teaching - learning the English language

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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, research carried out at “Colegio Nacional Calderón”, “Colegio Nacional Luxemburgo”, “Colegio Nacional Técnico Nicolás Jiménez”, “Colegio Helena Cortés Be

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, research carried out at “Colegio Nacional Calderón”, “Colegio Nacional Luxemburgo”, “Colegio Nacional Técnico Nicolás Jiménez”, “Colegio Helena Cortés Be

This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

English is one of the most spoken languages in the world. It is used in different environments such as businesses, education, organizations and traveling. That is why many people are learning English as a foreign or second language. However, when teachers do not use appropriate methods, techniques and materials, students may not learn it effectively. Thus, the main topic of this research has to do with the different factors that influence the teaching-learning of English as a foreign language. In order to develop this study, it is necessary to obtain theoretical support about themes related to this topic like the importance of teaching English in Ecuador, teaching methods, managing learning, lesson design, class size, classroom space, seating arrangement, teaching resources, classroom observation, learning styles and language aptitude. Also, there is information of previous studies which were carried out at different educational institutions referred to the factors affecting foreign language teaching and learning around the world.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Despite the fact that some methodologies suggest the translation as a strategy to teach something students find difficult to understand, teachers must speak most of the time English. If students don`t understand a word they must find the way to teach them, maybe using pictures, or mime, or real objects, or an English-English dictionary, but never translating, in this way students learn the language in a better way. As Brown (2000) reports about the Total Physical Response method, children acquire their mother tongue listening to the people around them and speaking when ready, that is why students should be taught in the target language.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

It is also important to consider that through the interview applied to teachers, their English proficiency level was verified according to the standards provided by CEFR (Common European framework of reference). Six out of the fifteen teachers interviewed have C2 English language proficiency level; 4 teachers have C1English level; 3 teachers have B2 English level, and only two teachers have B1 English level. In this sense, the teachers who have B1were not able to interact with students using appropriate language fluency. Moreover, the teachers switched to Spanish sometimes during the interview because they did not understand the questions appropriately. This means that teachers have basic skills for interacting with others and they cannot use English for social and academic purposes. Therefore, it affects students´
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Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

According to Haycraf (1996) there are different aids for each specific purpose, for instance objects can be more evocative than pictures, on the other hand, some pictures can be more motivating than objects and it could be easily to handle; to make dialogues or situations the teacher can use wall chart with objects at the same time. Haycraf (1996) describes some teaching resources: objects that can be found in every place and in the classroom, there are hundreds of simple ones; drawing where the teacher draw simple objects on the board and students try to determine what was drawn. Using mimic, It could be useful to teach verbs or actions such as eating, drinking, jumping, tripping, etc; pictures can be found in magazines, newspapers, books, etc to teach specific vocabulary such as: kitchens, clothes, cars, inside and outside parts and so on; the blackboard provides a focal point of attention for the whole class, it is inexpensive, available and one of the most important visual aids; flash cards can be drawn or printed and they are used for consolidating vocabulary, practicing structure and word order or for a variety of games; wall charts are useful for practicing present continuous, prepositions, questions words as well as for drills. Wright (1976) added that wall charts illustrate aspects of a topic involving reading and writing.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Nowadays, the learning of English language is considered something very essential. It is used in almost all areas of knowledge and human development. Regrettably, most of the students of Ecuador that finish high-school recognize that they do not have a good level of English that will allow them to have an effective academic development. Consequently, students often lose a lot of opportunities such as jobs with better payment, trips, immersion programs, opportunities to improve their creativity and self-confidence to develop any work that involves English. For this reason, it is essential to do a research about the factors that affect the English language-teaching learning process, especially in Ecuadorian public high schools, in order to find out some practical alternatives that will help to the improvement of the students’ English level and to the teaching - learning process.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Feedback about the task is more effective when it clarifies misconceptions rather than adding more information about the assignment but the disadvantage is that it is only used in one task at a time. Feedback about the processing of the task guide students to do the activity; it is necessary that students assume roles to complete the given assignment. In Feedback about self-regulation, students are responsible for their own learning. Main problem is that this type of feedback is effective with learners that demonstrate and internal disposition to require more information in order to complete the task. Finally, feedback about the person shows several disadvantages because, as the author explains, it is not focused on the learning process. In addition, the use of this type of feedback tend to create a false believe on students that intelligence is a fixed
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

mental and physical. Likewise, Lightbown and Spada (2006), state that coordination and action play an important role in this approach. There is a link between the method and the theory of memory that claims that something is better recalled when there is more memory association involved. The main objective of the approach is to teach oral proficiency. This skill should enable the student be able to understand and thus, comprehension should lead to effective engagement in communication with native speakers who will be able to understand the language conveyed. Lightbown and Spada (2006), also explain that to achieve this, a series of instructions are given to the students who will respond as individuals or as members of a group. This imperative-based activity is always set by the teacher who creates the context and gives the orders to students to follow the commands supposedly recognized by them.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

