Accepting the above-mentioned features of complexity science means establishing how this critical reflection, which will allow new general perceptions and the recognition of new realities such as those which are meaningful for development, will be carried out. If what is wanted is to make progress with designing policies that respond to the new scenarios and which lead to the creation of unpredictable and dynamic change processes, which advance gradually towards human development, it is necessary to have conceptual categories and procedures that make this possible. There are two approaches, still very general in nature, that help to establish connections between development and complexity science. Ramalingam and Jones (2008) sum up the features of complexity concepts in their relation to development, in this way: i) complexity is to be understood as a set of interrelated ideas, but cannot be imagined as a fully constructed edifice; ii) it offers a series of useful viewpoints and approaches that confront or challenge the conventional world, which may allow us to better to understand and outline the complexities of the real world; iii) particularly: to understand the nature of change and the behaviours of intelligent actors within it; it creates ideas and perceptions that help us see complex problems in a more realistic and holistic manner; iv) for example, it helps us to understand the global climate system, national debates within the Eurozone, vulnerability and disasters, the dynamics of growth, etc.; wherever there are systems of interconnected dimensions and elements that include adaptive agents, that is where complex processes and relationships are found; v) complexity science broadens the kind of thing that can be viewed according to theoretical foundations. Moving forward, Green highlights the suggestions raised by complexity and systems thinking with regard to development: a) it means inclining towards those who support seeking, rather than planners, by considering that it is impossible to design plans to achieve specific results in an unpredictable context; b) a support towards a greater emphasis on history and less on mathematics, that is to say, narrative takes a central place and acquires a reason for existing; it involves a criticism of the economic models that, mostly, separate causes from effects, when it is impossible to disconnect them if causes and effects feed into each other and are interconnected; c) it is important to know how to respond to complexity, which means: controlling, evaluating and learning; d) new kinds of leaders are needed in a complex and chaotic world, who are able to subvert, transform and challenge existing taboos, models of thinking and ways of doing things, pushing forward newness; e) it is at the edge of chaos where the greatest innovation in human systems is produced. 9
The development of instruments for climate risk management allows implementation of actions to adapt to climate change as well to make eff icient use of f inancial resources to mitigate its impacts. In Mexico, the use of these instruments has not been documented. For this reason, this paper develops a conceptual- theoreticalframework for instrumentation of remote sensing satellite parametric insurance to present its advantages and limitations in scope. To this end, the concept of risk unit, payment threshold and insurance- associated elements were applied to establish the climate risk associated with agricultural (livestock) activities, mainly drought. Under the critical requirement of a linear relationship between spectral index and the plant biomass without additive constant, an optimized NDVIcp spectral index was used, which resulted in the development of a technically sound insurance scheme that did not require historical information on livestock production. Moreover, it accurately reflects the reality in the f ield. Finally, the framework allowed setting the bases for designing catastrophic-type satellital parametric livestock insurance that is solid, transparent, and conceptually accessible to its users.
(C) The lipid bilayer of the cell membrane is semipermeable and functions as a selective barrier against large molecules and ions or polar molecules, delaying or impeding its passage (Campbell and Reece, 2008; Lodish et al., 2008). In two moments of the theoretical approach, Ruth did know how to explain this scientific knowledge and referred that in the cell membranes there is the movement of water and solute. At several moments of the lessons of practical work about osmosis, Sara mentioned that the cell membrane is semipermeable but she could not explain why and she also indicated that the sodium and calcium ions could diffuse across the membrane down its concentration gradient. This is also a common incorrect students’ idea (ions, because of their small size, can diffuse through cell membrane), as evidenced in the study made by Shi and co-workers (2010). The excerpt 11 exemplifies this scientific inaccuracy in teacher Sara’s practice (Table 8). Sara considers that the movement of sodium and calcium ions across the geranium petal cells it was possible but she does not discuss that in the class, since the focus of practical work was the movement of water.
