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Delocation in the manufacturing sectors in the EU  A regional overview

Delocation in the manufacturing sectors in the EU A regional overview

Consistently, the resulting list from applying to the set of EU-27 territories the three already mentioned selection criteria includes a total of seventy-five regions of thirteen Member States, distributed as follows: 23 from Germany, 14 the Uni- ted Kingdom, 10 from France, 7 from Italy, 4 Holland, 4 Sweden, 3 Spain, 2 from Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Finland, 1 Greek and 1 Irish. On the whole, they accounted for 64% of real GVA in 2005 and almost three-fifths of manufacturing employment in the EU-15 (60 and 45%, respectively, taking as reference the EU-27). The complete catalogue of regions grouped by country and their characteristics are set out in Appendices 1 and 2. As is shown there, regions included in the sample are principally in sizes over 0.5% of EU-15 industrial production and above the average EU-15 per capita income, although a significant number of them lie below those le vels, particularly in the per capita income. Looking more closely at the industrial size, we see that although most of the NUTS 2 examined move in around 0.5% there is a group of fifteen regions located in Italy, Germany, Ireland, France and Spain with a strong industrial sector (more than 1%), among them Lombardy, in Italy, with about 4% of total EU-15 manufacturing GVA.
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32 Lee mas

Economic convergence of the Western Balkans towards the EU-15

Economic convergence of the Western Balkans towards the EU-15

The former Communist countries did not inherit high general government debt from the cen- trally planned system. Debt rates, as a percentage of GDP, have increased during the recent financial crisis. In the Western Balkans, the average debt rate increased from 30% in the period 2004-2008 to 37.4% in the period 2009-2013. In the pre-crisis period, Kosovo did not record any debt, because the country declared independence from Serbia in 2008. The highest debt rate in this region is in Serbia, 50.5%. In the EU-15, the average rate increased from 56.6% to 79.8%. Twelve EU-15 Member States are also members of the Eurozone. One of the convergence criteria a country needs to fulfill is that its general government debt rate does not exceed 60% of GDP. In 2016, only Denmark, Luxembourg, and Sweden did not exceed the value. Greece had the highest debt rate of 180%, while Ireland’s rate decreased from 119.4% in 2013 to 72.8% in 2016.
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13 Lee mas

Economic convergence of the Western Balkans towards the EU 15

Economic convergence of the Western Balkans towards the EU 15

The former Communist countries did not inherit high general government debt from the cen- trally planned system. Debt rates, as a percentage of GDP, have increased during the recent financial crisis. In the Western Balkans, the average debt rate increased from 30% in the period 2004-2008 to 37.4% in the period 2009-2013. In the pre-crisis period, Kosovo did not record any debt, because the country declared independence from Serbia in 2008. The highest debt rate in this region is in Serbia, 50.5%. In the EU-15, the average rate increased from 56.6% to 79.8%. Twelve EU-15 Member States are also members of the Eurozone. One of the convergence criteria a country needs to fulfill is that its general government debt rate does not exceed 60% of GDP. In 2016, only Denmark, Luxembourg, and Sweden did not exceed the value. Greece had the highest debt rate of 180%, while Ireland’s rate decreased from 119.4% in 2013 to 72.8% in 2016.
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13 Lee mas

The surprising effects of transparency on the EU legislative process

The surprising effects of transparency on the EU legislative process

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the European Union has adopted a number of measures to make information on the legislative process and more precisely, the positions taken by member states, more public. Due to pressures from the European Parliament (EP), the Council of the European Union has progressively begun to publicize more information, and in particular, its voting records. The Council has a reputation of being an opaque institution. But have these measures actually increased the transparency of the EU legislature? Some studies would suggest that they have a contradictory effect in making legistators hide their decision-making processes. This paper investigates the impact of transparency rules on the practice of the EU legislative institutions. “Transparency” has become a buzzword of late, with more and more organizations forced to show that they are, in fact, transparent. This evolution is due to the fact that transparency, legitimacy and accountability seem to be necessarily interrelated, even if these links are more problematic than is often admitted 1 . While organizations cannot publicly say “no” to transparency,
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26 Lee mas