From 6 monitored institutions, 2 had smart board systems in the classrooms. It was surprising to find out that it was troublesome for some teachers to work with this powerful resource. Teachers felt that they did not have enough training to use this technology device. Some teachers appeared to be afraid of technology. It was difficult to face and to understand that teachers were provided with these sophisticated devices and even though they were not familiar to its operation so that they preferred to use material that was more familiar to them. This makes evident that teachers who are provided with this resources need to be trained so they can use technology properly and get the maximum benefit from this useful tools which enhance the students’ learning process.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Harmer (2007, p.175) designed a structure that he called “technology pyramid” with the purpose of classifying all the appropriate audio-visual devices for teaching and learning English. On the top of this pyramid are included the resources considered as educational technology such as: fixed data projectors, interactive whiteboards, computers, the Internet. The next scale is formed by traditional material like whiteboard, overhead projector (OHP), tape recorder, blackboard and exercises books. At the bottom of the pyramid there are not resources related to educational technology or other learning aids. There are hardly any boards and books. However, Harmer believes that even with minimal aids learning is possible if the teacher use creativity.
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The influence of large classes in the English language Teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high school, estudio realizado en el colegío fiscal ¨Francisco Campos Coello¨, canton Guayaquil, provincia del Guayas, en el año lectivo 2013 2014

The influence of large classes in the English language Teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high school, estudio realizado en el colegío fiscal ¨Francisco Campos Coello¨, canton Guayaquil, provincia del Guayas, en el año lectivo 2013 2014

The results showed clear evidence that the instructional effects have the highest mean over the social and psychological effects, when students came late to the class, they found difficult to seat in the front row, this would affect their learning. Another was the lack of space, and students felt that their teachers neglected the practical skills doe to their inability to control the class, on which classroom interaction was neglected, too. However, it appeared that despite the negative aspects of learning English in large classes, there can be some positive aspects like students can get information from both teachers and students, there is a sense of competitions and a friendly relationship among students in large classes. Another results showed in large classes, negative effect students ‘learning and achievement,
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he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

30 The seating arrangement is decisive in the process of learning because it helps students to move easily in the classroom. In this study for 44,02%, who answered “agree”, the seating arrangement is satisfactory because it is characterized by good arrangement of the chairs in Italian high schools. Also, 29,10% “totally agree” show that the seating arrangement facilitates the tasks carried out in class. Meanwhile, for 10,44%, whose answers are “partially agree” do not consider seating arrangement a great problem because their answers are somewhat satisfactory and 16,41% express that the seating arrangement does not facilitate tasks that are carried out in class because their answers are unsatisfactory. The importance of seating arrangement was studied by Svinicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002), who state that it is the position how students are sat in the classroom and it has two alternatives: to facilitate the learning process or make it more difficult. They mention that the seating arrangement can be different from one culture to another. For researchers above mentioned, the “café style” is an optimal example of seating arrangement because students are placed in a comfortable position around the desks.
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Awareness about the communicative language teaching principles by English teachers, participants of the Master’s Program Teaching English as a Foreign Language, at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, La Molina, Lima, 2016

Awareness about the communicative language teaching principles by English teachers, participants of the Master’s Program Teaching English as a Foreign Language, at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, La Molina, Lima, 2016

circumstances (Spratt et al., 2011). When a person is learning a language, they rarely get it right at first which is common even when people are learning the first language. Native speakers of a language tend to make mistakes during informal conversations too (Harmer, 2012). What teachers traditionally do whenever an error occurs is to correct it immediately, even though with the coming of the communicative approach it is required to redefine this common practice (Littlewood, 1981). Thus, it is recommendable for teachers to accept these errors as a natural occurrence in the process of learning a language, by doing so students will feel and show confidence about using the target language (Hendrickson, 1978). Errors have always been regarded as failure or obstruction to learning or as a strategy for punishing the student and it has been supported by behaviorism (Maicusi, Maicusi and Carrillo, 1999). Types of error correction
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Corpora for English language teaching and learning

