and practices, going through a manhood-ac- quiring process which culminated in the esta- blishment and ruling of one’s household, the ultimate proof of manliness and power. Still, this was not the end of the road since manly “behaviour was determined by the need first to establish and then continually prove man- hood, to himself and others”  as manhood was a lifelong performance for the benefit of observers and for the benefit of the performer himself for, as Butler explains, “one does not ‘do’ one’s gender alone. One is always ‘doing’ with or for another, even if the other is only imaginary” : the same way inmates in Bentham’s Panopticon police each other in the absence of a guard in the central tower , society at large is in charge of policing and pointing out abnormal gender perfor- mances that might disrupt the gender order. This threat of falling into incoherent beha- viour, whether it refers to homosocial prac- tices or heterosocial practices that contradict the rules regulating gender performativity, is always present. Some subjects embrace this threat, for, since Foucault explains, power is not merely destructive as it also creates points of resistance  that give way to al- ternative modes of performing one’s sex or gender: we are talking now about disconti- nuous and incoherent discourses that en- compass all of those practices censured and excluded by the established order and which gave way, during theRestoration to “a dis- tinctive (intellectual) landscape, dominated by three ... philosophical paradigms: scienti- fically-based scepticism ...; an epicurean-ins- pired indulgence in all human impulses that became known as libertinism; and an idea- lized quest for honesty, truth, simplicity, and unpretentiousness”  or “naturalism” . These ideas were translated into the li- bertine lifestyle that authors like Wycherley and Etherege defended in their works and practised in their daily lives, “a new hie- rarchy of men, based not on rank, wealth, patriarchal respectability or the dignity of a particular trade or calling, but on sexual attractiveness and sexual performance” .
The following aspects from Brandi (1963/1995, p. 16) are highlighted. He points out that: (a) only the matter is restored, because it is consubstantial with the unrepeatable image of the artistic work (p. 16); (b) but the singularity of the work does not consist in its matter, nor in its historicity, but in its artistic condition (p. 17); (c) matter is a manifestation of the masterwork art that can be conceived in form and structure: the structure can be reinforced or replaced, but form is the essence of appearance (pp. 19-20); (d) the masterwork is defined by its unity, as a complete object indivisible in parts (p. 23) here the influence of Benedetto Croce; (e) history not only refers to the first historicity, but also to the second, where the temporization between the two instances represents the dialectic of restoration (p. 17), so the work will be submitted to operate as a stimulus in the present, it will be required to have a topicality (p. 30), and finally, (f) therestoration is a function of the actualization of the masterwork (p. 51). Varagnoli (2017) comments that in two the last points mentioned by Brandi (1963/1995), it leaves open the temporal and spatial dimension of therestoration work, the use of contemporary creativity in the work of restoration, and since then, interventions with contemporary aesthetics in the conservation project have multiplied 5 .
The final variable tested was the local perception of the most suitable method for reforestation. Figure 17 shows the results of perception analysis, with most of the actors leaning towards natural regeneration (74%, 17/23). The main condition of achieving successful implementation is to eliminate the barriers that prevent natural regeneration. Regarding this issue,  outlined that when the stressing factors are eliminated in a degraded ecosystem, there is a trend that restoration follows. These authors asserted that success of therestoration does not only depend on the costs, funding sources, or the political will of the interested institutions. The main issue is the participation of the local communities with the power of decision over restoration plans. As for the selected species, all the ones established during the regeneration or the plantations are valid. The improvement of a degraded system can also begin by means of the plantation of native trees, of dominant pioneer species and those of more ecological weight: all those that protect the riversides of the river. In this approach, local residents outlined the necessity of reforestation with native species, in addition to just leaving the land without agricultural management. Among the species that were identified as suitable for natural regeneration are: L. domingensis, G. ulmifolia, S. saman, T. catappa, T. hirta, S. saponaria, T. angustata, B. simaruba, C. collococca, T. citrifolia, R. regia, C. dentata, A. reticulata, C. hirsuta, A. inermis, and S. mombin. It was also identified G. sepium, to be regenerated through direct seeding or by planting stakes.
