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The Intensifiers this/that in Some Varieties of English

The Intensifiers this/that in Some Varieties of English

The intensifiers this/that acquired their adverbial status as a result of a grammaticalization process by means of which the deictic demonstratives became degree adverbs with the meaning of ‘to this/that extent, so much, so’ (OED s.v. this/that adv; Diessel 1999:17). The phenomenon disseminated in the early 19th-century as a typical resource of spoken English and since then, these intensifiers have found their room in the written domain imposing a scalar construal on adjectives for which scale is not the default construal (Author 2019:167-169). These intensifiers have been hitherto ignored in the literature, perhaps as a result of an erroneous accusation of informality, and consequently so has been traditionally recommended in these contexts (Fowler 1926:772; Swan 1980:566; Quirk et al. 1985:1466).
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With this background, it was already clear that there was an urgent need to undertake a restructuring of the sector and to support this process in a way that allowed the solvency

With this background, it was already clear that there was an urgent need to undertake a restructuring of the sector and to support this process in a way that allowed the solvency

At a European level, several studies analyze the significant impact degree that the Eco- nomic and Monetary Union (EMU) has on the competence of the banking sector in those countries which adopted the single currency (Bikker & Groeneveld, 2000; De Bandt & Davis, 2000); whether bank concentration in a national market has a negative impact on the financial solvency of European banks (Uhde & Heimeshoff, 2009) or the determinants of bank profitability in several European countries, and also that a higher degree of concentra- tion leads to a higher profitability (Molyneux & Thornton, 1992). In this sense, international comparisons of banking efficiency can be used to identify, among others, issues of interna- tional consolidation of the banking industry. González (2009) analyzes the influence of bank efficiency and policy variables on the market structure. Their results are consistent with the efficiency-structure hypothesis, which states that the most efficient banks have, on average, higher levels of domestic market that enhance market concentration.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

An example of community-established indicators for biodiversity monitoring is found in Box 17. Here, the community had a stake in the sustainable harvest of one particular species of shellfish, which, as it happened, was also dependent on the quality of the coral reefs. Similar examples of community-based ecological monitoring are found in the case studies for Australia and Tanzania (see Appendix I). Choosing a species of direct relevance to local communities for livelihood purposes will often ensure that biodiversity conservation objectives are also met. Monitoring can also be integrated into something that community members are already doing, such as monitoring water quality when they collect water or measuring the quantity of fish harvested during a specified time period. If the community is sufficiently vested in the participatory management process, specialised training can be provided in the use of various tools and techniques for ecological monitoring. Facilitators can help the community to design a well- targeted, culturally appropriate, and simple monitoring plan. A number of the same participatory techniques that are used in participatory assessment and planning (e.g., mapping, semi-structured interviews, flow diagrams, matrix analysis, etc.) can also be very useful for participatory monitoring. A large and growing number of manuals provide descriptions of these techniques (see Additional Resources, following this chapter).
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

the Contracting Parties (COP7, COP8, COP9 and COP10) held, respectively, in San José, Costa Rica, in May 1999, Valencia, Spain, in November 2002, Kampala, Uganda, in November 2005, and Changwon, Republic of Korea, October-November 2008. The guidelines on various matters adopted by the Parties at those and earlier COPs have been prepared as a series of handbooks to assist those with an interest in, or directly involved with, implementation of the Convention at the international, regional, national, subnational or local levels. Each handbook brings together, subject by subject, the various relevant guidances adopted by Parties, supplemented by additional material from COP information papers, case studies and other relevant publications so as to illustrate key aspects of the guidelines. The handbooks are available in the three working languages of the Convention (English, French, and Spanish). The table on the inside back cover lists the full scope of the subjects covered by this handbook series at present. Additional handbooks will be prepared to include any further guidance adopted by future meetings of the Conference of the Contracting Parties. The Ramsar Convention promotes an integrated package of actions to ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands. In recognition of these integrated approaches, the reader will find that within each handbook there are numerous cross-references to others in the series.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

43. Over time, the role and scope of the Ramsar Convention has evolved, building on this recognition of the fundamental linkages between human well-being, wetland ecosystem functions and water. This is reflected in the provision, through the Convention, of a rich array of knowledge and guidance related to the principle of “wise use” of wetlands, and also in the more recent initiatives (since COP6 in 1996) to move beyond viewing a few individual wetlands on the Ramsar List as self-contained ecological units, towards a view that all wetlands, wherever they occur in the hydrological cycle at planetary, continental, supranational and basin scales, ultimately are important and have a role to play in regulation of the hydrological cycle and provision of benefits to human society.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