Profiling identification with Europe and the EU project in the European regions

Profiling identification with Europe and the EU project in the European regions

So far, the concepts of identity and identification with the EU have been analysed in the literature in terms of individual and collective European identity mostly at the qualitative level (Bergbauer, 2018). A recent attempt to quantify citizens’ identification with the EU is represented by the development of the Composite Index of European Identity by Royuela (2018). Nevertheless, a systematic quantitative frame- work is still missing. To fill in this methodological and knowledge gap, we introduce an innovative robust methodological solution based on the development of a probabilistic model, IdentEU, based on Latent Class Analysis. IdentEU enables a quantitative measurement of citizens’ identification that simultaneously accounts for different dimensions underlining the concept of individual identification with the EU and discloses patterns of identification described by different attitudes. An original feature of our approach is that we can produce identification measurements at different spatial levels. Not only we can produce a classification of citizens with different patterns of identification, but we can also define a classification of the EU regions into groups with common profiles of identification, consistently with the emerging pattern of citizens’ classification. The latter innovation is crucial for studying the influence of regional context on identification with the EU and understanding what role (if any) the Cohesion Policy plays in the relation- ship between EU citizens and the EU project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that our approach has been implemented to study identification with the EU.
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22 Lee mas

Local taxation in the EU: a convergence study

Local taxation in the EU: a convergence study

We have studied convergence of local taxation as a percentage of GDP and total tax revenue in the EU- 15 for the period 1975-2015. We find evidence of σ -convergence for the period as a whole, with an annual rate of convergence of 0.17% for local taxation as a percentage of GDP and 0.15% as a percentage of total revenue. However, we can distinguish two differentiated patterns: σ -divergence in 1975-1994, with annual rates of 0.36% and 0.17%, and σ -convergence in 1995-2015, with annual rates of 0.66% and 0.45%. Regarding club convergence, we find two clubs in 1975-2015, but the analysis of the two sub-periods reveals different results. After the merging procedure of the initial clubs, for local taxation as a percentage of GDP three and two clubs (plus divergent countries) are formed in each sub-period respectively. For local taxation as a percentage of total tax revenue, the results indicate two clubs with several divergent countries.
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9 Lee mas

Migration and security in the EU: Back to the fortress Europe?

Migration and security in the EU: Back to the fortress Europe?

An analysis of the linkages between immigration and security must consider three basic issues and tasks. First of all, it must look at the definition of the concepts in use: threat, referent object and the logic or rationale that brings both concepts together. Secondly, the framing of immigration within the discourse on security issues is to be tackled. And thirdly, it must take into account the measures and public policy instruments related to that framing. This article focuses on these three interrelated issues and explores those questions with particular reference to the EU area. The first part reviews the scholarly literature that explores the linkage between migration and security in order to identify what is known as the ‘threat’, the referent object and the rationales established in discourses since the 1990s. During this decade the EU began to develop its ‘common’ immigration policy, while at the same time critiques of the emerging securitisation of migration were developed. The second part of this research traces the effects of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 on discourses and public policies in the EU. The analysis of post 9/11 developments in the EU provides evidence to deny on the hand, that EU institutions’ discourses on immigration policies consider this phenomenon as an existential threat and, on the other hand, to reject that extraordinary measures or courses of actions had followed those terrorist attacks. A global approach towards migration is underway although in need of political impetus.
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18 Lee mas

The EU noise policy and its research needs

The EU noise policy and its research needs

For noise control in Europe, 2002 is a very important year because in this year the European Union will adopt the Direc- tive relating to the Assessment and Management of Environ- mental Noise (DAMEN) [1]. The DAMEN provides harmoni- sed information for authorities and citizens, the making of national and local action plans and the extension and improve- ment of the EU legislation on the reduction of noise emission [2,3]. The introduction, execution and further development of the Directive requires a significant amount of research. This pa- per provides a concise overview of that research.
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6 Lee mas

Do citizens support EU cohesion policy? Measuring European support for redistribution within the EU and its correlates

Do citizens support EU cohesion policy? Measuring European support for redistribution within the EU and its correlates

