However, what is reasonable is in turn a function of our background knowledge, of our conception of the world. Thus, in some logically possi- ble world grue could be a more reasonable predicate to use than green. Alternatively, in some other logically possible world, Bayesian a priori probabilities—absurd to most of us in our world—could be the most reasonable ones. If so, when Worrall says that scientific and physical realisms are the “most reasonable” or the “only reasonable” positions to adopt, he is presupposing a conception of the world, but he is also presupposing realist epistemic intuitions where the burden of proof lies concerning the reliability of our instruments and abductions. And these are epistemic intuitions—which the restrictive empiricist does not share— then impasse.
8 Lee mas
This article values the importance of symbolic language through an Analog Hermeneutics and Communication Community. This philosophical itinerary starts in a collective subject called “Us” (“nosotros”) from the Latin American philosophical reflection. The symbol, such as meaningful space for semantics, shows up in a symbolic language that includes a variety of rationalities. This inclusion through symbolic language allows strengthening the “a priori” of a Communication Community that supports and ethical and historical “us”. For this purpose, an Analog Hermeneutics is presented as a valid method for philosophical thinking around the symbolic language. The analogy allows considering the ambiguous and unambiguous of languages and the hermeneutics through the symbol allows us to speak and think beyond what is stated. The Analog Hermeneutics invites to recover the different meanings and to interpret the senses through the symbol in different cultures. The symbol is a new inspiration for traditional Philosophy because it recovers wisdoms, customs, images and traditions.
17 Lee mas
In this article I offer an overview of my doctoral dissertation, which studied the social imaginary of consumerism, and the psychological subjectivity it produces, through the dream - as both a leitmotif or thematic lens, and the empirical object of research. For such I employed an interdisciplinary exploratory outlook, whose theoretical framework first discusses the symbolic imaginaries (G. Durand) and their relations with the unconscious psyche, dream, imagination, and subjectivity (C. G. Jung), and then explores their relationships with consumption (Baudrillard, Bauman) and its semiotic imaginaries and ideology, focusing on the concepts of consumption dreams and dream-worlds of consumption. The main research aim was to explore how night dreams represent the colonization of subjectivity by the imaginary of consumerism. The method consisted in a multiple-case study in which each night dream was taken as a case and interpreted through Jungian hermeneutics. Findings stress that night dreams can offer a deep sociocultural critique; in them the
7 Lee mas
The approach and design methodology was developed from the complementarity, supporting itself on analysis of the speech from its main functions and relationships to dimensions of the social imaginary: (referential: instituted social imaginary; expressive and pragmatic: Radical/ instituting social imaginary. Data analysis was performed on the logic of social arrangements. The study shows that the dynamics of the social imaginaries configuring teachers under for- mation is defined from what is agreed and socially validated as instituted imaginary with occa- sional hints of radical/instituting imaginaries. In such a sense, it reflects what is standardized at educational institutions, although it contains projects and psychosomatic demonstrations, some of them seen as social fulfillment option. Thus, the education processes and trainer education, are mainly configured by practical knowledge and permeated by disciplinary skills, pedagogical knowledge, curriculum and teaching, but at the same time, are crossed by the symbolic, cultural and everyday burden brought by the trainee teacher.
21 Lee mas
Chandigarh, a space of centrality becomes a demo- cratic park for the people, where government build- ings are located. In the same text he highlighted the a priori topographical character of the intervention, “the current application of the ancient Eastern tech- nique of embankments, ensures cohesion of the whole and gives it a monumental emphasis” (Costa, 1991:20). This description is accompanied by the drawing of the large esplanade as a three-dimensional geom- etry of the floor where even the buildings appear. From the slope of the original terrain, all survey opera- tions are controlled from a rigorous perspective compo- sition, defining a perfect canonical and representative central image of the Monumental Axis. The vast espla- nade, a green surface placed in the centre and flanked on both sides by traffic roads and ministry buildings, is designed as a true tapis vert, like those built by the great seventeenth century French gardener André Le Nôtre at Versailles or Vaux le Vicomte. This parallel example explains the monumental scale of 2 km. long and 200 m. wide, with a slight inclination -two tranches of 1,2% and 1,4% and a third of 5,6% that descends to the Congress building-, as well as the fact that the esplanade is just crossed in certain points, thought to contemplate the central perspective. The first of these views is the one someone gets when arrives to Brasilia from the platform of the bus station in the city cen- tre, where the extension of the esplanade is perfectly shown and disappears under a second platform on which rest the symbolic domes of Congress and Senate.
