Abstract: Helicteres guazumifolia Kunth and Helicteres baruensis Jacq. (Sterculiaceae) are two sympatricspecies of shrubs common along the North Western tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. i recorded their nectar production within a 24 hour cycle. i also describe the morphology of extrafloral nectaries with scanning electron microscopy. in H. guazumifolia secretion was restricted to the first day of flower life span, shortly after anthesis (0600 hr - 1800 hr). Flowers secreted on average 15.63 ±8.45 µl (N=409). Nectar is composed of three main sugars: sucrose, fructose and glucose (mainly sucrose). A total of 17 free amino acids were identified: mainly proline, arginine, threonine and tyrosine, with a concentration above 70 Ng/µl. values were different for H. baruensis. Nectar secretion was confined to the second day after anthesis, starting at 1600 hr and ending at 0600 hr the following day. Flowers secreted on average 77.03 ±64.99 µl (N=163) of nectar. Nectar is also composed of three main sugars; however, it showed a tendency to be hexose-rich, having more fructose and glucose than sucrose. There were also 17 free amino acids, mainly proline, alanine, tyrosine, arginine and threonine. Patterns of nectar production are different between the two species for timing, and for amount and composition of nectar secretion. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 161-177. Epub 2009 November 30.
Tiger beetles often attempt mating with either males or females of different species, and interespecific hybridization occurs (Pearson 1988). Although P. chaudoiri and P. confusa were located in the same areas and their reproductive behavior was very similar, we never observed interspecific matings in this study. Our observations support the prediction of reproductive isolation for sympatricspecies (Cassola 1997), and in this case the species probably are segregated by microclimatic differences (cooler temperatures for P. confusa). Tiger beetles are responsive to thermal microenvironments (Schultz 1998) and species segregate by microhabitat preferences (Zerm et al. 2001).
include the different habitats present in the lake in terms of depth and substrate (Figure 1). The sampling was carried out between November 2012 and August 2013, during the dry and wet seasons. The fish were collected using two 30- m long and 1.5- m- high gill nets of 12 different mesh sizes: 5, 6.25, 8,10, 12.5, 15.5, 19.5,24, 29, 35, 43, and 55 mm. After sampling, the fish were kept alive in aerated coolers until tissue processing (normally <1 hr after the last sampling). Under more ster- ile conditions, the fish were euthanized by putting them in ice water (around 4°C), and the stomach and muscle biopsies were collected. All processed specimens were preserved as vouchers in 95% ethanol and deposited in the National Fish Collection, IBUNAM. The fish were assigned to nominal species based on diagnostic morphological char- acters (Contreras- Balderas & Rivera- Teillery, 1983; Miller et al., 2005).
Why do two sympatricspecies that hatch at the same size, grow at similar rates, eat basi cally the same food and are active during the same hours of the day, occur at such high and equal densities? Most of the age classes have high mortality rates (Table 3). Tail-Ioss, an in direct index of predation (Ortega, 1986), does not correspond with observed mortality rates (Table 3). Anyway, annual average population den sities and biomass are high (Table 4), not only compared with the other lizard species of the guild (Ortega 1986), but also with the ave rage density calculated for Sauria by Turner ( 1977).
