Environmental education is comprehensively analyzed in Spain and all over the world. In Spain, some studies analyze the initial background ofsecondary education professors , others detect the beliefs and limitations of primary school teachers regarding environmental education as a critical point to be implemented inthe syllabus  or the evolution on the teacher’s work, method and background over time . Some studies focused on the students and their knowledge of nature such as the study proposed by Jaén and Barbudo  where they studied the evolution or changes inthe perceptions regarding the environment in an academic year based on the ENV scale—which measures the environmental perceptions, both in attitude and behavior, as proposed by Bogner and Wilhelm in 1996 —where no differences were detected; other work studies the evolution inthe students’ attitudes towards the environment as a result of working on a monographic assignment . Other work compares the different strategies in order to have a wide view of socio-scientific issues (SSI) in science education  and others study the decision making in sustainable development and improves the strategies for decision making . Some studies analyze theteaching model and suggest a proposal for environmental education , whereas other works compile different strategies for environmental education  and other studies examine the motivation of students—from 14 to 16 years of age—to learn science and how the Advanced Placement Program (AP) and collaborative-learning science can change the student’s motivation to do so . In addition, other documents analyzed include the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reports, where the attitudes and responsibility ofthe teenagers towards the environment were tested (Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico [OECD], [28,29], as well as others where the data ofthe PISA reports were used in order to quantify the engagement in science of 15-year-olds .
One important point to comment is that effective teachersin large classes search opportunities to have interaction with individual students. This interaction offers positive outcomes; for example, simple words of encouragement or upbeat small talk can set a positive tone for students entering a classroom. Regarding students, some of them in large classes prefer to be inthe anonymity and be ignored; they take a more passive role and they are less likely to participate in class, hoping that their lack of involvement will go unnoticed. In fact, some students in large classes, where they feel relatively unnoticed, may behave in ways that they would not do in smaller classes.
In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups inthe classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important in students when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
teachers develop their own style ofteaching according to their personality. Gower & Walters (1995) give some practical advice to follow when referring to instructions. They suggest to primary create a center of attention inthe student to make sure everyone is listening and watching, to employ simple language and short expressions, and to use language at a lower level than the language being taught. Furthermore, teachers should use visual or written clues whenever possible utilizing real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. Making demonstrations if possible, illustrating what to do; break down instructions if the activity requires a series of procedures, provide simple commands in sections and check for understanding, rather than giving out all instructions at the start ofthe activity. It is also a good idea to target instructions inthe sense of explaining the content only to the students who need it, instead of giving complete directions to the class as a whole. In addition, discipline is a very important issue inthe classroom. It depends on a number of factors such as: age of students; evidently children require more discipline than adults. Usually young teenagers are considered to be the most complex when it comes to classroom control. Discipline is intimately related to the causes for learning and student motivation whether they are forced to be in class or whether they are there voluntarily. Class size plays an important role, as it is more difficult to keep an orderly atmosphere in a large class than in a smaller one.
There are many recommendations to work with activities in large classes. Baker & Westrup (2003) suggest beginning the process dividing a large class, for example a class of 150 students, divide into small groups of three to five students then, select research ideas from a list of 13 topics, after choosing a topic for each group, then subdivide the assignment among the members. Finally, the students organize their individual work into a draft of a research paper. The same authors suggest use methodologies such as, case studies, supply information, assign problems, etc. many teachers could employ such things as video, scenarios. Newspapers, which help students, apply difficult concepts to real world problems, and work better in large classes
works reconstruct the way language is spoken in certain geopolitical context.” (Riwes Cruz 2010, 3). Nevertheless, Riwes Cruz continues by saying that literature is an aesthetic form of culture, and that it is not a direct recreation of conversations between people from the same place in a given moment of time. However, literature is considered a direct and good source of information to learn a language because of its richness of lexical and syntactical structures from the setting the novel is placed. Moreover, surely learning language through a literary text, leaving rhetorical figures apart, “their writing skill improve and their speech skill can gain eloquence” and regarding the vocabulary “looking up for words, however, is quickly followed by looking up cultural references and this process leads to cultural enrichment” (Riwes Cruz 2010, 4). They learn about the place by visualising the landscape and the settings described by the author inthe text they are reading. Literary texts can also be listened, and in part, listening to them is even more beneficial for the speaking skill, as students acquire the tone and right pronunciation of words and phrases. One ofthe major problems Romance language speakers may face is the accomplishment ofthe right English intonation, with its proper rises and fallings that make one sound native English. For this reason, teachers usually recommend watching films and TV series in English to acquire it, as well as to improve their listening understanding. This way, by only listening to literary texts, learners are able to imagine what is being described, acquiring the intonation used for story tellers, or the characters that speak inthe recording. Regarding the English variation used, students also learn to identify the precedence ofthe speaker by only listening to him or her if the lexical items cannot serve as evidence. Consequently, they cannot only distinguish between British and American English, which are the most frequently listened, but also between Australian and Scottish English, for example. As for African English, which can be read in novels written by postcolonial authors, students might not understand it with the first reading or listening, but they certainly get to understand that English by imagining the sounds proper ofthe African language used with the variety of English spoken in that country.
