and the sign ⊕ designates the special, dynamically probabilistic meaning of the sum described above. It implies that any measured quantity (16) is in- trinsically unstable and its current value will unpredictably change to another one, corresponding to another, randomly chosen realisation. Such kind of be- haviour is readily observed in nature and actually explains the living organism behaviour [1, 4, 5], but is avoided in unitary theory and usual technological (including ICT) systems, where it is correctly associated with linear “noncom- putability” and technical failure (we shall consider below that limiting regime of real system dynamics). Therefore, universal dynamic multivaluedness thus revealed by rigorous problem solution forms a fundamental basis for transi- tion to “bio-inspired” and “intelligent” kind of operation in artificial, especially ICT systems, where causal randomness can be transformed from an obstacle to qualitative advantage (Section 3).
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despite this rough picture of friction, Marx certainly shares the intuition of classical political economy that, at the expense of subsequent shocks and setbacks, these behaviours show regularities. Marx envisions a relationship between individual and collective behaviour, which is different from both methodological individualism -which imagines the global behaviors as the arithmetic sum of individual behaviors- or mechanical holism -in which individuals only execute a default role, external to them-. For him individuals have strategic behavior, they want to win, they attack and defend. It is the market interaction that imposes regularities through penalization of prices. Individuals perceive clearly the existence of these rules, but try to take advantage of them, evade and circumvent them. Sometimes they succeed in it, sometimes fail. This is the conceptual context of the notion of “dangerous leap” of realization that is so central to Marx. In more global terms one could say that this way of understanding the relationship between individual and the whole seems less similar to the relationship of particles and bodies in a fixed pattern of dependencies, typical of a Newtonian mechanical system -the formal reference of most thinkers of economic activity- and is closer to the relationship established in linguistic systems, between the individual speaker and the syntactic and lexical patterns that make up a language. Linguists and semioticians from the saussorian structuralist school (Saussure, / 2005) (Hjelmslev, 1943) posed this as the interplay between language and speech. The first is the fixed set of rules shared by all users of a language that is initially imposed on individual speakers: those who do not respect these conventions risk being misunderstood and communication could fail. But this subordination of the speaker to the collective rules is not absolute; there are margins that allow relative freedom to innovate: new words, new syntactic forms are introduced, which under certain circumstances are understood, and that eventually, can be generalized and absorbed by all. The speakers at the same time respecting the general rules sometimes take risks to innovate. Sometimes fail, but sometimes they are successful: comprehensive system eventually accepts the mutation and this is how languages change. Individual behavior must comply with collective rules, but their determination is far less absolute. This is much closer to the markets that a Newtonian mechanical system: agents are subject to the overall results of the interaction, but have the possibility of trying to introduce mutations in their behalf: sometimes they succeed, but sometimes they fail.
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In the specific case of Communication towards Equality, the first challenge we faced is that students initially do not see the relevance of being exposed to curricular content and learning process that they consider previously tackled. This is because during the first three years of their undergraduate training, students take courses that may seem to have already dealt with some issues related to equality such as Foundations of Communication Theory, Structure of Communication Systems, Contemporary Social Structure, Catalan for Communicators with a module on “linguistic sexism”, and, especially, Ethics and Professional Deontology. However, as the subject develops, students realize that the epistemological approach adopted in the module (based, as we said, on the combination of Communication with Cultural, Gender, and Peace and Development Studies traditions) constitutes a turning point in their learning process. Indeed, once students finish Communication towards Equality, they admit having changed their view over every single audiovisual product they come across. For instance, in the teaching appraisals students note: “It shouldn’t matter the sex of the person taking this test. This is what we have learned in this course”, “Friends are the siblings that we have been able to choose with equality” or “This content should be taught from primary and secondary school”. Moreover, the results of the appraisals offer a high level of satisfaction, the grades awarded to teachers being above 4.5/5 during the two academic years considered here.