As the European Union enters into the next decade, its leaders seemingly strive towards more future integration rather than less, despite the recent setback of Brexit and the rise of anti-EU populist parties. In his state of the Union in 2018, Jean Claude Junker emphasized s ‘European solidarity’. One key policy ‘expression of solidary’ would be Cohesion Policy and the Structural Funds, which are “the only real, significant redistributive mechanism in the EU…” (Fratesi 2017). . Despite elite commentary, we know surprisingly little about what EU citizens think of the rationale behind the policy of Cohesion – e.g. economic redistribution within the EU. As part of the PERCEIVE Horizon2020 project, we launched a unique survey to investigate how citizens feel about economic integration within the Union, where 17,200 citizens were interviewed. In this paper, we show how we measure support for the policy, the results as well as a host of correlates. Our analysis shows the variation in citizens’ support for EU Cohesion policy between countries, how support varies between demographic groups, as well as the extent to which support is correlated with utilitarian and ideational factors as well as cue taking. Implications for future developments of this policy are discussed.
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17 Lee mas

Measuring creativity in the EU member states

Measuring creativity in the EU member states

In this paper we propose a new index seeking to fill the existing gaps identified above. We call it Creative Space Index (CSI). It aims to be a comprehensive index by gathering the best aspects of the existing ones and complementing them with addi- tional features. The index was developed to be universal (it should be able to analyse different realities and to enable comparisons across the globe), flexible (it should be adaptable to work with different scopes —country level, regional level and city level— and with different data sources), efficient (it should cover as many aspects as possible of the creative phenomenon, keeping the data collection easy and simple) and unbiased (creativity does not depend on a single dimension and it is important for the index to be wide ranging and properly weighted for a better policymaking).
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20 Lee mas

The EU, the member states and the future of public broadcasting

The EU, the member states and the future of public broadcasting

ted to the cultural character of broadcasting and raised doubts about the right of the Community to become active in the field of broadcasting. Denmark for example refused to accept the 1989 TWF Directive because it disputed the competence of the Community for the regulation of broadcasting. The question of competence flared up again in the early 1990s and made public service bro- adcasting "one of the most controversial and pressing issues to be dealt with by the European Com- mission in the audiovisual sphere" (Ward, 2003, p. 234). The cause for this development was the discussion about the nature of the financing of the public channels. All Member States support pu- blic service broadcasting in one way or the other through public funds. This raised the question as it relates to the applicability of the state aid articles of the Treaty. According to Article 87, any sta- te aid which may distort competition is incompatible with the common market. Article 88 entrusts the Commission the review of all aid systems and to propose the Member States any appropriate measures to ensure the functioning of the common market. Some aids may nevertheless be compa- tible with the common market which are listed in Article 87. Among those are aids to promote cul- ture and heritage conservation as long as such aid does not affect competition in the Community to an extent that is contrary to the common interest (Treaty, Article 87(2)(d)). Finally, the provisions on state aids are confronted with Article 86(2) which allows to exempt undertakings entrusted with the operation of services of general economic interest from the competition rules if the application of the- se rules obstruct the performance of the particular tasks assigned to them.
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8 Lee mas

The New Shift in the Cooperation of the European Union With Middle and Upper-Middle-Income Countries

The New Shift in the Cooperation of the European Union With Middle and Upper-Middle-Income Countries

The new European Consensus (2017) established that the EU is committed to creating innovative cooperation mechanisms adapted to the partner countries in their different phases of development. Also, the need for an innovative commitment with the most advanced developing countries was noted. As part of this commitment, the consensus states that the EU and its member states will work with these countries to promote South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation, in accordance with the principles of development effectiveness. In this sense, the objective of the Triangular Cooperation is to mobilize additional resources to reach the SDGs and contribute to the reduction of poverty. It should be noted that one of the hallmarks of EU development cooperation in the last decade is the relative importance that has been given to MICs in the distribution of ODA. The 2030 Agenda and the SDGs recognize the global challenges that must be addressed through a regional and global approach. They are based on the notion of global partnership, joint entrepreneurship, and collective execution, regardless of the level of development of a particular country.
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13 Lee mas

El uso de las nuevas tecnologías y su aplicación a la interpretación en la comunicación abogado cliente

El uso de las nuevas tecnologías y su aplicación a la interpretación en la comunicación abogado cliente