Corpora for English language teaching and learning

Corpora may be used both in and outside the classroom: a for research by teacher or learner b to devise activities that complement the Information on reference grammars, dlctionaries and[r]

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The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The space is also a big concern when working with large classes; the more students are in the class, the less space they will have to work in. Most of the participants of the study have shown agreement with how they are grouped to do something and how tasks are performed in the available space in terms of easiness. 84.94% in the first case just mentioned, and more than 80% in the second case confirm that fact, which also means that the teachers are exerting a good management over the class. It is clearly visible that the group, partner and individual activities are the ones that fit situation of the classes surveyed here. Roger (1983) mentions some ways to optimize the classroom space by arranging the students’ desk in different forms, all meant to ease the class communication.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Other authors suggest other games that are helpful when working with large classes. Carbone (1998) has many suggestions for fun activities. One activity consists in pasting a famous person´s name behind each learner, and each learner must guess who it is by asking questions. Another game focuses on spelling words correctly based on a specific theme. Besides, teachers can simply play with the students by making them write do wn a question to the teacher’s answer depending on the specific theme. Another game is about naming a certain category and then each student must say another word that relates to the category named. When a learner is not able to name a word pertaining to the category, that student loses and must name a new category for the remaining students to continue playing. The student that wins is the one who names all the words.
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La influencia de las clases numerosas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios de Ecuador

La influencia de las clases numerosas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios de Ecuador

This research “The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school in the city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

All of the interviewed students reported that they learn through the use of diverse activities which allow them to get a better learning with respect to the lessons. However, it was found during the survey that in some classes the space is not enough and it may be difficult for teachers to group students for the different activities. According to Baker and Westrup (2003), large classes pair work and group work needs careful planning to keep all the students involved in the lesson an allow them to work with each other. Pair and group work gives all students lots of practice time. Larger groups can be more difficult to organize, so teacher can start with pair work. When students and teacher can organize and work in pair quickly and easy, teacher can go on to try a larger group work activity. These considerations are very important in larger classes because it will help teacher to organize group in a better way.
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Analysis of cooperative learning in the teaching learning process of English language with the students of sixth level “C” of Language Center at “Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo” Veloz District, city of Riobamba, Chimborazo Province during the school t

Analysis of cooperative learning in the teaching learning process of English language with the students of sixth level “C” of Language Center at “Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo” Veloz District, city of Riobamba, Chimborazo Province during the school term october 2016 march 2017

Speaking skill is the productive skill in the oral mode. Like the other skill, speaking is more complicated that seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words. There are five components of speaking skill that can be defined as follows: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. To be a good speaker the English learners have to master all of the components. However, besides those linguistic components above there are many factors that influence speaking ability. Cooperative learning method can be an appropriate method to use in teaching learning process to improve students speaking skill. Cooperative learning method has several techniques that stimulate the student to make verbal interaction with the other member of the class. Cooperative learning method is a method that divides the class member to several groups and arranges the students to work in a group. This method is useful to encourage the students’ activeness and responsibility to their own self and their team members. (Darsini, 2013)
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Khaki (2010) focused his study on finding out the very common expectations of students in the classroom where they are learning English at a variety of different paces and besides, the class is large in number of students. The study is mainly focused on six different areas: classroom management, establishing collaboration, range of tasks, giving feedback, classroom English and home assignment. 60 students of tenth grade from government-aided school were selected to get required information. They were sampled using purposive non-random sampling procedure. To collect data, one questionnaire containing nineteen closed-ended questions was developed. This study revealed many findings at a time regarding the expectations of students in large multilevel classes, for example more than 90% of students like to be called by their first names. This study also proves that an English teacher should move all around the class. Sharing experiences like activity is highly preferred by a considerable number of students (40%). It shows that the sharing of experiences of teachers and students highly motivates the students. Besides, this study revealed that more than 90% of students reported that they expected additional activities over which the ones of the textbook. This study also focused that limited use of mother tongue in English classroom it is bearable and accepted, but the teacher should introduce some new words every day in simpler and shorter expression. In case of feedback, feedback at a personal level in the classroom is more preferable. The study reveals that most of the students like challenging activities, neither too easy, nor too difficult. Thus, it is essential to provide different tasks to different students, so that they can adapt them at their own pace.
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