Examples of large-scale restoration programs to recover ecosystem services are now common in many countries, and governments are assuming ambitious forest restoration targets. Given the increasing investment of time, effort, and money in restoration, there is an urgent need to develop monitoring programs to assess restoration effectiveness. Some countries are already conducting monitoring programs, but the effectiveness of the re- storation programs remains mostly unknown. Restoration evaluation often entails significant difficulties, such as the lack of harmonized monitoring data and imprecise information available about project goals and im- plementation. With the intent of contributing to the development of effective and accountable restoration projects, the objective of our work is to create a conceptual model that provides the building blocks of a planning and monitoring system to support forest restoration programs. The aim is to develop a conceptual model that represents forest restoration monitoring processes that effectively attain and measure the desirable outcomes. The São Paulo Forest Restoration Program is the case study that provides variables and processes to illustrate the development of the conceptual model. This paper presents the conceptual model, emphasizing generalizable principles that extend its applicability to similar monitoring programs. Based on action learning principles and recommendations from a comprehensive literature review, the resulting Forest Management Decisions Support System (FMDSS) embeds adaptive management strategies and the existence of an auto-updatable knowledge base. The result is a conceptual model that can be generalizable and applicable beyond the realms of the FMDSS. Therestoration of degraded areas in a case with > 40,000 rural properties serves as the case study. Although the planning and the monitoring of therestoration programs differ, the generalizable principles used to develop the conceptual model presented in this paper result in continuous intelligent monitoring processes that transform the systems so that they are adaptable to apparently different situations. Additionally, conceptual models that in- tegrate adaptive planning and monitoring processes, supported by an auto-updatable knowledge base, mitigate the risk of failures, mainly when the comprehensive gathering of well-established references for the initial knowledge base has been conducted well at the outset.
In terms of documentation the previous restoration works carried out in the 70s and 80s left only a few photographic and technical documents with no special references about the treatments used. Just a paper published in the proceedings of a Symposium (Cruz & Gárate 1986) permitted to know some data about the treatments applied during the last works carried out in 1985. So in these terms, the architect in charge of the project, Eduardo González Fraile, faced therestoration project with two main goals: the treatment of damp patches, in the basement and in the façade, and the façade conservation treatments. Obviously, without the first part of the process, which had not been tackled in previous restorations, the second one was relatively useless. Therefore, first of all ventilation galleries were made at the basement with an archaeological excavation follow up and once this aeration system was complete, then the works started on the façade itself.
installing therestoration and 6 months after load. The clinical distances measured were: gingival margin-incisal border (GM–IB), papillary vertex-mesial contact point (PV-MCP), papillary vertex-distal contact point (PV–DCP), papillary vertex-incisomesial angle (PV-IMA), papillary vertex-incisodistal angle (PV-IDA), gingival margin-mucogingival line (GM-MGL) , and the radiographic distances measured were : bone ridge-mesial contact point (BR-MCP), and bone ridge–distal contact point (BR-DCP). Results: no statistically significant differences were found in the aforementioned variables, except for the PV–DCP distance which measured 2.55 mm at the time of installation and 1.49 mm six months afterwards, considered as a statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). Conclusion: the results show a stable behavior of soft tissue and bone support around the implants, with a favorable change in the position of the papillae and a slight apically modification in the position of gingival margin.
We deﬁned reference systems as old-growth or less-disturbed forests based on the deﬁnition presented in primary studies (as adopted by refs 9,11,16), restored systems as selectively logged forests or forests in their initial or secondary stage of succession (that is, areas that regenerated after complete or partial clearance) and degraded systems as a result of different types of human land use (plantation or agriculture). The degraded systems represent the initial degradation level—that is, often the starting point of therestoration process 9 . We classiﬁed biodiversity into ﬁve broad taxonomic groups (mammals, birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates and plants) and vegetation structure into ﬁve measures related to ecological succession (density, litter, cover, biomass and height). Here we reveal the main ecological drivers of forest restoration success, at both the local and landscape scale: the time elapsed since restoration began, disturbance type and landscape context. Restoration does not result in full recovery of biodiversity and vegetation structure, but forest landscape restoration will be most successful when: (i) there is sufﬁcient time for ecological succession, (ii) previous local disturbance is of low intensity and (iii) habitat is less fragmented in the landscape context. Although forest restoration is no substitute for the protection of old-growth forests, its complementary value can help to reduce rates of biodiversity and vegetation structure loss, offering unrestricted support for continued investment in landscape restoration initiatives.
Link failures are a common cause of service disruption in computer networks. Failures in high capacity links or between backbone routers, may seriously aﬀect multimedia streaming and strict real-time application services and protocols. To alleviate this problem the Fast Rerouting approach was adopted as a solution. Fast Rerouting relies on pre-planning and requires that a backup LSP be com- puted, advertised and setup before a link failure is detected. The backup LSP combined with local repair aims to minimize packet losses during therestoration period. We presented an enhanced Fast Rerouting mechanism for MPLS-based networks which reroutes traﬃc over a backup LSP when a link/node of the pro- tected LSP fails. The goal is to provide quality of service for the traﬃc carried by the protected LSP, even in case of failure and during recovery, until it is rerouted. Non-protected LSPs may be rerouted but without guarantees (best eﬀort). Our proposal performs better compared to previous proposals in terms of both packet delay and packet disorder. We provide a simple and concise novel algorithm in the intermediate LSRs that operates in a distributed manner, introducing additional functionality to avoid packet re-ordering and to reduce unnecessary additional delay.