Because the practice of professors and instructors is informed and developed by guidance from a number of sources, the literature considered in this project included current research as well as literature that might be considered in the genre of “best practices,” editorials, and “thought” pieces. All the articles considered were post-2005 to capture the most current ideas, although much of this literature was built on earlier theoreticaland research studies. With this broad sweep of literature to consider, the key terms “mentoring and higher education” were used to search Academic Search Complete Premier and the ProQuest Central databases. Again, this encompassed a wide spectrum of mentoring in higher education and included the mentoring that takes place during on-site residencies (e.g., for nurses, medical students, counselors, and teachers) and the mentoring of new university faculty members, both of which were excluded from this review. This left articles on mentoring current students in higher education programs. A few of these articles related to the mentoring of undergraduate students and were given only peripheral attention while the focus was on the mentoring of doctoral students. Most of the remaining articles were written in the context of the traditional university environment and draw on both faculty and student perceptions. The literature reviewed was not discipline-specific and, in general, the authors did not assume or find differences in mentoring needs and practices among disciplines. However, the framework will require testing across the range of different disciplines each with its own culture, history and tradition of mentoring, and post-graduation perspectives, and also in special settings such as those involving on-site training, clinics, and laboratories.
Abstract: During the last years it has become evident the need to speak about sustainable development, since the economic growth not only has generated benefits as for revenue and opportunities of employment but it has brought with it environmental and social problems, turning into one of the big challenges of the 21st century, how to continue generating wealths but simultaneously not to affect the environment in which we unroll ourselves. In this respect it becomes necessary that the man in favor of safeguarding the resources that today it possesses carries out a suitable planning and management orientated to the balance of the components of the development: economic, social and environmental.
In this paper, I have presented a semiotic approach to translation called semiosic translation in the context of EFL instruction in Columbia. With regard to subtitling, it has been argued that the translation process goes beyond the coni nes of language to include all the semiotic channels present in audiovisual works. In order to illus- trate my position, I have provided a multidisciplinary theoreticalframework com- bining Peircean semiotics, translation studies, and applied linguistics. Accordingly, semiosic translation i lls out the sense that the connection between language and its biological substrate encapsulates an expanded dei nition of sign systems as so- cial (and also ecological) phenomena rather than as objects of analysis constrained by specii c semiotic ideologies. It also gets at how both the Object’s and the Sign’s identities can escape the objectii cation of perception (h irdness), assigning specii c form and meaning to both inward and outward forms of semiosis. Not least, this premise avoids conventional sign categorizations drawing on normative, abstract dei nitions of semiosis that ignore shit ing social and cultural concerns. Relatedly, the paradigmatic shit laid out here rules out the presence of any ‘ideal observers’, 12 12 h e notion ‘ideal observer’ is the cornerstone of Bayesian inferential models. h ese consider
should also be addressed. It seems necessary that people in charge of AVs know the driving rules and how to operate on-board technologies. Mandatory periodical vehicle revisions will also radically change. These are the required regulations for tomorrow’s AVs. However, we also need to face the regulations for today. Regulations aimed at facilitating the test of automated vehicles in real environments must be developed. Liability in case of accident is possibly the most controversial topic regarding AVs regulation. The problem is even more complex if one takes into account that during a long period driverless vehicles will share roads not only with traditional vehicles, but also with automated vehicles of different levels subject to different regulations. One could think that automakers should bear the responsibility if a SAE5-level vehicle is involved in an accident, as the presence of a human being is not even mandatory. This assumption would not only be unfair, but it could even prevent fully AVs from entering the market. Improper maintenance or usage could also be the culprit. Also even if everything works fine, some unavoidable accidents will occur. In such situations, the vehicle will have to make a decision. The decision-making process that researchers try to introduce in the software of AVs is supposed to mimic that of human beings. But to this end, some guidance must be programmed, which implies moral dilemmas. In fact, ethics and philosophy are already being applied trying to find a solution to the most intricate situations, like the “trolley problem” (Foot, 1967). Stakeholders, authorities and user associations already work together trying to reach a common agreement. For example, the need for a “black box” in the vehicle is seen by all parties as essential to support legal decisions in case a contingence occurs. However, only Germany has released specific guidelines on these points. The German Ethical Guidelines (BMVI Ethics Commission, 2017) highlight for example that human life has priority over that of animals or over things. They also demand fully AVs software to make the decisions that involve less damage, etc. Responsibility will also affect insurances, which are expected to be cheaper for passengers and more expensive for other stakeholders like automakers or software developers. Policies in this regard are also essential.
