Teaching in English Language

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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, research carried out at “Colegio Nacional Calderón”, “Colegio Nacional Luxemburgo”, “Colegio Nacional Técnico Nicolás Jiménez”, “Colegio Helena Cortés Be

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, research carried out at “Colegio Nacional Calderón”, “Colegio Nacional Luxemburgo”, “Colegio Nacional Técnico Nicolás Jiménez”, “Colegio Helena Cortés Be

This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Other reason that can be taken into account is that teachers do not have creativity or willingness to arrange seats in a different way. However, according to Gower, Phillips & Walters (2005) there are many ways to organize seats depending on activities. It is necessary to say that the majority used just whole group activities without practicing pair and group work which are considered as an opportunity for students to communicate with each other (Lewis & Hill 1985). Gower, Phillips & Walters (2005) showed a variety of ways to organize classroom including whole group activities, as showed in annex 8 some of them; and its advantages had already being explained in the previous page. These ways can be used by teachers working with this type of activity to create a different enjoyable environment for learning. According to Sari Ç oban (2006), seating arrangement is an important physical factor
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

lessons, whereas just one educator answered negatively. According to the educators whose answers were positive, it was mentioned in the investigation that they consider these aspects because they are part of the teaching process and are necessary to help the students learn English better and stimulate them to pay attention to their tasks. Contrasting the teacher’s answers and the class observation, it was possible to determine that all the teachers considered discipline, but only the 80% of them took into consideration feedback, and just the 67% of educators considered instructions as well as timing, which does not coincides completely. The way how the teachers considered these four aspects are mentioned in the information related to the learners’ survey in the next paragraphs below.
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:Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

:Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

education is the growing use of extra devices by which educators establish and connect accuracy concepts, and understanding. Among the many devices available for teachers, there are visual aids. The most common form is real objects, or better known as realia, pictures or photographs, maps, diagrams. Investigators suggested that in teaching we ought to appeal to the mind generally through the visual and hearing sense organs, because researchers believe that possibly the 85 percent of learning is captivated by these senses. But not all public schools are privileged to have access to these devices. This may vary according to the institution, location and perhaps even the quantity and type of resources available to teacher. It has been point out that in some poor areas, teachers have to improvise and create their own home made resources in order to continue teaching. And if the teacher’s budget is limited, he or she can always rely on tools, such as the dictionary which is a very accessible tool. The black board is an additional piece of equipment that teachers may use, even though they might feel that is standard piece of equipment, (Wood, 2011).
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TítuloCorpora and the teaching of languages and linguistics

TítuloCorpora and the teaching of languages and linguistics

Thus, a number of scholars working in the field of teaching English as a Foreign Language have used corpus data to look critically at existing language teaching materials Kennedy 1992, M[r]

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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

From the study, 9 teachers agreed that a class with10 to 15 students is appropriate for effective English teaching. This number represents 60 % of the total. Then, 5 teachers said a classroom with 16 to 25 students is appropriate; this figure accounts for the 33 % of the total. After that, 1 teacher said that the appropriate number of students is from26 to 30 representing 7 % of the total. There was no teacher claiming more than 31 students is acceptable to have a successful English lesson. Woodward (2011), establishes that large classrooms pose several problems like the noise, and too many students restricted to a small area as well as not having enough time to provide them with correct feedback assessment or any individual attention. These are good reasons to consider why most observed teachers agreed on having fewer than 16 students in a classroom. Nevertheless, there is a reasonably large group of the observed teachers who claim a larger number is appropriate instead. The reason is because although the number is high, there are ways to counter-
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English clubs’ absenteeism in the bachelor in english language teaching program at Uniminuto

English clubs’ absenteeism in the bachelor in english language teaching program at Uniminuto