Building of the impoundment as a basic restoration measure led to the rise in the lake water level and significant improvement of hydrological conditions of the Reserve. The changes prove to be durable – and are seen in the increase in the number of swamp and aquatic plants and changes in the community structure and numbers of plankton crustaceans in the lake. The impoundment led to a change of the lake status from a heavily eutrophic „turbid” lake with episodes of algae blooming and domination of detritivorous rotifer forms into a lake of a macrophyte type wherein management of biogens is controlled by submerged plants and epiphytic species. At present there occurs therestoration of bentos structure towards the one which is characteristic of eutrophic polimictic lakes with submerged species taking a
Many pine stands were planted in sites where all previous forest had been extirpated, and at present, there are no seed sources for forest recovery. In these cases, restoration should prioritize the introduction of target forest plants in pine stands. The most common practice to do this is making low-dense extensive enrichment plantations after stand thinning (Granados et al. 2016). Mid to late successional trees and shrubs at low to moderate density are usually used. However, in a socio-economic scenario with little forest restoration funding other “cheaper” restoration strategies should be implemented. One of these strategies is to create small islets of vegetation distributed strategically inside of the pine plantations (Fig. 6). These islets will act as strong seed sources for the colonization of the rest of the plantation if properly managed. This method involves concentrating resources rather than diluting them in space. The method is based on the Maximum Diversity Restoration method (Goosem and Tucker 2013), which was developed for therestoration of rainforest in Northern Australia for sites far from remnant rainforest stands. Similar proposals have been made in other tropical and Mediterranean ecosystems (Rey Benayas et al. 2008; Zahawi and Augspurger 2009; Corbin and Holl 2012).
Modelling tools can aid in dealing with the uncertainty inherent in ecological recovery and restoration and in evaluating the success of the efforts (Anand and Desrochers 2004, Kentula 2000). Often, therestoration effort will begin with the removal of some limiting factor (for example, toxic heavy metals, acidic conditions, noxious species) and the initialization of a recovery process on the site with a trajectory headed toward a system of reference (SER 2002). This might occur by liming (Winterhalder 2000), seeding and/or planting (Winterhalder 2000, McLachlan and Bazely 2003), harvesting and thinning (Asefa et al. 2003) or substrate deposition (Weinstein and Weishar 2002). Often these measures will introduce species that are representative of the target system composition. Recovery, however, is a kind of succession process (McIntosh 1980), and thus can be modelled in much the same way. Models of succession, then, are natural candidates for use as predictive tools in recovery and restoration efforts. One such model that has been used in ecology is the Markov model, and this paper focuses on its potential to shed light on therestoration process. Since their introduction by Waggoner and Stephens (1970), Markov models have been widely applied in plant ecology (Horn 1975, Hulst 1979, Binkley 1980, Legg 1980, Culver 1981, Usher 1981, Lippe et al. 1985, McAuliffe 1988, Kenkel 1993, Orlóci et al. 1993, Li 1995, Valverde and Silvertown 1997,
The Great Carajas Project (Projeto Carajás Grande–PGC) (Mesquita 2015). The 3rd PND was established in 1979 with the same focus of “integration and occupation” motto coupled with expanding exports aiming at minimizing foreign debt related to the second oil crisis (Goldenberg and Prado 2003). By this time, the Polonoroeste (The Northwest Brazil Inte- grated Development Program—Programa de Desenvolvimento Integrado do Noroeste do Brasil) was implemented in the Amazon in 1981. Deforestation in the Amazon increased significantly with the implementation of this program, mainly due to the agricultural activ- ity. This agricultural activity mostly benefited large (latifundium) landowners and, as a consequence, several agrarian conflicts raised and brought instability and violence to the region (Pereira et al. 2016).
51 because its potential use as bioweapon (Goel, 2015). B. thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic specie which toxicity is mainly related to the production of the cry toxins (Bravo et al., 2013). The efficiency and specificity of the toxins have been determinant for the implementation of B. thuringiensis as a bio pesticide, or the design of transgenic crops of potato, maize and cotton, expressing this toxin to fight insect’s plagues (Koch et al., 2015). The species that gives the name to the group, B. cereus sensu stricto, possesses a complete panel of toxins responsible for pathogenesis in humans and other mammals (Table 1). Among them, cereulide is the only one specific of B. cereus, it is codified in a megaplasmid and it is responsible of the emetic condition (Ehling- Schulz et al., 2006). All the other toxins are widely distributed in B. cereus sensu lato species, although, the presence of genes codifying the toxin synthesis machinery does not correlate with pathogenicity. Nevertheless, and given the recent description of many of the isolates of the group, there is still a blurred vision of their pathogenicity potential (Miller et al., 2018).
