and weak- nesses are a basis for defi ning future scenarios for local development and defi ning strategy for tourismsustainable. 4 Furthermore, the implementation creates environ-
Admittedly, there are alternative classification (or at least accreditation) systems which are not necessarily based on quality and service but focus on social and environmental matters. For example, the Green Globe certification “is a structured assessment of the sustainability performance of travel and tourism businesses and their supply chain partners” and it uses criteria based on sustainable management, social economic, cultural heritage, and environmental (Green Globe, no date). Fair Trade is another certification approach, thus Fair Trade Tourism (FTT) certifies tourism businesses based on criteria which includes: business practice and human resources; community resources; cultural heritage; and environmental practice (FTT, no date). Another certification system is the Certification for SustainableTourism (CST). The CST “is one of the first systems, if not the first, to achieve the integration of the principle elements of sustainabletourism, analyzing good management practices, the environmental and social impacts of services, as well as the client’s perception of image and the congruence between the service offered and the product’s promotion” (CST 2003). CST started in Costa Rica and it is hoped to be extended to other countries, and its spread is envisaged to bring benefits such as cost reduction, improved occupancy and image with substantial spinoffs to the environment as well as providing social guarantees to the local people and at the regional level, it is envisaged to “serve as a unifier and a common basis for the promotion of sustainabletourism” (CST 2003). Following this emerging trend of new classification/certification approaches, and trying to go beyond them in a comprehensive manner by including more innovative considerations, this article proposes such a new possible classification based on CBT principles and which aims to combine a comprehensive list of social, economic, cultural and so on aspects as well as propose a possible new comprehensive alternative classification system. In this article, the new rating system –whose ambition is to contribute to homogenising specific attributes of companies in the tourism sector– will propose a model that will indicate the fundamental underlying commonalities that such new rating system should adhere to informed by the CBT Es presented below.
Germany received the World Cup in 2006. Its rankings of tourism competitiveness pillars indicated a nation with high transport structure, i.e., excellent accessibility. Other strengths were safety, hygiene, health, and sustainability, as well as a high degree of natural and cultural resources. All the pillars were above 85% in the competitiveness scale, except price competi- tiveness and prioritization of the sector. Thus, the data indicate that this tourism destination already had an adequate infrastructure to receive mega-events, and enabled a complemen- tary tourism offer to the event. Regarding the low level in the ranking of the prioritization of the industry, the fact of hosting a mega-event tends to help improve this indicator, since it gen- erates mobilization within the country, both public and private, around the tourism industry.
This relationship between sport, tourism and recreation has been amply shown by the literature and seems unquestionable. However, the link between sports and tour- ism is not always positive. Authors such as Sousa (2004), Williams et al (1984) and Dunning et al (2002) have studied conflicts related to the violence generated by some groups of sporting event tourists. Others have focused on the emerging ecological conflicts created by the practice of sport tourism in natural environments (Bellan & Bellan- Santini, 2001; Domroes, 2001; Guyer & Pollard, 1997; Ingold et al, 1993; Stockwell et al, 1991). The development of the so called “active tourism” activities, such as rafting, speleology, canyoning or mountain biking, that have become a summer option for resorts that base their economies on winter sports has certainly implied a widening of the ecological im- pacts of tourism. Even so, the inherent conflicts in the sports- tourism relationship are all too often incorrectly considered. Two reasons can be given to explain this. First of all, taking an overall approach, the bene- fits of the relationship are probably more important than the costs. Secondly, most studies in the field of Sports and Tourism start from a functionalist approach, and this approach usually leads to an emphasis on the positive points and minimizes the negatives. As Rojek points out (quoted in Henderson et al, 2004), leisure theory since World War II developed a functionalist approach, and leisure activities were con- sidered from an individualistic point of view, ignoring the context in which they were held. Besides that, a functionalist approach inherently highlights the positive sides of every social phenomenon. There- fore, the relationship between sport and tourism has followed a similar path, em- phasizing, since the very first studies the multiple benefits that it brings (Zahuar, 2004).
Similar to previous showstoppers, the final solution was significantly different. Given the strict restrictions at Hof van Liere, we decided to the more flexible concept. We recreated second-hand t-shirts with bleaching technique and ironed distinctive embroidery patch on each of them - choosing a sustainable approach. Afterwards, we displayed them on clothing racks and shopping trolleys (around 200 pieces) mimicking competitive atmosphere of a flea market with fast fashion. That created this sharp contrast we loved. Again, repeating the motif of conflict between fast and fair, which is present in all aspects of our project.