SUMMARY. Skates of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja present a particular challenge for fishery management and conservation, since they have been subject to intense exploitation in the last years. In the Argentine Sea, these genera are represented by D. leptocauda, D. trachyderma, D. argentinensis and Z. chilensis. These last three are sympatricspecies since they overlap in depth and geographic dis- tribution. Their behavioral habits and the morphological similarity make these species, especially in juvenile stages, difficult to identify. The use of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) as a DNA Barcode (genetic barcode), is a useful molecular tool to identify morphologically similar species. In this work, we used the DNA Barcode to identify specimens of Z. chilensis that presented a different thorny pattern in their dorsal side and tail instead of the common pattern found in that species. Also, we compared the DNA Barcode with other sympatric skates’ species to obtain a molecular characterization of the Dipturus and Zearaja species from the Argentine Sea. The DNA Barcode was obtained from 23 individuals collected along the Argentine continental shelf. The specimens were classified as D. argentinesis, Z. chilensis and Z. chilensis with a distinct different spinal pattern (specimens ZSP). The specimens were identified at species level by comparing their barcodes with reference sequences of specimens from the Pacific and Atlantic ocean in Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), and also by the intra and interspecific Kimura two-parameter (K2P) distance. The ZSP individuals were identified as Z. chilensis with more than 99% of similarity, and they had a K2P distance of 0.24% with the reference sequences col- lected in the Argentine Sea. The K2P distance between D. argentinensis and Z. chilensis was 3.1%, this value could suggest that both species are the same Genus Zearaja. We found that the specimens’ reference sequences of Z. chilensis from the Pacific had a high diver- gence (3.46%) from the Z. chilensis of the Argentine Sea, which would indicate two different species, suggesting that the Argentine form should be called Z. flavirostris (Philippi, 1892). From this work, we conclude that the DNA Barcode is a useful and efficient molecular marker to identify skates’ species. The obtained genetic distance data contributes to the characterization of these sympatricspecies from the Argentine Sea and is a useful tool as a reference parameter for the differentiation of the species.
Palabras clave: calidad térmica, eficiencia termorreguladora, matorral desértico, sceloporinos, simpatría, nicho térmico. Abstract. Environmental temperature is an important factor that regulates activity and physiological processes of ectotherms. Because sympatricspecies are exposed to similar thermal niche conditions, closely related species could present similar thermal requirements. This similarity may generate interspecific competition for optimal thermal space. The thermal ecology of the sympatric viviparous lizards Sceloporus lineolateralis and S. poinsettii (Sceloporus torquatus and Sceloporus poinsettii groups, respectively) were studied in natural populations in Peñón Blanco, Durango, Mexico. We found that active body temperatures and selected body temperatures were similar among species. However, S. poinsettii exhibited higher efficiency and accuracy of thermoregulation because the preferred thermal range of this species was wider. Finally their thermal preferences are analogous to those previously reported for the both groups and the genus.
The Horse mussel Modiolus capax is a native species from the Gulf of California with aquacul- ture potential, but scientific knowledge must be generated to achieve a sustainable production . A study was developed at CIBNOR to assess the effect of HOM treatments on gonadal, physiological and transcriptomic maturation in M. capax. Microalga and wheat meal were used as food for broodstock mussels. The experiment was designed in triplicate (482 adult mussels; 60 days) and applied to evaluate three HOM treatments: SiT-CaS-HeS (T1), PhA-FeP- ZiP (T2), ViP-ViA-ViT (T3), ethanol as positive control (T4), and NT as negative control (T5). A sequential sampling in time (days) was made (t 0 , t 30 and t 60 ). The histological analyses showed that mussels treated with T1 and T3 attained (t 30 ) the best results (p < 0.05) in total weight increase, gonadal maturation of 100% females (Figure 2 left), highest frequency of vitellogenic and postvitellogenic oocytes and highest oocyte quality according to the total area, theoretical diameter and % of ovoplasm. Also, mussels treated with T3 attained the best reproductive condition of the females (gonadal coverage area, ovarian maturity index, gonadal develop- ment index and reproductive potential); however, those receiving T2, increased oogonia proliferation and bioenergetic quality of the oocytes (amount of lipids and neutral carbohy- drates). Histochemical and biochemical analyses revealed that HOM treatments (T1, T2 and T3) contributed to increase the overall energy reserves (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) in the ovary, digestive gland and adductor muscle. López-Carvallo et al.  using wheat enriched di-algal diet, barely reaching gonad to maturity ~ 25% of the M. capax broodstock. Thus, we considered that better results in reproductive condition and oocyte quality of the species were attained with HOM treatments with respect to control.