regulating ES in restored agroecosystems relative to converted ones assessed across the primary studies. Bars around the means denote bias-corrected bootstrap 95% confidence intervals. Mean effect size is significantly different from zero if the 95% confidence interval does not include zero. The first and second numbers in parentheses indicate, respectively, how many
The transfer of carbon atoms from the topmost reduced graphene oxide sheet to its underlying counterpart should entail, in addition to the creation of pits in the former, the shrinkage or even disappearance of the vacancies from the latter. Because smaller vacancies possess higher in-plane mobility, 61,62 the logical consequence would be that we observed an improved degree of structural restoration in the underlying sheet in an overlapping area at, e.g., 1923 K compared with the same sheet in their non-overlapping areas or for isolated sheets. Indeed, detailed STM inspection of underlying sheets, which became visible at the bottom of the pits, revealed a much more pristine, less defected structure at 1923 K (i.e., lower density of protrusions, Fig. 5d) than that of the same sheets in non-overlapping areas (images not shown) and isolated sheets annealed at the same temperature (e.g., Fig. 2e). To further demonstrate the involvement of vacancies from adjacent sheets in the observed processes, a further experiment was carried out. Isolated sheets were deposited onto HOPG, the surface of which had been previously decorated with atomic vacancies generated on purpose by plasma treatment (Fig. 5e). 31 A very high density of vacancies was produced exclusively on the topmost layer of the HOPG sample by the bombardment of energetic ions from the plasma, which induced an atomically rough surface morphology (see inset to Fig. 5e). 31 Following heat treatment at 2073 K, a large number of monolayer-deep pits (Fig. 5f) with atomically sharp edges and relatively defect-free bottoms were seen to develop (see inset to Fig. 5f), indicating again that a transfer of carbon atoms, in this case from the sheet to the vacancy-decorated surface of HOPG, took place. This behavior was not observed for the same sheets supported onto pristine HOPG (Fig. 1i).
bilities related with the maintenance of this quality (MMAMRM, 2010). The consid- ered uses by the legislation are urban, agricultural, industrial, recreational and environ- mental, and their distribution varies significantly between regions (Fig. 2) (INE, 2016b). In Spain, reclaimed water is employed for gardening and recreational particu- larly in Andalucía, Galicia and Madrid, whereas in regions as Murcia, Comunidad Va- lenciana or Canarias, major treated wastewater reusing is for agriculture.
In order to achieve Educational Quality, it is necessary to transform educational management. This implies a series of interrelated actions, which together constitute a systematic process of change, which must be designed and led by the director and the teaching staff of the educational institution, as well as all the actors involved in it. The present investigation, has allowed to identify problems related to the educational quality, proposes like objective: To design a strategic plan of prevention and restoration of values to improve the Educative Quality of the Students of 3º, 4º and 5º of Secondary of the I.E PNP Juan Ingunza Valdivia. The research is descriptive, propositive, non-experimental design, transversal, a questionnaire was used, Likert scale. The results confirm the need to propose a strategic plan to improve the quality of education.
25. As a rule, a monitoring method that can be used to assess performance standards should be identified as part of the planning process, recognizing that different monitoring methods may not result in consistent measures. For example, a performance standard might require maintenance of 70% cover by a particular plant species, but different methods of estimating percentage of cover will yield different values for the same site. Project goals, objectives, performance standards, and monitoring methods should be written down, widely distributed, and frequently revisited to keep projects on track.
146. In the United States the EPA celebrates American Wetlands Month in May with federal, state, tribal, local, non-profit, and private sector organization partners. This annual celebration is a time to recognize and highlight the ways in which wetlands enrich the environment and human society. Another example of such campaigns is focused on marine debris and its effect on the marine ecosystem. Developed by NOAA, the Web site is designed to help identify, reduce, and prevent debris in the marine environment. Also for World Wetlands Day, there are many activities that take place in the Ramsar sites.
appropriate to ask whether PES can help achieve restoration goals, such as the CBD targets (see: http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=12268). PES might focus restoration activities on a limited set of services, such as carbon sequestration , while other services or biodiversity are neglected. This could be a particular problem when international markets are brought into play, which might override local concerns. The desired link between reversing environmental degradation and alleviating poverty might also be undermined by an excessive reliance on market forces, as poor people do not always benefit from PES . As previously noted , in order for PES to be successful, there is a need to develop local and regional institutional frameworks which can cope with the complexity of such schemes, and which can integrate PES within existing rural development policies and programmes. For restoration to contribute both to sustainable development and the alleviation of poverty it is