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From the position under study, the special social and legal significance of the institution of juries in the administration of justice is revealed. The idea of the jury trial was initially to allow those local people who were members of the concerned community, and who knew the local customs to administer justice. It was precise as a means of defining local customs by the central authority that jury trials were first used in France, later in England. Jury trials should not be perceived as an elite club of people who possess sacred knowledge of the requirements of justice and personify it with their verdicts. Juries are members of the same community as the defendant. They are able to step into defendant's shoes, as well as he can step into their shoes. It is in this possibility of an empathic reaction that the purpose of the jury trial is hidden. At the same time, several types of such empathies are manifested in the justice process: juries between themselves, between juries and defendants, between juries and victims. In cases where empathy can be established between the victim and the defendant, the conflict can be resolved by an amicable agreement. The sense of justice of a court verdict arises from the fact that the defendant and the victim see their representatives in the jury, and accordingly, they take this verdict as if they themselves decided it.
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The MobiMOOC (see http://mobimooc.wikispaces.com/) was organized by Inge de Waard, running from 2 April to 14 May 2011, and she remained present throughout the duration of the course both as one of the facilitators and the overall coordinator. The six-week course focused on mLearning and used the MOOC format to deliver course resources and interact with all the participants. The course was free to anyone interested in the topic of mLearn- ing, placing it within the principles of open educational resources (OER), and after comple- tion of the course the content was made available via open source content platforms. The MobiMOOC lasted six weeks, and each week focused on a different aspect of mLearn- ing. Each week, a different mLearning expert facilitated the course. To ensure that par- ticipants were all on the same level, the course started with an introduction week on mLearning (facilitated by Inge de Waard), followed by mLearning planning (Judy Brown), mLearning for development (Niall Winters), leading edge innovations in mLearning (David Metcalf), interaction between mLearning and a mobile-connected society (John Traxler), and mLearning in K-12 (Andy Black). All the facilitators were guides on the side, each put- ting forward as many learning actions and follow-ups as they wanted because each was voluntarily engaged in the course.
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As Mattelart (Mattelart and Mattelart 1997, 75) explains, towards 1935, the Uni- versity of Cambridge republished an English text from the nineteenth century in which Matthew Andrew carried out a threefold division of the different types of culture, thereby distinguishing between the refined, the mediocre and the brute. Both Oxford and Cambridge were then, as in part today, the bastions of the aris- tocracy and British conservatism that had promoted industrial capitalism for cen- turies. However, there were also those who in the decade of the 1930s opposed the hierarchy of culture and understood that the model of economic development promoted by industrial capitalism and consumption had to be analyzed in depth, in a similar manner to the proposals of the Frankfurt School, with the ultimate aim of allowing individuals to survive the alienating work they were doomed in a con- sumer society dominated by a mass media which brutalized and enslaved them. Thus, from the mid-1930s to the 1960s, and from an educational and moral per- spective that almost took the form of cultural crusade in favor of the most disad- vantaged classes, some researchers , starting from textual analysis and literature in a similar way that semiotics proposed, began to analyze different forms of cul- tural production and attribution of meaning to socio-cultural values. This tradition would ultimately result in a pedagogical movement involving teachers who came from modest economies and who wanted to put in value the cultural tastes and ways of life of the working class, thereby overcoming elitist theories and the hier- archy of social classes.
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more the documentation of such tools is in many cases only rudimentary available for the user. Tools are often for proprietary reason closed to changes and redesign is very difficult. In this situation it seems to be desirable to develop a conceptual framework which allows the development of tools of better quality which are sup- ported by the available existing methods of mathematical systems theory. The such improved tools should be able to apply the results of the existing different fields of mathematical systems theory such as “linear systems theory” (the theory of ordinary linear differentialand difference equation systems with constant co- efficients together with the theory of linear automata) or the theory of finite state machines for practical design and analysis tasks. In the past such tools have been called “CAST-tools”, where CAST stands for “Computer Aided Systems Theory”. The term “CAST” was first introduced by the author together with Roberto Moreno Diaz in 1989 (EUROCAST’89, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Spain). CAST tools complement in microelectronic applications the tools for CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing ). A CAST tool can for short be characterized by the availability of model types of different kind together with the known existing transformations to relate such types to each other. Both have to be available in implemented form as compo- nents of a user friendly data base system. The problem solver is made able to use a CAST tool to develop in problem solving CAST algorithms by starting from a initial model of certain type followed by applying stepwise known model trans- formations until a solution is reached. A important feature of a CAST tool is that the different model types are hierarchically ordered such that the construction of CAST algorithms can be done top down.