cluster of organisms (Fig; 1). As stated before, on the basis of DNA-DNA reassociation values it has beeo proposed that aH Brucella spp. are biovars of a single species, B. melitensis (Verger et al. 1985). Thus, this monospecies would include six biovars with their respective biotypes, e. g. B. abortus biotype 1 would become B. melitensis, biovar abortus, biotype l. Even though this proposition may approach the suggestion of a "superior rank" of classification based on DNA-DNA hybridisation values (Stackebrandt and Goebel 1994), the truth is that this molecular technique has only revealed genome similarities and no discreet, consisten! and substantial differences that are known to exist among these organisms (AlIardet-Servent et al. 1988, Meyer 1990, Fekete et al. 1992, Ficht et al. 1996). Although this may be one of the main reasons why this proposition has had little acceptance within the scientific community devoted to bruceHae research (Meyer 1990), the ultimate judgement has come from veterinarians, microbiologists, physicians, epidemiologists and many other professionals who do not consider the new recommendation relevant for their purposes (Nielsen and Duncan 1990, Wong et al. 1992). The motive for this undoubtedly Hes in the fact that for many years it has been known that B. melitensis is a "vicious bug" (once upon a time considered as one of the candidates lor microbial warfare), while B. neotomae is a "nice bug" confined to desert wood rats (Corbel 1989). This is not a matter of semantics; in every single country people responsible for control and eradication programs know the different pathological behaviour and epidemiological circumstances that distinguish the various Brucella species: talk of B . abortus is one thing, but the mention of B. melitensis is a very different matter. The name of the latter species would dispatch a general alarm among aH public health units (Flores-Castro and Baer 1979). Furthermore, tradition in many western countries indícates that polynomial names given to persons or to living things have a tendency to disappear in favour of (linnaean) binomial nomenclature. Therefore, just as one of the precursors of evolutionism, the "Conde Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon" is simply known as "Buffon", sooner or later "Brucella melitensis, biovar abortus, biotype 1", will probably be
High altitude Andean forests (3000–5200 m, Kessler 2006) harbor diversity and very high rates of endemic species of flora and fauna (Fjeldså & Kessler 2004). In the last decade, several new records have been made for the Epidendrum genus throughout the Andes as more areas that were not previously well- explored are being examined, thus demonstrating that the Epidendrum genus possesses much greater diversity than previously estimated. This article describes and illustrates a new species for the Department of Junín of Peru.
Abstract Oxidative stress is a common feature in most hepatopathies. Accumulating evidences indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce a number of functional changes either deleterious or adaptive in the capability of the hepatocytes to produce bile and to secrete exogenous and endogenous compounds. This review is aimed to describe the mechanisms involved in these changes. For this purpose, we will summarize:
new species differs from E. chrysozetetes in having much less toe webbing (toe webbing 4 IV 4 versus 3 1/3 IV 3 1/3 in the latter form), less expanded finger disks (disks little wider than digits versus about twice width of digits) and numerous tubercles on the dorsum (wrin- kled, nearly smooth dorsum in the latter species). The new form differs from the other Honduran forms with toe fringes in having the combination of an obtuse snout profile (round- ed to vertical in the other species) and the dor- sum wrinkled with widely spaced moderate- sized tubercles. In addition, unlike E. epochthidius, it has fringes on toes II-IV not on toes III-IV or only toe IV and the tympanum is evident but indistinct in the female type (hid- den in E. cruzi and E. stadelmani). E. myl- lomyllon is distinguished from E. trachyder- mus (features for the latter in parentheses) by having moderate, widely scattered tubercles on the dorsum (dense, large tubercles), a smooth, unflared upper lip (margin of lip rough and lip flared under the orbit) and the snout obtuse, in profile (truncate).
The jumping spider genus Wedoquella (fam- ily Salticidae) was created by Galiano (1984) and currently constitutes one of the least diverse of the twenty genera of its subtribe (Edwards 2015). Wedoquella comprises three known species that have a narrow distribution in South American (Metzner 2019; World Spider Catalog 2019). The species that constitute this genus have been stud- ied by Galiano for almost twenty years. The gen- eral appearance, the color pattern and the chaeto- taxy are very similar to those of Phiale C. L. Koch, 1846, and for some time, it was thought that they were other Phiale species (Galiano 1984).