The legal framework may be seen as both a response to and a driving factor behind the increasing needs for interpretation in legal settings in the EU. In recent years, citizens of the European Union have experienced a greater degree of mobility and freedom to move throughout and settle in the various Member States due to the open border policy. There are currently 23 official languages in the Union and an increasing number of citizens residing in countries where the official language is not their mother tongue. More languages will become official languages of the EU as new Member States are added. In addition, many non-official languages and dialects are spoken and must be taken into account when addressing the language needs of EU citizens and persons residing within the EU (EU Languages and Language Policy, http://ec.europa.eu). In addition to European citizens moving between Member States, the European Union has seen a rise in immigration, which has brought even more languages and, therefore, linguistic needs into the equation. The 2010 Demography Report of the EU states that population increases in the European Union largely stem from immigration and these numbers are projected to rise (Demography Report, 2010). The combination of this increased mobility, the number of languages spoken and new legislation is a driving factor behind the increasing need to have qualified translators and interpreters. Several directives and laws have been adopted to protect the rights of persons living within the European Union and to facilitate judicial processes between Member States. In addition, plans about how to use technology in regards to interpretation have been included in the European e-Justice Action Plan.
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158 Lee mas

Te Greens/EFA group of the European Parliament (2016) Energy Poverty Handbook

Te Greens/EFA group of the European Parliament (2016) Energy Poverty Handbook

weight values2 (Healy, 2004; Thomson and Snell, 2013). It is based upon the premise that consensual measures (such as the self-reported inabil- ity to keep warm) are insufficient to capture the complex economic and material underpinnings of energy poverty, and should be combined with indicators describing the housing and financial conditions of the popula- tion in order to obtain a fuller picture (Bouzarovski, 2014; Dubois, 2012). The results of the bivariate comparison (Table 1) show a low degree of positive linear correlation between the energy poverty index and the at-risk-of-poverty rate, even though relatively high levels of positive and statistically significant linear correlations exist on an indicator-by-indi- cator basis. In terms of three regions identified for the spatial analysis of energy poverty trends in the EU (Figure 1), Western and Northern countries (noted in black diamonds) belong to a compact cluster report- ing low energy poverty levels in relation to the at-risk-of-poverty rate. At the same time, Southern (crosses) and CEE Member States (circles) form a more heterogeneous group. They are characterized by energy pov- erty index values that are higher in relation to their at-risk-of-poverty- rates. With respect to the measurement of poverty and social exclusion, these results highlight the importance of material and housing depriva- tion dimensions, such as the inability to keep the home adequately warm. They emphasize the need for moving beyond purely monetary indicators, such as the at-risk-of-poverty rate.
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94 Lee mas

European cohesion policy performance and citizens’ awareness: a holistic system dynamics framework

European cohesion policy performance and citizens’ awareness: a holistic system dynamics framework

Investigaciones Regionales – Journal of Regional Research, 46 (2020/1), 131-162 ISSN: 1695-7253 e-ISSN: 2340-2717 easier when the LMA “monitoring capacity” (absorption system’s input) is high, augments the negative media coverage. Finally, an increased absorption gap, which gets higher when the volume of “Total funds available” (absorption system’s input) is high, can further have a negative effect on cohesion policy’s media coverage. Contrary to what happens in the positive stream, if negative press attention occurs regarding CP funded projects, “local political opportunism” may try to cover own inefficiencies in EU fund management by blaming the EU instead. This shifting the burden to the EU may increase the probability of “negative media coverage of the EU cohesion policy”. However, opportunism may be balanced by journalists’ ability to recognize actual contributors to a CP funded project (“journalists EU alphabetization”). At this point, a vicious cycle of negative political news arises: a high “negative media coverage of the EU on cohesion policy” increases the “strength of eurosceptic local parties” in Europe, which in turn raises again the “local political opportunism”, creating a self-sustained cyclical effect in which all factors continuously incite each other. Hopefully, the “strength of eurosceptic local parties” could be reduced in case significant “positive media coverage of the EU on cohesion policy” takes place. In this respect, the local parties’ level of analysis was adopted since their crucial role in CP implementation and European integration relation is evident (Gross and Debus, 2018).
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33 Lee mas

Monitoring the Lisbon Strategy’s targets

Monitoring the Lisbon Strategy’s targets

2003. The Union cannot catch up on the United States as our per capita GDP is 72% of our American partner’s. The reasons for this insufficient growth are known: unlike in the United States, employment and productivity are still not contributing enough. The low growth in overall productivity in Europe is due in particular to two main fac- tors: the contribution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is too low and investment is inadequate. In this respect, the European Growth Initiative and the Quick Start Programme, which have been given the green light by the European Council, are a major source of leverage to unlock investment in the infrastructure and knowledge sectors. While the number of researchers in the Union rose slightly from 5.4 per 1000 workforce in 1999 to 5.7 in 2001, this is well below the level in coun- tries that are near or on the EU 3% R&D investment target (USA 8.1/1000; Japan 9.1/1000). Investment, both public and private, in human capital is still inadequate. But simply raising the overall level of investment in human resources will not be enough: there is a clear need to invest more effectively, that is, to identify and invest in those areas of education and training which produce the greatest returns.
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38 Lee mas