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In section 2.1 six power theories were briefly described. They were developed in the frequency or in the time domain and they were instantaneous or periodic, but they all try to describe the phenomena described by Steinmetz . From those six, the first one to be developed was Budeanu’s power theory. Although it is the most accepted among engineers, it has also generated a lot of controversy, since it has an erroneous interpretation of energy phenomena in non-sinusoidal periodical circuits [18, 20]. Thus, in 2010 the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) derogated it from the standard IEEE 1459-2010, but it was added in this literature review because of its historical importance.
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However, such processes require particular forms of re-intermediation to develop new requirements and criteria regarding quality and public interest that are ac- knowledged and shared. They would be based on an effective alliance – achieved through original and innovative means – that would meet the requests and issues raised by watchful citizens, and this would allow critical awareness to reinvigorate civil society, and promote its functioning as a drive belt in the triangular model made up of the political, the media, and the voting systems. Such is what Rosanval- lon (2006) envisages through his conceptualisation of positive counter-democracy. In this way, the monitoring, controlling, vigilant, and critical citizens could put to good use the new intensities of listening dealt with in Couldry (2010), which force us all, and above all institutions “to take into account a rather enriched group of public cries … [which] … governments can no longer pretend they can- not not hear” (Couldry, 2013, 263).
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As Cordella (2007:194) remarks, the interaction between doctor and patient is based on unequal power relations, which may even be shown in the lexical choices made. This is what is reflected in British interactions, where the doctor clearly leads the interaction not only by asking questions and telling the patient what to do, but also through interactional strategies to show affiliation and empathy. In this sense, the data show how affiliation strategies are initiated by the doctor, who usually makes use of jokes, asks personal questions not necessarily related to the health problem and also takes the initiative to offer help at different points of the interaction. At the same time, the British patient usually adopts a more passive role by waiting for the doctor to lead and guide him/her in the interaction. In contrast, Spanish interactions are not so clearly structured and are not always characterized by the doctor leading the interaction. In fact, it is common to find situations where it is the patient who initiates the conversation and the doctor who just accepts the way the interaction is developed or negotiates what is going to be dealt with. It does not mean that there is no negotiation in British interactions; what it implies is, in fact, that there is more room for disagreement in Spanish interactions and therefore, the interactional work done to negotiate may imply more time and effort on the part of both participants. It will be shown that this is the result of more abstract, underlying cultural conceptualizations of the three bases of rapport specified by Spencer-Oatey (2000, 2008): face, rights and obligations and interactional goals.
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The fourth resilience property captures the adaptive capacity of the system, describing how vulnerable the system is, based on its capacity to reorganize its elements into a new form, which is less exposed to a given shock (Holling 2001). In ecosystems, adaptive capacity is characterized by the opportunities for innovation which arise after a disturbance. For socio-ecological systems, it refers to the capacity for learning and adaptation occurring within the sys- tem (Carpenter et al. 2001). In the case of livelihood systems, this can be understood as the opportunities to undertake new or differ- ent livelihood strategies (Fraser et al. 2005; Tincani 2012). In some studies of global change, the concept of adaptive capacity (Bohen- sky & Lynam 2005; Luers et al. 2003) is differentiated from the con- cept of adaptation. The latter is considered as inherent property of the system to deal with shock while the former often defined as the extent to which the expected vulnerability of the system that could be reduced due to coping and adaptation interventions. In this pa- per, we prefer to use the term «response capacity», referring to the amount of food income that a household could expand through various coping mechanisms during periods of shock.