We took a sample of 80 students from the last semesters of the Bachelor in English Language Teaching program at UNIMINUTO. There were applied 3 types of instruments to this group of students. There were taken students from the last semesters (sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth), twenty students per each semester. The sampling was mainly integrated by women, in this way, 75% from it was made up of women and the remaining 25% by men. They were from 19 to 35 years old. Students of this program usually come from low income families and according to an English test that applied by the program, most of the students have not reached the required English level, for that reason they need to strengthen and improve their English skills taken into consideration they are going to be teachers with a high proficiency in the target language.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Regarding the results above, before explaining the results of observations did in the observed classes it is important to describe characteristics of some of the methods that teachers indicated to use in class. Nunan (1999) refers to the Task-Based language teaching (TBL) as an approach that focuses more in the use of language to explain different tasks rather than teach the linguistics features. In the observed classes, teachers assigned tasks to students such as completing charts, filling in the blanks, read texts and discuss answers, etc. However, teachers neither used English to explain the tasks nor students used the language to develop the activities; both used the Spanish language. About the Natural Approach, Richards & Rodgers (2001) remark that exposure to the target language and the amount of input received by learners is an important issue in this approach. Students in the observed classes did not receive appropriate language input because their teachers spoke in Spanish and only read instructions and pronounce vocabulary using the English language.
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The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

Before this research on field initiated, a profound literature review took place. To start with, some of the teaching approaches and methods related to the teaching of a foreign language were investigated to have a framework for the note-taking planned for later on. Then, the literature check focused on aspects like what the main concerns about class size are, how to manage learning in these conditions, the ways to run large classes, the kind of activities for working with this type of groups, classroom space and seating arrangement and the influence of different levels of proficiency in numerous classes. All these topics were selected because they are closely related to the matter of this study, and were used to interpret the results of the questionnaires.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

In the Audio-lingual Method, Díaz-Rico & Weed (1995) observe the use of this method in the decades from 1930 to 1970. It focuses on communicative skills, which were developed through the listening of particular sound patterns and the repetition of them acquire a correct pronunciation and the understanding of second language. This methodology was developed taking into account the way kids acquired their first language; they were taught to learn their mother tongue as a process of habit formation. This method used ordered structures in dialogues that created pattern, which turned into habits. The weakness of this method was the lack of creativity at the moment of talking since patterned drills were used. It is important to say that this method is used to teach idioms and greetings that are normally patterned. Similar observations are the ones from Richards & Rodgers (2001) who stated that the Audio-lingual method or Audiolingualism primary objective was to reach oral proficiency, leaving a second role for the study of grammar or with a little grammatical explanation however, the number of classes also limited of ten or less are considered optimal. In this method many procedures are repeated such as hear a model dialogue containing key structures that are the focus of the lesson. Pattern drills dialogues are taught to be memorized by students, expecting them to minimize mistakes production.
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La influencia de las clases numerosas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios de Ecuador

La influencia de las clases numerosas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios de Ecuador

This research “The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school in the city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
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he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

30 The seating arrangement is decisive in the process of learning because it helps students to move easily in the classroom. In this study for 44,02%, who answered “agree”, the seating arrangement is satisfactory because it is characterized by good arrangement of the chairs in Italian high schools. Also, 29,10% “totally agree” show that the seating arrangement facilitates the tasks carried out in class. Meanwhile, for 10,44%, whose answers are “partially agree” do not consider seating arrangement a great problem because their answers are somewhat satisfactory and 16,41% express that the seating arrangement does not facilitate tasks that are carried out in class because their answers are unsatisfactory. The importance of seating arrangement was studied by Svinicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002), who state that it is the position how students are sat in the classroom and it has two alternatives: to facilitate the learning process or make it more difficult. They mention that the seating arrangement can be different from one culture to another. For researchers above mentioned, the “café style” is an optimal example of seating arrangement because students are placed in a comfortable position around the desks.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

One classic idea that allows large classes to flourish are activities that are centered around pair or pair work. Lewis and Bedson (1999) consider that to control a large class is one of the hardest tasks facing even the most experienced teacher. It is a simple fact of teaching life that the large the group, the more difficult it becomes to set up activities which promote active language use. The teacher can play some games with large classes, especially those based on total physical response, such as “line - ups”. “Simon Says”, but they tend to elicit passive responses to prompts.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Nowadays, the learning of English language is considered something very essential. It is used in almost all areas of knowledge and human development. Regrettably, most of the students of Ecuador that finish high-school recognize that they do not have a good level of English that will allow them to have an effective academic development. Consequently, students often lose a lot of opportunities such as jobs with better payment, trips, immersion programs, opportunities to improve their creativity and self-confidence to develop any work that involves English. For this reason, it is essential to do a research about the factors that affect the English language-teaching learning process, especially in Ecuadorian public high schools, in order to find out some practical alternatives that will help to the improvement of the students’ English level and to the teaching - learning process.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