8 Lee mas
Philosophical thought, especially that of the female philosophers of the 20th centu- ry, will be the link to outline an unprecedented conceptual frame that will allow under- standing the fresh paradigms useful to seek out new strategies with the aim to criticize and eliminate the limits and the negative effects produced by globalization and neolib- eralism. To weave anew the threads of the humane through the symbolic figure of the mother, which is so obviously and insistently present in the thought of Antiquity, we need to work on some aspects of the so-called Mediterranean mother culture; particu- larly, it has to be understood as an integrating vision of attentive care for relations, as a culture centered on “life”, as an alternative to a culture of war and subjugation.
11 Lee mas
Abstract : The aim of the present paper is to present the symbolic features that are exposed by the concept of artefact in the context of a pandemic alarm, such as the A (H1N1) influenza. The symbolic qualities entailed by the notion of artefact are well-known within the Social Sciences: Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics. The artefact is basically not an object, but an action aimed at designing, simulating or creating a simile by means of material, technological or linguistic structures. The purpose of the present work is to unveil the symbolic dimensions that are activated by the A (H1N1) influenza as a Pandemic Artefact: a) the assumption of separating information from matter; b) the need for a material support to enable the exchange; c) the sociological reflexivity of the artefact and its agency; d) the arbitrariness of its social use, that detaches it from the design as intention.
11 Lee mas
Let us consider another example to best elucidate how we use abstractions in our daily life. We are planning a trip to visit to our kin at a nearby city (called A). Focusing on our spatial knowledge we can think of an abstract concept called city A which embraces everything about that place. At this point we do not need to consider further information. Next, we take the car and start driving. Now the abstract symbol ”city A” is not enough for us and we need extra information. Thus, we consider more detailed information included into the concept city A, for example roads and city districts. When we approach the area where our kin live we focus on streets and directions to arrive at a particular address: our destination. Finally, when we are at the entrance of our kin’s house, we can forget everything about cities, roads, districts, streets, etc. to only focus on spatial information about rooms and corridors. This example shows how we abstract (or reﬁne) symbolic information, that is, how we arrange information at diﬀerent levels of detail using it when needed. Through a hierarchical symbolic model (like the one used in this work), which simulates the human way to arrange information at diﬀerent levels of detail, we can eﬃciently manipulate an immense amount of information considering at each moment only that which is relevant for our task.
253 Lee mas
Recognizing the impact of the social, political and armed conflict on the present and future of Colombia, this article analyzes some of the rhetoric which appeared in audiovisual and written media between 2008 and 2015 about the armed forces, insurgent organizations and the women that integrate them. I argue that these rhetorics are related to a war fought on a symbolic level -in which the category “terrorism” has occupied an important place- and that it continues to have profound repercussions on the configuration of Colombian society. The article synthesizes some elements of the investigation “Being a guerrilla is an honor. Mediations in the conversion and permanence of militant women of insurgent organizations in Colombia”, carried out between early 2012 and mid-2016 with guerrilla women being held as political prisoners.
8 Lee mas
El artículo de Elizabeth Peal y Wallace Lam- bert «The Relation of Bilingualism to Intelligen- ce», publicado en 1962, es conocido sobre todo por desafiar los argumentos sobre el efecto perjudicial del bilingüismo y por intro- ducir la noción de la ventaja intelectual de los bilingües. Nuestro propósito aquí es, sin em- bargo, tratar su otro hallazgo, uno sobre las actitudes sociales de los bilingües. Este estu- dio mostró que los bilingües en inglés-francés tendían a identificarse más con los canadien- ses anglófonos que con los canadienses fran- cófonos, mientras los monolingües francófo- nos tendían a preferir a los canadienses francófonos. Si bien las disposiciones de los monolingües eran comprensibles, el resultado para el grupo bilingüe requería más interpre- tación. Peal y Lambert (1962) cuestionaron particularmente si las actitudes más favora- bles de los bilingües hacia los canadienses anglófonos implicaban necesariamente unas actitudes menos favorables hacia los cana- dienses francófonos. Su respuesta, aunque es conjetural, merece nuestra atención.
40 Lee mas
In order to address this research gap, this paper seeks to provide a more integrated perspective of both institutional and efficiency explanations of SR dynamics, as well as to highlight the role of company-level characteristics in explaining its contribution to sustainability management practices. More specifically, we suggest that substantive SR implementation can be predicted by assessing the level of fit between the organization and the SR framework being adopted. Building on this idea, our theoretical model defines three forms of fit (technical, cultural and political) and identifies organizational characteristics associated to each of these fits. Finally, implications for academic research, businesses and policy-makers are derived.