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The situation is really appealing and thrilling. The sciences of complexity are an overly increasing field. The number of prestigious journals completely devoted to the issue is large and increasing, mainly in English. Several prestigious editing houses have created series or collections that pivot around the sciences of complexity. The number of international congresses, seminars and academic events are continuously organized around the world in which most of the scholars and researchers actively participate. Moreover, different Ph.D. programs and Master programs are being organized and developed in some of the most important universities around the world, and the number increase year by year. Truly robust networks are being created that engage young and older scholars, scientists and researchers around some the key problems that define the sciences of complexity. The most important universities around the world have an institute or a center devoted to the field and issue. Without any doubt there is positively advance in punctual aspects of complexity science.
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(like  for InfiniBand and  for Myrinet). Since most existing device drivers assume a complete control of the device, there cannot be multiple instantiations of such drivers in different guests. To ensure manageability and safe access, Xen follows a split driver model . Domain 0 is a privileged guest that accesses I/O devices directly and provides the VMs abstractions to interface with the hardware. In fact, dom0 hosts a backend driver that com- municates with the native driver and the device. Guest VM kernels host a frontend driver, exposing a generic API to guest users. Guest VMs need to pass the I/O requests to the driver domain to access the devices, and this control transfer between domains requires involvement of the VMM. Therefore, Xen networking is completely virtual- ized. A series of virtual Ethernet devices are created on the host system which ultimately function as the endpoints of network interfaces in the guests. The guest sees its end- points as standard Ethernet devices, and bridging is used on the host to allow all guests to appear as individual servers. PCI passthrough  is a technique that provides an isolation of devices to a given guest operating system so the device can be used exclusively by that guest, which eventually achieves near-native performance. Thus, this approach benefits network-bounded applications (e.g., HPC applications) that have not adopted virtualization because of contention and performance degradation through the hypervisor (to a driver in the hypervisor or through the hypervisor to a user space emulation). However, assigning devices to specific guests is also useful when those devices cannot be shared. For example, if a system included mul- tiple video adapters, those adapters could be passed through to unique guest domains.
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technologies to control applications is expected to provide advantages in control applications, such as increasing the flexibility, reducing the wiring or getting information for sensors that are difficult to connect (e.g. those located in moveable devices). However, wireless communications are still under scrutiny since there are several challenges that must be solved. These challenges involve: (1) reliability, i.e. limiting message delays and lowering message dropouts; (2) finding the optimal sampling period, since it may affect the behavior of the control systems, having influence at the stability; (3) feeding power to the wireless devices. So, this work aims at analyzing the benefits and drawbacks of using wireless technologies in control applications.
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These questions could be analyzed using various theoretical frameworks, such as participatory communication and participatory media, participatory learning, and uses and gratification theory. While participatory communication, participatory media, and participatory learning can be used to argue for the need of the radio, the uses and gratification theory, that explains users make active choices in media consumption, can provide a foundation for want for radio among students. Given that media consumers have different needs and often have different expectations from the media content, and interpret media messages differently, a theoretically oriented study about the needs and expectations of the target audiences can offer a significant context and insight into the educational role that college based online radio at Sur College can fulfill. Also, a great number of studies on participatory approaches to learning and media usage advocate the need for action and participation oriented learning while employing media aids. Hence, asking questions to the student about the need and want for the radio and the type of content they prefer on college radio would help pinpoint the subtleties of the localized media consumption and need. A detailed review of these theories is sketched out in the ensuing section.
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Finally, we leave open a question: Is LTE the next trend in mobile communications for rail- ways? Some aspects are favorable to this idea (the 3GPP LTE group has put the focus on railways and also on public safety; LTE has received some attention from the railway environment, etc.) but today it is still a promising technology, not a reali- ty (few metro lines around the world have an LTE train-to-ground radio). Of course, other options are possible, like the future 5G standard, a cognitive radio system or even a technologically neutral o n e A recent ERA report  provides insight on the current situation and future oppor- tunities for operational services. Also the recently launched European project Roll2Rail will provide some outputs in this direction.