Although the COP8 Resolution called for the development of a Working Group on CEPA to undertake a comprehensive programme of work, lack of funding precluded this. Instead, a CEPA Specialist Group was set up within the Wetlands International Specialist Group system to deliver the CEPA objectives of both the Ramsar Convention and Wetlands International. In addition, following the adoption at COP9 of Resolution IX.11 on the revised modus operandi of the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP), a CEPA expert has been appointed as a member of the STRP and provides the working link between the Specialist Group and the STRP Working Groups. COP10 in 2008 duly adopted a revised and updated CEPA work programme for 2009-2012 as the Annex to Resolution X.8, and this is presented in this 4th edition Handbook. The content of the programme reflects the increasing recognition that CEPA cuts across all of the Convention’s areas of activity, and it is also more apparent than ever that most of these areas of activity, and ultimately the overall goal of achieving the conservation and wise use of wetlands, depends fundamentally at every step on the four components of CEPA.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

13. ENCOURAGES the business sector to seek practical ways, in collaboration with the Ramsar Secretariat as resources permit, to understand the linkages between their activities and wetlands ecosystems, to avoid negative impacts, and to mitigate unavoidable effects throughout the supply and production chain; to assess the status and trends of conservation of wetlands, including the threats and opportunities to maintain the structure and functions of wetland ecosystems throughout various stages of commercial activities; and to understand and appreciate the values of the ecosystem services and products on which they rely and the wetland types that produce those benefits;
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THIS BOOK IS ABOUT YOU

THIS BOOK IS ABOUT YOU

Tracking is about to take some dramatic and revolutionary turns with the rise of online narrowcasting in Media Youcracy. In offline media, reach and frequency are given criteria by which planning options are measured against one another, to determine the results of their advertising efforts. For a while, it seemed that these important measures were going to be just as significant for online advertising as they had been for offline.The web, however, is different. When a banner or other type of ad is served, it is rarely exposed to the full site audience or even the full audience of the page served. As a result, there is no relationship between the site’s audience and the audience of the advertisement. It is for this reason that modelling of site survey data does not produce logical reach and frequency information.Your users are not where they used to be. Media environments are now so prolific and fragmented that we can identify a shift from broadcasting to narrowcasting. The possibility for extreme targeting, therefore, is evident as environments are often built on common interests amongst the users. Rather than thinking about how to reach users, advertisers should consider what binds users together, and address this in their user communication.
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How Warm Was This Summer?

How Warm Was This Summer?

This does not mean that local anomalies are unrelated to global trends, but it is necessary to look at statistics. Figure 2 shows winter and summer surface temperature anomalies averaged over the United States (contiguous 48 states), Europe and Japan. In each of these locations either 7 or 8 of the last 10 winters were warmer than the 1951-1980 mean winter temperature. Summer temperatures are a bit less noisy: 8 of the last 10 summers were warmer than the 1951-1980 mean in the United States and Japan, and 10 of 10 in Europe. So if you are perceptive and old enough, you should be able to notice a trend toward warmer seasons.
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THE DEBATE ON DECENTRALIZED COOPERATION: AID EFFECTIVENESS AFTER 2015: PERSPECTIVES FROM SPAIN