The last study was created by Tong (2010). The objective of the study was to identify when junior secondary students are reticent and the why? Also, it searched the situations when students are participatory and the reasons, as well. The researcher adopted a longitudinal qualitative research. The participants were Hong Kong junior secondary English students whose attitudes were observed and recorder at different points of time. Also, they were interviewed and were part in conversations in order to infer their attitudes and thinking. The conclusions were that students at the beginning seemed to be passive and quiet due to the factors such as lack of confidence. However, they started being interested in improving their listening and speaking skills. Thus, the researcher found out that the student behavior is influenced by different factors.
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Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

According to Haycraf (1996) there are different aids for each specific purpose, for instance objects can be more evocative than pictures, on the other hand, some pictures can be more motivating than objects and it could be easily to handle; to make dialogues or situations the teacher can use wall chart with objects at the same time. Haycraf (1996) describes some teaching resources: objects that can be found in every place and in the classroom, there are hundreds of simple ones; drawing where the teacher draw simple objects on the board and students try to determine what was drawn. Using mimic, It could be useful to teach verbs or actions such as eating, drinking, jumping, tripping, etc; pictures can be found in magazines, newspapers, books, etc to teach specific vocabulary such as: kitchens, clothes, cars, inside and outside parts and so on; the blackboard provides a focal point of attention for the whole class, it is inexpensive, available and one of the most important visual aids; flash cards can be drawn or printed and they are used for consolidating vocabulary, practicing structure and word order or for a variety of games; wall charts are useful for practicing present continuous, prepositions, questions words as well as for drills. Wright (1976) added that wall charts illustrate aspects of a topic involving reading and writing.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Kral (1994) argues that time is very important for our lives but it is really important inside the classroom, because in the classroom we have different types of students and the different way how they apply the knowledge and time has an important role. Teachers must keep in mind the algorithm to be used, it means explain students the steps to follow in the class including the time assigned for each activity, also the class must include a warm-up, introduction to the topic, and all the steps considered in a lesson plan; besides this, students must have the time to copy the important information from the board at the end of the lesson, but ¨slower students¨ must have more time to copy the necessary information.
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Teachers and Students’ perceptions of teaching and learning English as a second language in small classes

Teachers and Students’ perceptions of teaching and learning English as a second language in small classes

However, the students in the HS-ESL classes are also a very diverse group. They are in a range of grades (9-12) and have different levels of English proficiency. All are adolescents with varying levels of maturity and biological and emotional development. They come from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds and therefore may not necessarily interact well socially, not to mention that certain ethnic barriers sometimes exist between persons of different nationalities. Consequently, their responses that they interact with classmates could mean that they work only with friends but never interact with non-friends, while others may be more open to interacting with any classmates. In fact, the teachers reported normal interactions between the students, but only among close friends, as is typical with adolescents. They also said that some students from Haiti, Vietnam, and China simply do not have any peers with whom to work. Therefore, these students were observed mostly working by themselves or as part of a mixed group. When they experienced difficulty, more advanced students were available to help them. For example, when the survey was distributed, the teacher asked three students to help them. According to Haynes (2007), since conversing with peers is an important way to improve English skills
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Nevertheless these advances, there are others aspects in the process of teaching English that have not even been considered. In addition, the low English level of graduate students attending universities demands for more investigation in this field. That was the motivation for researching the factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high school. The specific objectives were: (1) identify student´s English level and their needs in the classroom, (2) diagnose the classroom environment in which English lessons take place, (3) define the characteristics of in-service English teachers, (4) investigate institutional facilities and norms regarding quality education. The value of this research consists on discovering the situation of the teaching English language in high schools. Through the analysis from different perspectives: teacher, students, classrooms and institutions; this study has tried to meet how all these interrelated factors influence in the teaching.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

From 6 monitored institutions, 2 had smart board systems in the classrooms. It was surprising to find out that it was troublesome for some teachers to work with this powerful resource. Teachers felt that they did not have enough training to use this technology device. Some teachers appeared to be afraid of technology. It was difficult to face and to understand that teachers were provided with these sophisticated devices and even though they were not familiar to its operation so that they preferred to use material that was more familiar to them. This makes evident that teachers who are provided with this resources need to be trained so they can use technology properly and get the maximum benefit from this useful tools which enhance the students’ learning process.
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