The impact of the Common agricultural policy on developing countries

The impact of the Common agricultural policy on developing countries

Agriculture intensification in Europe has contributed to land use changes in other countries. For instance, livestock intensification in Europe has increased the demand for protein rich products, which in turn has led to increased soybean production in South America, with associated negative environmental and social impacts. Promotion of grain legume production under the current CAP may help to reduce the EU’s dependency on soybean imports from the Americas and, therefore, alleviate such negative effects. In the last decade, energy markets have formed a significant driver in the overall trend of large-scale land acquisition in some developing countries. A clear link can be established between the EU bioenergy policy and European companies’ keenness to acquire agricultural land in developing countries, especially those in Africa. This also entails that the development of conventional biofuel production has an impact on access to natural resources, such as land and water, and often leads to an increase in land concentration to the detriment of smallholder farming practices (Diop et al., 2013).
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43 Lee mas

Mind the gap : addressing the "delivery challenge" in European Commission Development Cooperation

Mind the gap : addressing the "delivery challenge" in European Commission Development Cooperation

• Changes in the institutional culture. This is not a new item on the EC agenda. The reform of EC/EU external action, initiated in 2000, may have yielded positive effects in terms of speeding up aid delivery and improving financial accountability. However, the three cases show that there is still much work to be done in order to improve EC delivery capacity of quality aid in highly complex processes such as the JAES, governance, and civil society development. Further work will be needed to remove institutional bottlenecks for improved EC performance, such as (i) disbursement pressures (which tend to reduce the scope for supporting long-term processes of change); (ii) a lack of incentives to take risks (particularly troublesome when supporting governance and civil society in hostile environments) or to engage in meaningful coordination with other players (as requested by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness); (iii) a narrow focus on short-term results; (iv) the prevailing institutional fragmentation within the EC between those in charge of policy and those responsible for implementation; and (v) the limited progress achieved with policy coherence at the EU level.
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41 Lee mas

The asset management industry in EU zone

The asset management industry in EU zone

higher levels of concentration, especially in the fast-growing pension fund sector, that will begin to permeate the mutual fund business through defined contribution plans, given the importance of economies of scale and the role of pension fund consultants. However, as in the United States the role of fund supermarkets, low-cost distribution via the Internet, as well as the very large contingent of universal banks, insurance companies and non-European fund management companies is likely to prevent market structure from becoming monopolistic to any significant degree. Fund performance will become a commodity, with few differences among the major players and the majority of actively managed funds underperforming the indexes. This implies a competitive playing field that, as in the United States, will be heavily conditioned by branding, advertising and distribution channels, which in turn are likely to move gradually away from the traditional dominance of banks in some of the EU markets. All of this implies that asset management fees (historically quite high, particularly in continental Europe) will come under pressure as competition heats-up, to the benefit of the individual investors and participants in funded pension plans.
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58 Lee mas

Multilateralism and soft diplomacy in EU China relations

Multilateralism and soft diplomacy in EU China relations

Moreover, the EU provides a useful example of how the strategy of multilateralism can be developed to realise internal domestic goals. The example of EU integration, and the gradual processes of harmonisation that the supranational approach to policymaking and regulation initiated, could be helpful in enabling China to develop an approach to overcoming its highly fragmented internal market. This would benefit China’s economic development and would also enable the EU and China together to surmount increasing difficulties for EU business and commercial interests in China confronted by fragmentation which leads to confusion and misunderstanding. Following the European model is something that yields mutual advantages both in this area and in that regarding consumer goods and product safety. Similarly, exploiting the opportunities to promote greater mutual understanding through formal programmes on cultural and educational exchanges (such as Erasmus mundus), and initiating dialogue on social and economic affairs, employment, labour regimes and practices through memorandum of understanding on social protection (again influenced by the European experience) provides a rich source of collaboration in future.
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33 Lee mas

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