The second point that Scrivener (1994, p.54, 55) has taken into account is the time that the teacher has to distribute in class. He suggests using timetables; this instrument helps “to understand what work is being done in your class.” Therefore, a time table has advantages that give students a whole idea about what will happen in a classroom. It shows a clear idea ofthe lesson plan to other teachers, and also a time table is like a „skeleton‟ because, it has details and specific information about activities, minutes, days, materials and processes which will be applied in class.
One of these methods is Grammar Translation Method that has been used by language teachers for many years. It was thought that, through the study ofthe grammar ofthe target language, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language and that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. Students study grammar deductively; that is, they are provided the grammar rules and examples, are commanded to memorize them, and then are requested to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations and memorize native-language equivalents for target-language vocabulary words (Larsen, 2000).
BENEM?RITA UNIVERSIDAD AUT?NOMA DE PUEBLA FACULTAD DE LENGUAS Facultad de Lenguas MEXICAN ENGLISH TEACHERS? NARRATIVES ABOUT THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS A THESIS SUBMITED TO THE[.]
In those days, there were cases of English teachers who had very low levels of English proficiency, also students were not given government textbooks, which made their English learning even more difficult, as they had to manage to get those books on their own, as many students don’t have any support on the part of their parents due to the poor economic situation our country was in then.
Some ofthe reasons that teachers gave for having a preference for small classes were that this allows them working with the students individually and in a personalized way, giving feedback, correcting errors, and motivating them. Other important reasons given were that with smaller numbers it is possible to carry out certain types of group activities and some oftheteachers simply stated that this allowed them to teach better. This information given was corroborated inthe classes that were observed because in small classes it was easier to control discipline, assess the students, and give them feedback individually. On the contrary, inthe classes with big number of students occurred the opposite just as Hayes (1997) states that English teachers think that large classes hinder them from teaching efficiently
As it can be seen inthe graph 12, all theteachers (100%) answered that they have 31 or more students in their classes. During the observations, it was possible to notice that in some courses, there were more than 40 students, being classes too crowded to teach successfully, and being difficult for teachers to walk around the classrooms to check student s‟ work. Besides, it was observed that theteachers had to speak aloud to get the students attention, and in some cases, it was necessary to repeat the instructions wasting time; this was because the students who were sitting at the back ofthe classroom could not clearly listen to the teacher.
The findings ofthe statement number 4 are consistent with the recommendations of Hammer (2007) and Woodward (2001) about using group activities in overcrowded classrooms. Furthermore, the educators must have followed some ofthe tips specified by Woodward (2001) in order to implement tasks that require more than one pupil, for example, theteachers might have carried out interesting tasks, gave clear instructions to the students, indicated the usefulness ofthe activities, among others. Consequently, the class size did not influence on the situation investigated through the fourth question.
- Por otro lado, se reunió a un grupo de cuatro profesores ex- pertos en el modelo de currículo basado en competencias. Estos profesores tenían más de 15 años de docencia e in- vestigación en el ámbito de la didáctica. Se desarrolló una investigación de corte cualitativo con estos expertos. Se utilizó la técnica Delphi. Los objetivos de estas dos fases fueron tres: a) realizar una revisión crítica de la literatura científica, buscando las limitaciones o carencias en el ámbi- to de estudio; b) aportar evidencias de validez de contenido tanto a la escala como a los ítems que la componen; y, por último c) establecer unos criterios que permitan analizar la capacidad discriminativa de la escala. A cada uno de los ex- pertos se les pidió que valoraran de uno a cinco cada uno de los ítems en relación a los aspectos de representatividad respecto al factor al que pertenece y precisión en el len- guaje utilizado. También se les solicitó que justificaran las valoraciones de los ítems que consideraran oportunos, así como una valoración global del cuestionario. Atendiendo a las aportaciones de los expertos se reelaboró el cuestionario, que fue enviado nuevamente a los expertos para una segunda evaluación. Tras la misma, se calculó el coeficiente de co- rrelación inter-clase, resultando para todas las dimensiones del cuestionario un alfa de Cronbach igual o superior a .87. - Para comprobar el ajuste de los datos al modelo se realizó un
Workshop II “English Language Teachingin Primary Level II”, is designed for theteachersofSecondary Education with English specialty, in order to be used, inthe use of new actual technologies inthe English Language Teaching and in different subjects of Primary Level, besides, they will analyze software to comprehend the importance ofthe game in children of Primary Level and how they learn different contents ofthe program with ludic activities.