15 Lee mas
What it is here is a trivial and superficial version of something much deeper, the thorny problem of the complex relationship between reality and its representation which has been basic in art history. The issue has been considered and reformulated to such an extent that art history is largely the history of the reality-representation binomial. Artists themselves have explicitly and ingeniously expressed the conundrum from time to time, as for example Velazquez with Las Meninas or Salvador Dali with Dali from the Back Painting Gala from the Back. Realist movements approached the reality-representation relationship from a global perspective, whereas the avant-garde approach has been more fragmented, and focused on colour (impressionists), on shape (cubists) or on movement (futurists), to give but a few examples. Contemporary art has regained the global and holistic perspective of the reality-representation issue, which had been partly lost over the last century and a half. Conceptual art has also often addressed the subject. Peter Campus’ ground-breaking work Interface (1972) shows a reflection of the viewer on a screen and a live video of the same viewer projected onto the same screen. The two images are brought together into one single vision.
18 Lee mas
A nat1onal program of earhquake pred1ct.1on ',,as launched 1n 1965 .:1th f1r13nc1al support fro:n the government.. The fund::.ng and planrung of the prograIT have been in f1ve-year 1ncremer.ts ( the firsc segment ,,35 an except1ona1 four years). The prograrr: is nov. 11, th!c m, ddle of the hfth 5- vear segment and thu.s ',nll be 22 year.s old b, the end of fiscal 1986. Tne 1986 budget is approximately 6 bllhon ven. lf t.he budget for salan es, sorne fac1l1t1es and equ1pment are 1ncluded, the total budget reaches to about 10 b.Lll1on yen. About 400 government employees are d1rectly connec ted w1th the nat1onal program.
29 Lee mas
The assumption of creating artificial intelligence, which is not inferior to the human mind, leads to the idea that consciousness is not a material property of man. But what is it in this case? The method of analytical philosophy, which is dominant in almost all modern concepts of the philosophy of consciousness, requires starting with the study of the vocabulary, through which we express the phenomena given in the experience. Language and its contexts is a socially guaranteed tool. However, the meaning of language expressions may also be closely related to neurophysiological states. For example, it can be recorded empirically that certain thoughts correspond to certain wave oscillations in the cerebral cortex, in which it is possible to distinguish alpha, beta, delta and tetra waves. In this “cognitive behaviorism” philosophers rightly saw a strong simplification of real life and activities related to consciousness. Based on the experimental data of cognitive sciences, one can see a huge variety of rules, schemes, conventions, etc., used as an explanation of the observed patterns of human activity, including social life. All this shows that social cognitive process is primary in relation to individual acts of thinking. The mental is nothing but a stream of individual and social symbolic patterns created and managed by human agents in accordance with local norms and conventions. That is why D. Dennett comes to the idea that for a rational explanation of consciousness it is enough to turn to the analysis of culture. Solving the problem of explaining consciousness, Dennett applies the R. Dawkins’ hypothesis of “memes”. “Memes” are the fundamental units of culture. “Memes” are created, perceived, transmitted and “introduced” into the hereditary program of a person in the form of so-called “selfish genes” of the brain ( Vasilyev, , 2009: p. 122). “Human consciousness itself is a huge complex of memes (or, more precisely, memo-effects in the brain
7 Lee mas
Due partly to qualitative aspects (each symbol has a different structural weight) and partly to quantitative issues, not all the operations or all the symbols can be allo- cated an identical gapcost in the isokinetics field. For example, curvatures are sym- bols that are part of any repetition, whereas peaks and troughs are circumstantial symbols, usually induced by minor patient injuries and, therefore, may or may not ap- pear. Additionally, a large peak cannot be considered the same as a small peak. There- fore, each symbol has to be allocated a different weight, and a distinction has to be made depending on the symbol type.
12 Lee mas
From the point of view of trees—a symbolic observation post—artists open breaches between plant, animal and human worlds, engaging with processes of acculturation. Ecomorphism—from oikos as habitat and morphe as form—is the result of a species’ adaptation to its environment. At the edge of worlds, the museum is not a closed place; it is a “perch”, an essential observatory for viewing social evolution. As a contemporary avatar of the human urban world, the museum cultivates symbolic forests to disorient the visitor and create links between worlds. Beyond a nature in crisis, a double ecopoetic of artistic and literary works emerges in the museum. Perched on a tree, levitating in the middle of a forest, or like a giant spruce laying horizontally, artists forge singular points of view and symbiotic bonds with living organisms that exemplify movement through and across worlds. Applied to the recurrence of artistic works, scenographies and exhibition narratives, ecomorphism is this process of adaptation that pushes our perceptions and ecological consciousness towards a culture of the living. Let us follow the path of ecomorphism that leads through a silent (r)evolution or artistic invasion of wild nature forms, like so many possibly transformative encounters with the living world.