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Bamboo performs lookups in OlogN hops, while the leaf set allows forward process in the case that the routing table is incomplete. Moreover, the leaf set adds a great deal of static resilience to the geometry; Gummadi et al show that with a leaf set of 16 nodes, even after a random 30% of the links are broken there are still connected paths between all node pairs in a network of 65536 nodes. This resilience is important in handling failures in general and churn in particular, and was the reason Pastry geometry was chosen for use in bamboo. Bamboo performs lookup recursively. Bamboo has two recovery methods to a node failure: Reactive recovery and periodic recovery. In the reactive recovery, when the neighbours of a node fail, it will broadcast its updated routing and leafsets to all of its k - 1 neighbours. This action may cause network overload in situations when all the nodes detect the failure at the same time and send their tables to each other, or when a node has not really failed but the keep-alive messages were delayed. On the other hand, in the periodic recover, a node is sharing periodically its leafset with each of the members of that set, independently of whether the node detects changes in its leaf set or not.
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Online platforms do not necessarily put an end to stereotypes, but they can be useful tools to establish collaborative relationships. The paper written by Gómez- Zará, Andreoli, DeChurch and Contractor explores the ways in which professionals find collaborators using team-building systems. Based on theories about teams and human and social capital (Granovetter, 1977), and through network analysis, the authors examine how individuals and their social networks influence team-building processes among university professors in Argentina. They find that, although professors initially tended to invite known contacts, they eventually formed interdisciplinary and cohesive teams with strangers. However, most of the links began in a small group of participants, suggesting that certain characteristics of social actors –such as personality and openness to collaboration– are still crucial to establish collaborative relationships in online platforms.
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The example of ADHD illustrates how behaviour and subjectivity can be understood in terms of individual self-regulation capabilities and failures framed by the ideal of auton- omy. But it also shows, in conjunction with the conceptualizations about autonomy in the previous sections, that the biological explanation of self-regulation practices and the discursive construction of individual reality, are two incommensurable perspectives on the problem of ‘ determination ’ (the idea of autonomy). The ADHD debate is shaped by tension and complicity between constructivist and systemic co-productions of culture as the ‘ post-biological ’ organization of social practices, and of nature as the ‘ pre- social ’ individuality of living subjects. The idea of autonomy underpins both the structur- alist critique of self-regulation biopolitics and the neurological foundation of self-regu- lation orthopedy and pedagogy, reinstantiating and multiplying the Kantian separation (determination) of knowledge and existence. Implications of this deep and problematic influence are not only theoretical. Our discussion on autonomy and self-regulation directs the attention to the effects of the production of a biological subject within the social sciences, psychology and education to explain failures and slippages when the expectation is regularity and performance. The weight given to biological explanations maintains the idea that ‘ normal seems prior to abnormal ’ (Rose & Abi-Rached, 2013, p. 204). Autonomy and self-regulation may work as critical milestones to justify the biopo- litical project to produce the ideal subject, much beyond the remit of the ADHD debate.
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Major stakeholder groups will exhibit their own and unique set of information needs and communication channel preferences; no one-fits-all approach or system is expected. It is therefore not surprising that agricultural extension analysts are acknowledging that different groups will need specific advice systems that respond to their unique predicament (Alex et al., 2002; Rivera, 2001). For those groups that are not able to link to markets, privatized agricultural advice systems may be of limited relevance in terms of productivity increases. In other cases they may be relevant in terms of reducing the costs of production for self-consumption. Beyond those groups that are not closely linked to markets, will also lie those whose livelihood depends on having access to forests and grasslands under open access regimes. In these cases they will be engaged in natural resource management strategies at another level of analysis (larger landscape areas), one where once again privatized agronomic services will not be of relevance. This third group will need methodologies for collaborative management and other approaches that respond specifically to their needs (Borrini-Feyerabend et al., 2000; Borrini-Feyerabend, 1996).
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