The results ofthe latest Teaching and Learning International Survey (OECD, 2014) also refl ect this situation. A platform to defi ne and review educational policies, this survey examines certain indicators relating to education, including an assessment ofthe school climate. The report’s fi ndings reveal that disruptive behaviour is one ofteachers’ main concerns. In it, one in three teachers reported having more than 10% of students with behavioural problems in their classes. Furthermore, there are clear differences among countries - in Norway and Japan, approximately 10% ofteachers reported having 10% of disruptive students, while in Brazil and Spain, this number reached 60% and approximately 30% ofteachers, respectively (OECD, 2015). Further proof of this concern is the latest report issued by the Spanish Ombudsman (Defensor del Pueblo, 2007), which indicates that the main problem for teachers is when a student’s behaviour hinders their ability to teach. Numerous studies confi rm this perception (Busquets, Martín, Rosselló, & Sáez, 2010; Díaz-Aguado & Martínez, 2013; Díaz-Aguado, Martínez, & Martín, 2010; Simón, Gómez, & Alonso-Tapia, 2013; Urbina, Simón, & Echeita, 2011) and a substantial number ofteachers cite behavioural problems as one ofthe most serious obstacles to teaching (Álvarez-Hernández, Castro-Pañeda, Campo-Mon, & Álvarez-Martino, 2005; Álvarez-Martino, Álvarez-Hernández, Castro-Pañeda, Campo-Mon, & Fueyo-Gutiérrez, 2008).
Harfit (2012 ) conducted a study to examine whether, and how, class size reduction might help to alleviate language learning anxiety, which has long been seen as an obstacle to second language acquisition. Inthe study the researcher use mainly questionnaires , class observations and interviews, this study employed multiple case studies in four Hong Kong secondaryschools. Each case constituted one teacher teaching English language to first language Chinese students in a reduced-size class (where class size was between 21 and 25 students) and a large class (where class size was between 38 and 41 students) ofthe same year grade, and of similar academic ability. In conclusion this study suggests that the student voice can provide insights into language learning classrooms. Data from the case studies reveal that students‟ sense of anxiety can be reduced in smaller classes and that class
Language assistant activities, regulated inthe Orders EDU/1134/2011 and EDU/277/2014, include fostering oral conversation inthe target language, offering models of pronunciation and grammar, assisting the teacher inthe production of didactic resources and bringing into the classroom cultural aspects about the countries where the foreign language is spoken. Apart from the scant number of language assistants, our data show that their presence is far from being optimized (this dimension has a mean of 2.50, n=32, Sd. 0.43), as their main function is perceived almost exclusively as a source of native language input inthe classroom (4.20), more marked inthe area of oracy (3.80) than in that of literacy (3.14). They also reveal a very scarce use ofthe language assistant in other teaching areas: teaching materials design (1.91), use of ICT (2.09) or locating resources (2.24). The document provided by the educational authority as a Guide for Language assistants (Consejería de Educación, 2013) is an attempt to cater for those aspects included inthe above-mentioned orders. Besides some basic information about the Spanish educational system and practical orientation on bank accounts, health assistance and lodging, it also includes some ideas for the foreign language classroom mainly regarding the exploitation of authentic materials.
Additionally, at the end ofthe class, one student, randomly selected; had to answer a questionnaire, written in Spanish to avoid misperception. The questionnaire inquired questions about how students perceives the English subject, the activities done by theteachers, how they feel about the high school and their classrooms facilities. Inthe same way, teachers filled out a questionnaire that included twenty questions about own teacher´s education level, the student´s needs, methods, planning, instructions, feedback, timing, and also aspects that related to the educational institution. A personal interview was done, orally, to each teacher in order to identify, their level of acquisition; this survey was made