THE DEBATE ON DECENTRALIZED COOPERATION: AID EFFECTIVENESS AFTER 2015: PERSPECTIVES FROM SPAIN

Independently of the intensity and impact of the cutbacks that decen- tralized cooperation policy is undergoing, it seems relevant to focus on showing that the response to the crisis on the part of Spanish autonomic and local governments, in the form of fiscal adjustments, is giving rise to the configuration of a basic doctrinal dispute, which establishes a new framework in which the legitimacy and foundations of decentralized cooperation is becoming a source of controversy, when not directly com- ing into question. There exists, at the present time, a doctrinal dispute that, though it is often latent, will be key to the future of decentralized cooperation. A dispute that reflects two positions which arise from radi- cally different conceptions. The autonomous governments that assume that cooperation is public policy, for which local and autonomous gov- ernments have competency and responsibility, would represent the first, which we could call the cosmopolitan position. The second position considers cooperation to be a voluntary action performed “graciously” (Alonso, 2006: 23) by decentralized governments and, therefore, expendable in accord with criteria of political and economic suitability. This second position reflects a subsidiary view of cooperation policy. In the first case, decentralized cooperation reflects the commitment and collective responsibility of the gamut/network/totality of the gov- ernments that make up a decentralized State in the solution of global problems, and specifically in the struggle against poverty and the overcoming of north-South inequality. According to this discourse, decentralized cooperation is justified in the strategic value of the inter- national cooperation actions executed by the autonomous communities and local entities from the point of view of multilevel governance, as well as in their differential and complementary value in relation to the ODA advanced by the General State Administration (GSA). In a world increasingly interrelated, which confronts development challenges of a more and more global nature (millán et al., 2012), the role of decentral- ized governments has the potential to be ever more strategic. multilevel governance, therefore, requires the participation of decentralized gov- ernments in the global development agenda, as cooperation policies, far from being a voluntary option, are becoming in greater measure the responsibility of regional and local governments as well.
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What are the main concerns of human resource managers in organizations?

What are the main concerns of human resource managers in organizations?

This research has uncovered a total of 33 HR management programs. An initial observation is that the terms High Involvement Work Programs, practices or tools (HIWP), are not explicitly used in the reports analyzed. Considering the above-mentioned lack of consensus among researchers in classifying HIWP (Marin-Garcia & Conci, 2013), there is a need to confirm whether the programs that we identified as most important in the analyzed reports can be defined as HIWP. We looked at the list proposed by Perello-Marin and Ribes-Giner (2014) which compiled a total of 42 programs commonly used by academics researching this area between 2000 and 2012. From this comparison we found that all identified solutions correspond to HIWPs, proving that although this is a term that is not used expressly in the reports analyzed, companies use such programs on a regular basis on the deployment of the HR function, and HR managers are interested in HIWP as a tool to meet challenges in the short and medium/long term.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

the Contracting Parties (COP7, COP8, COP9 and COP10) held, respectively, in San José, Costa Rica, in May 1999, Valencia, Spain, in November 2002, Kampala, Uganda, in November 2005, and Changwon, Republic of Korea, October-November 2008. The guidelines on various matters adopted by the Parties at those and earlier COPs have been prepared as a series of handbooks to assist those with an interest in, or directly involved with, implementation of the Convention at the international, regional, national, subnational or local levels. Each handbook brings together, subject by subject, the various relevant guidances adopted by Parties, supplemented by additional material from COP information papers, case studies and other relevant publications so as to illustrate key aspects of the guidelines. The handbooks are available in the three working languages of the Convention (English, French, and Spanish). The table on the inside back cover lists the full scope of the subjects covered by this handbook series at present. Additional handbooks will be prepared to include any further guidance adopted by future meetings of the Conference of the Contracting Parties. The Ramsar Convention promotes an integrated package of actions to ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands. In recognition of these integrated approaches, the reader will find that within each handbook there are numerous cross-references to others in the series.
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56 Lee mas

About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

Over time, protection of important fish and wildlife habitats has begun to receive more legal acceptance as a public objective of wetland regulation in the United States. Modifications of flood control, flood insurance and disaster relief policies are also beginning to gain acceptance. These hold promise for floodplain wetlands in large river systems and embody principles that have wide application wherever human uses of floodplains are at odds with regular major flood events. Because agriculture has been a major historical cause of wetland loss in the United States, government subsidies to farmers to support cultivation of certain crops and to adopt land treatment practices have been critical issues in United States wetland protection efforts. More attention is being given to modification of crop subsidy policies, and promotion of revised land use practices in order to reduce the adverse impacts of agriculture on wetland conservation.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

20. However, many coastal wetland systems and resources have been grossly undervalued in development decisions. Although they produce a number of marketable products that may be valued, the greater part of their value lies in non-marketable goods and services, which therefore remains largely unrecognized. Some of the ecological services provided by coastal wetlands are also considered as public goods, i.e. the services that should be available to everyone at no cost, but these are seldom fully costed in valuation practices. Under-valuation has been a major reason why wetland resources have been misallocated and why conversion of wetlands to other uses has continued to be a common practice, with often serious consequential costs and impacts on local communities.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