nize themselves along the sacred and profane divide. They do move to avoid pollution and to restore purity. And they construct their soli- darity by resorting to ritual processes. But they depart from traditional societies to the extent to which drama and contrivance are the routine conditions under which the symbolic forms of social life unfold within them. In other words, modern complex societies take a new dramatic turn, as Shils and Young (1956/1975) or Dayan and Katz (1990) have shown. A religious soci- ology of modern society that seeks to account for the reenchantment within it must come to terms with these new dramatic conditions un- der which meanings is created and shared in such societies. And, to do so, it needs a theory of performance. Shils and Young (1956) and Bel- lah have not gone as far. Only Kenneth Burke, Ervin Goffmann, Clifford Geertz, Victor Turner, Richard Schechner and Jeffrey Alexander have taken stock of the question of performance and only with Alexander does the attention to performance develop into a full-blown macro- sociological model of social action as cultural performance that acknowledges the operation of meaning structures, contingency, power, and materiality in social performance. 47 Alexander
According to Statista (2018), assets under the management of robo-advisors have been increasing during the past years. Additionaly, it estimates these funds will reach 2.2 million dollars by 2020. Even if the numbers are still small, this industry has been exponentially growing and it deserves respect due to (1) the simplification and optimization of investment through automation and lower fees, and (2) the risks derived (mostly shown as Flash Crashes 4 , and Dark Pools 5 ) by the non-focused legislation that allow programs access to unreachable advantages for human beings. The second point is especially important due to the current reforms of the financial markets, which do not form a core part of this paper but show inefficiencies since they are mainly driven by and for humans. Therefore, the market is decompensated, causing some phenomena that drive to systemic risk, which must be mitigated by the authorities.
Among the first studies that challenged the accurateness of this new classification was the research of Rettore and Trivellato (1993) who tested the way that labour supply’s behaviour have changed comparing the new and old definition and found that the estimation of a model of labour supply shows significative sensitiveness to the way the labour force state (i.e. employment status) is defined. On a posterior work, Battistin et. Al (2000) tested the accuracy of the new definition using Bayesian statistical methods to compare the similarities or differences between poblational groups classified according to the ILO-ICLS criteria and does not find special differ- ences between unemployed people who did their last job-search more than a year ago, unem- ployed people who did their last search between two and 12 months ago and those ones who searched for a job in the last month. Finally, Viviano (2002) uses the methodology of Jones and Ridell (1999), which is based on the estimation of the transition probabilities among individuals classified on different states of the labour market (employed, unemployed, etc). The conclusion, in words of the author is that “….the standardised ILO definition of unemployment is too rigid for a relevant part of the Italian labour market”.
Our results conform to those obtained in Meza, et al. (2006), Skeldon (2003), Woodruff and Zenteno (2001) and Lozano-Ascencio (2003), where remittances are explained to be good in terms of meeting consumption needs and to cope with basic relative deprivation. Well-fed and healthier individuals can make a greater contribution to their personal development and their regions as Skeldon (2003) remarks. Although, it has been shown that remittances contribute to alleviate po- verty, their potential to be used partly for wealth creation with jobs and invest- ments has strongly been criticized. Relative deprivation has forced those families to be joined as important networks, where they even have changed their own en- vironment when contributing to public infrastructure endowments; parallel to the not sufficient work done by the Mexican Government in those issues, such as the obligation of providing public lighting, paving and sewer, the provision of clean water for domestic service among other services that must have been provided by the public sector, and not paid or financed by the remittances.