22 Lee mas
In rejecting critical discourse, the university representative is rejecting the ontological sources that are the foundation of creating such a masters program in the university, which is supposed to express a spirit of inquiry necessary to train the elites capable of responding to societal needs. And it is just because the university denied this reality that the Masters in Women’s Studies was not renewed. How to explain this outcome? Fatma Haddad-Chamakh rep- resented, for the authorities, a safety net, by specifying that the masters was in women’s studies, not feminism, and that therefore this training would not create waves and call into question the existing order, institutions of power, patriarchy, economic power, etc. Fatma Haddad-Chamakh’s move into retire- ment without the administration appointing her successor, raises questions as to the functions of the university. When Tunisian women philosophers were attacked in the press, neither the university nor the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research came to their defense (Labidi 2015a forth- coming). And this exchange of press articles testifies to the tensions among the visions of different women’s groups, as well as between women and the university/institutions of power. It has the advantage of showing us the cul- ture that prevailed from 1956 to 2011 and the barriers between the women who were on the inside and those who were on the outside.
30 Lee mas
The application of virtual reality techniques in the field of drug addiction has had two comple- mentary research lines. First, check how expo- sure to virtual environments can cause craving in subjects with addiction to substances since so far virtual environments with smokers have been tested, although they have also been used with cocaine addicts, obtaining good results. The other line of research is closer to the treat- ments of exposure to tracks. In these studies, the craving produced by virtual environments is reduced by repeated exposures to them and, as a consequence, the desire to consume in risk situations is reduced, with the consequent re- duction in tobacco consumption (Saladin, Br- ady, Graap, and Rothbaum, 2006, as cited in Garcia, Pericot, Gutiérrez and Ferrer, 2009).
30 Lee mas
Physical parameterizations in atmospheric or oceanic numerical models represent the subgrid-scale physical processes, through functional dependences with the re- solved variables. These resolved variables, on which the parameterizations depend, are slow large-scale vari- ables; hence, in general, the models lack from small- scale variability. Palmer (2001) suggested the use of stochastic parameterizations to account for this lack of variability in the models. There are several works in the last decade that show that both weather forecasts and climate predictions appear to benefit from stochastic parameterizations. For instance, the ensemble pre- diction system of the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) uses a stochastic kinetic backscatter algorithm to improve the skill of ensemble forecasting (Shutts 2005). Convection pro- cesses have also been proposed to be represented through stochastic parameterizations (Christensen et al. 2015). Some climate features, such as the quasi-biennial oscillation, are better represented in models with sto- chastic parameterizations (Piani et al. 2004; Lott et al. 2012). Wilks (2005) showed that including a stochastic parameterization in the Lorenz-96 system produces improvements compared to deterministic parameteri- zations of both the model climatology and ensemble forecast verification measures. Here, we evaluate whether the use of information measures is sensitive to stochastic parameterizations and whether some of the noise variance parameters of stochastic parameteriza- tions may be constrained by trying to reproduce with the model the information measures from the observed time series.
17 Lee mas
Orban claims our “second point of confusion” was in re- gard to assumptions about brain functions made by com- paring the results of single-neuron recordings and fMRI. As Orban points out, fMRI has limited capacity for quantifying the main property of single neurons. Interestingly, he cites his own work (Orban 2011) in parallel fMRI studies: “A meaningful relationship between single neurons recorded in monkeys and fMRI data obtained in humans can, however, be established using monkey fMRI as a linking technique.” We note that Orban et al. (2006), on which we drew heavily, is one such parallel study. We are, however, in complete agree- ment with Orban in the following, which are important points in our work and that of Orban and his colleagues. First, numerosity is an inherently abstractive process. Second, the process of abstraction involved in basic numerosity is shared with nonhuman primates. Third, we completely agree with Orban and his colleagues that there appears to be a second or higher level of abstraction—generalization across different kinds of ordered sequences—that may be unique to humans. With regard to Orban’s final comments about tool use, parietal areas, and the differences between H. sapiens and Neanderthals, we are in agreement that “the level of abstrac- tion achieved may be different between H. sapiens and Ne- anderthals.” However, it appears that Orban objects to our citing his work (Orban et al. 2006) as a justification for re- puted functional behavioral differences between H. sapiens and Neanderthals. Let us be clear: Orban et al. (2006) stated “that a portion of the anterior part of human IPS is evolu- tionarily new. This additional cortical tissue may provide the capacity for an enhanced visual analysis of moving images necessary for sophisticated control of manipulation and tool handling” (2647). Bruner’s work (Bruner 2004, 2010; Bruner, De la Cue´tara, and Holloway 2011a; Bruner and Holloway 2010; Bruner, Manzi, and Arsuaga 2003) establishes the dis-
23 Lee mas