Note: The Ramsar Convention and Impact Assessment was prepared for Technical Session IV of Ramsar COP7 (San José, Costa Rica, 1999); the full text is available at www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ ramsar-documents-cops-cop7-ramsar-cop7-doc-19-1/main/ramsar/1-31-58-83%5E18715_4000_0__. SEA: a tool for legal and institutional review and for creating the right incentives Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is the “formalised, systematic and comprehensive process of evaluating the environmental effects of a policy, plan or programme and its alternatives, including the preparation of a written report on the findings of that evaluation, and using the findings in publicly accountable decision-making” (Therivel et al 1992 Strategic Environmental Assessment, Earthscan Publications, London). It provides a structured process of analysing the economic, social and ecological impacts of programmes, plans and policies and of identifying alternative economic incentives for conserving and wisely or sustainably using wetlands. SEA differs from EIA in that it is applied to policies, plans and programmes rather than to projects. It addresses a number of the shortcomings of EIA in that it is capable of addressing the cumulative impacts of projects, it is capable of addressing the issue of induced impacts (where one project stimulates other development), it can address synergistic impacts (where the impact of several projects exceeds the sum of the individual project impacts), and it can address global impacts such as biodiversity loss.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

An institutional cooperation initiative to promote and carry out inventories on Andean wetlands was launched in Colombia in February 2003 with the goal of developing a conceptual framework for the inventory and ecological characterisation of the wetlands in the Andean region. This information would then serve to register the presence of all high Andean wetlands and their characteristics in a format that was standardised and readily available. Of special importance in this undertaking was the identification and location of those wetlands that, because of their size, geographical location and state of conservation, have not been assigned the degree of importance they deserve as biodiversity refuges and safety nets for the local communities that depend on them.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

26. The interaction between groundwater and wetlands can vary within wetlands (e.g., along a river’s course) and between individual wetlands, even ones that are close to one another. For example, the three Breckland Meres (small lakes) in eastern England, Langmere, Ringmere, and Fenmere, are visually similar and geographically close to one another (Figure 3). Langmere is in direct hydrological contact with the underlying chalk aquifer and its water regime is controlled by groundwater fluctuations. Ringmere is separated slightly from the same aquifer by a lining of organic matter (an aquitard) but is still largely controlled by groundwater. In contrast, Fenmere is isolated from the chalk aquifer by a clay layer (an aquiclude) and its water levels are controlled exclusively by rainfall and evaporation.
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Is this your famil y?

Is this your famil y?

Furthermore, speaking is also difficult to assess since teachers are generally required to zreate rubrics that contain sorne of the many possible categories that speaking entails. ':"-2achers must decide: Does speaking include the use ofbody language? Does speaking :.::dude the use ofvisual aids? These and similar questions demonstrate the difficulty of

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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

50. Previous Ramsar Conferences of the Contracting Parties have agreed that development assistance agencies should seek to “strengthen the institutional arrangements and the ecological expertise both at the national level and among regional development authorities in the project regions, in order to implement . . . policies and to train and educate personnel at project implementation level” (Recommendation 3.4). Potential recipient countries should seek training opportunities for their personnel to provide them with the necessary technical and project development skills. Section 2.4 of these Guidelines is relevant here. Recipient countries are also further urged to seek resources from donors for the development of National Wetland Policies (or similar) and for implementing national communication, education The Fund relies exclusively upon the voluntary contributions from government agencies and both national and international NGOs. Between 1991 and 2008 the Fund provided a total of 7.5 million Swiss Francs to 227 projects from 108 countries. Over this same period, 338 projects (68%) that were considered suitable for funding were not supported due to lack of funds. Options for ways and means of establishing a firm and stable base of resourcing for the SGF continue under discussion by the Convention’s Standing Committee.
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About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

are the same for [the] different purposes [of core inventory, ecological character description, site designation with the Ramsar Information Sheet, and reporting change under Article 3.2 of the Convention], and hence the main effort of data collation need only be undertaken once, rather than being duplicated. Any differences in the data and information needs for these various purposes can often be more a matter of the level of detail required. Actual needs will vary according to the individual circumstances of the sites and situations concerned. The tables [in the Annex to Resolution X.15] identify the full list of fields that may apply, but whether any of them does apply, or whether there is capacity to provide a full description, will vary from site to site. It is not expected that all the specific data fields will necessarily have to be filled out for all sites.
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