Abstract: More new species, new combinations and new distributions are made in the large and difficult genus Elaphoglossum in Neotropic. Ten new species are described, this are: Elaphoglossum adrianae A. Rojas, E. betancuri A. Rojas, E. caridadae A. Rojas, E. glabromarginatum A. Rojas, E. kessleri A. Rojas, E. macdougalii A. Rojas, E. paramicola A. Rojas, E. paxense A. Rojas, E. pseudoherminieri A. Rojas and E. solomonii A. Rojas. Three species are combined, this are: Elaphoglossum beitelii (Mickel) A. Rojas, E. curvans (Kunze) A. Rojas and E. eutecnum (Mickel) A. Rojas. Finally, 86 species are reported from other countries and some species names are synonymized.
First we conclude, between strains in the dry state to the strains in the saturated state, the first one is always smaller. Consequently, these species are more suitable for bowing in the dry state than in the saturated state. Results shown do not confirm the hypothesis. It can be explained because green wood is different from wet or saturated wood. Even if the gravimetric water content in both cases is equivalent, green wood differs because it is freshly sawn wood and saturated wood can be old. According to (Ishimaru et al. 2001), it is known that wood conditioned from a dry state has higher elasticity and strength than wood conditioned from a water-saturated state with equal gravimetric water content. It means that some mechanical properties vary not only because of modifications of the gravimetric water content but also because of modifications of the cellulose chain during the adsorption and the desorption process.
The eastern Pacific species of Gobu - lus are readily distinguishable on coloration, meristics, and certain morphometrics. Although proportions often overlap, these change with size, and actual measurements provide complete separation of G. hancocki and G. crescentalis in eye size (Fig. 1). Hast- ings (1983) redescribed the Atlantic species G. myersi Ginsburg based on specimens from the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, Greater and Lesser Antilles and Venezuela. That species is most similar in eye size to G. cres - centalis, differing from that species in aver- aging fewer second dorsal (I,9-10) and anal rays (I,7-9) and pectoral rays (typically 15). Hastings also noted that several characters, including eye proportions decrease with increasing size. Minimal growth in eye size in eastern Pacific species studied, is apparent over a wide size range (0.9 to 2.6 mm over a size range of 14.0 to 68 mm SL in Gobulus crescentalis and a range of 0.63 to 0.89 mm over a size range of 14 to 28.3 mm SLin Gob - ulus hancocki.)
Abstract: A new rainforest species of Magnolia, from the eastern Selva Zoque of Chiapas, Mexico, is described and illustrated. Magnolia perezfarrerae belongs to section Talauma, subsection Talauma. It differs from M. equatorialis in having shorter leaf blades that are elliptic rather than lanceolate, longer petioles, and much shorter apices of the carpels. Unlike any published Mexi- can species of subsection Talauma, this new species presents a circumcissile dehiscence with abaxial portions of carpels detaching in large irregular and united many-carpelled masses, a trait shared with several Amazonian Magnolia. The fl owers are used and valued by the Zoque culture for medicinal purposes.
Abstract. Two new cave species of Proisotoma s. str. are described and illustrated: P. turikana sp. nov. from Venezuela, and P. santosorum sp. nov. from Mexico. A key for the identifi cation of the Neotropical species of Proisotoma sensu lato and some related genera (Ballistura, Folsomides, Guthriella, Isotoma, Mucrotoma, Varisotoma, and Scutisotoma) is included.
REMARKS : P. (A.) paucimaculata, although sharing much in common with both other species of Aulophallus, departs in the following characteristics of the subgenu:; as defined by ROSEN and BAILEY (24) : subdistal segments of right half of gonopodial ray 3 not developed into broad flat spines with pointed tips; series of asymmetrically paired serrae distally on ray 4p; subdistal seg· ments of right half of ray Sp forming long thin rectangles that are higher than long. A male specimen of P. retropinna collected near the type locality of P. paucimaculata also exhibits the fírst two of the three departures mentioned above, thus the species is more variable in these respects than was formerly indicated ( ROSEN and BAILEY, 24) . Table 2 compares four species of Poeciliopsis indud· ing all species of AlIlophallus on the basis of external characteristics; only P. elongata does not occur in Costa Rica (see also Fig. 6) .