Management of the DDBR is supported by the Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development (DDNI), which has been set up to provide scientific support for decision makers both in the DDBRA and the Tulcea County Council. For its capacity to influence policies at local and central levels, DDNI was nominated as “National focal point” for fisheries and land cover. At European level, DDNI has been designated as a Centre of Excellence for Deltas and Wetlands. The DDBR’s natural and cultural features are major tourism resources. The delta offers an almost unspoilt landscape of river channels, lakes, reed beds, dunes and forests, beaches on the Black Sea coast and village settlements with traditional buildings and a rich culture.
Secondly, symptoms of maturity of tourism demand in certain countries. The observation of the behaviour of outbound tourism and recent studies (GRAHAM, 2001; ALEGRE-POU, 2003a; a general view in VELLAS, 2004) point towards a possible stagnation –in outbound markets of developed countries– of the percentage of population who travel abroad. The cases of France and Great Britain illustrate this point: the increase in tourism demand is due to a greater frequency of departures per year on the part of regular travellers. In this regard, between 1990-2002 the regions in the world which have experienced the most growth in outbound tourism were Asia and the Pacific, with 118 per cent (from 60 million to more than 131 million) and the Middle East, with 100 per cent (from 8 to 16 million tourists). Europe and America, with figures of 53 per cent and 21 per cent respectively, have increased their figures more slowly, as they have gone from 363 to 525 million. Finally, new consumer tastes (POON, 1993). This client –known as “post-Fordist”– has interests other than the crowded areas of sun and sand and this constitutes, therefore, a serious threat to mass tourism destinations. See GARAU (2010).
The paper considers the concept of religious tourism. Religious tourism is the departure of a person from a country of residence for a period of no more than six months in order to visit holy places and centers of religion. On the other hand, this concept can be viewed as an activity aimed at providing services to the tourists travelling for religious purposes. One distinguishes the pilgrimage tourism and the religious tourism of excursion - cognitive focus. The difference between these two types is that the religious tourism of excursion - cognitive focus means visiting temples and holy places without the tourists’ participation in the religious life of the shrine. The Pilgrimage tourism provides an opportunity to participate in worshipping and praying. The Pilgrimage can also be classified according to the number of participants, i.e. individual, family, group. If one considers the duration of the tour, one can identify long and short pilgrimages. Depending on the location of the shrine, there are domestic and foreign tours. It should be noted that both the religious tourism and the pilgrimage has a number of reasons. At the heart of the pilgrimage is the human being conventional attitude to religion, his conscious activity implies the desire to see the shrines that have significance precisely for him. The definition of tourism as a kind of activity is in no way inferior to the concept and essence of the pilgrimage. Relying on the scientific definition of the pilgrimage and religious tours, it can be said that it applies more to tourism than to human spiritual activity. It gives an evidence to talk about the pilgrimage as a tour.
Political instability in Thailand from December 2008 to April 2009 (see Table 4.1) led to a drop of about 31% of international tourist arrivals over the first four months of 2009 (Barnes, 2009). Thai tourism’s major origin markets, including Japan, China, the U.S., South Korea, and Russia, experienced drops averaging between 23-40% (Barnes, 2009). Beyond its impacts on arrivals, these events might have also affected Thailand’s destination image, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty, or the structure of causal relationships among them. This, in turn, may affect the tourism competitiveness of Thailand both in the short and long run, because destination image is an important factor influencing comparative advantage of tourism (Gartner, 1994; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Chi and Qu, 2008; Martín and Bosque, 2008). Past studies confirm that destination image influences tourists’ decision-making process (Gartner, 1989; Chon, 1992; Crompton and Ankomah, 1993; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999), post- decision makings (Fakeye and Crompton, 1991; Mansfeld, 1992; Bigné, Sánchez and Sánchez, 2001), and destination loyalty reflected through their revisits or recommendations to others to visit (Oppermann, 2000; Chen and Tsai, 2007; Ozturk and Qu, 2008; Chi and Qu, 2008; Chen and Chen, 2010).
• …Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily are destinations in the process of expansion. In a context in which the IMEDOC are generally losing ground, these islands show better tourism indicators than the two leaders and they are following the same trend as the Mediterranean’s remaining countries.