Haslam-McKenzie (2001) details an example in rural Australia, where the display of aggregated data in rural western Australia results in an interpretation of misleading information. The overall population of the region from Geraldton south to Esperance in Western Australia, excluding the metropolitan area, has increased in the years between 1961 and 1991. The Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) twelve statistical divisions show fairly steady population growth and politicians and bureaucrats often cite these statistics as evidence of growth within the region (Haslam-McKenzie, 2001). However, when ABS statistical subdivisions are closely analysed, it is obvious that the increase in population has not been uniform. A small number of subdivisions show a significant population increase while the majority of inland subdivisions have experienced depopulation. These inland subdivisions, which are limited to agricultural production and can be defined as completely rural, exhibit a persistent decrease in population (Haslam-McKenzie, 2001). For those rural dwellers living in the wheatbelt that stretches inland from Geraldton to Esperance the ‘misinterpretation’ of the statistics has meant that regional issues and concerns have not been properly understood by policy makers (Haslam-McKenzie, 2001).
87 framework to improve community education, is devised. This framework is based on a conscious organizing of educative influences applied to the regular task of the community under the coordinate action of social institutions and organization that promote the transformational action of the neighborhood assuming a protagonist role in the improvement of the quality of live and morals related to the socialism updating process. The comprehensive model was proved experimentally at District 59 of San Miguel town; the transformation of the community was scientifically registered together with the information gather by means of observation and interviewing. The findings proved the pertinence and feasibility of the proposed model.
Research into state–society synergy would be particularly important in countries intending to follow the 19th century precedent and scale-up coverage by integrating CBHI into govern- ment-led national social health insurance schemes, such as Ghana (Government of Ghana, 2003), since in these contexts issues of power between regulatory state oﬃcials and CBHI schemes will come to the fore. Synergy may also be important in contexts where ability to pay is very low. One critical weakness of CBHI is that it has not experienced signiﬁcant and sustained success to improve access and ﬁnancial protection among indigents (World Health Organization, 2000) because (a) the poor are excluded from CBHI schemes because they cannot pay the premium or (b) the poor un- der-utilize services even if they have coverage (Atim et al., 2001; Ranson, 2002). This suggests that if CBHI is the only form of social protec- tion for health expenditure, it is unlikely to be suﬃcient. For CBHI to promote equitable ac- cess to health care, it is likely that indigents would need to be subsidized by the state, while the rural non-poor and informal workers are targeted to make contributions to CBHI (Ben- nett et al., 2004). In such scenarios, following the social capital framework, public subsidies may work best when administrative structures in CBHI intersect with local political structures to facilitate bureaucrats’ loyalty and enthusiasm to become ‘‘embedded’’ in schemes and put their energy into making them work.
En los últimos años se han aplicado diferentes estrategias para abordar el diseño en el área de aprendizaje enriquecido con tecnología. Una propuesta metodológica para considerar diferentes aspectos relacionados a este diseño es presentado en , donde se identifican los siguientes aspectos: claridad, valor agregado, compatibilidad y tolerancia. Otros enfoques, incorporan el uso de diferentes conceptos de la ingeniería de software para su diseño. En  se promueve el uso de la separación de concerns, puntualmente para e-learning. En particular, para el área de aplicaciones de aprendizaje móvil contextual (tanto físico como social), en  se presenta un enfoque de diseño basado en tres componentes: facilitación, actividad in-situ y tecnología. En estos enfoques mencionados, se tienen acoplados los aspectos de posicionamiento y contenido educativo, lo que imposibilita el reuso de los mismos. Esta es la motivación principal para proponer el frameworkconceptual que se presentará en este trabajo.
La participación de mujeres en Ensayos Clínicos, sirve de ejemplo para dos tipos de sesgo. En primer lugar el sesgo de selección en epidemiología clínica. Durante años, las mujeres fueron excluidas de los ensayos clínicos por temor a los efectos que la exposición a nuevos fármacos pudiese tener en el embarazo. No fue hasta los años 90, tras el trabajo reivindicativo de grupos feministas, que National Health Institutes 15 y la Food and Drug Administration 16