For explanatory purposes described physically, economically and socially to the community of Santa Maria Tonameca , the break points in its history from its founding as a town in 1921 , its flood disaster 1939 , 2004 , 1997 Hurricane Pauline , his inclusion in the processes Finally , historical and current issues in the integration of tourism , where are three fundamental aspects : economic for the expropriation of land and tenure contradict the same , its strategic location on the coast of Oaxaca , in the middle of the passage Chacahua Lagoons Resort ( national park) -Puerto Escondido -Huatulco ( 170 km ) legal- political, legal because laws in contradiction involves private, public and community ; political because exercise powers from three local, national and global for economic policy to boost tourism in all parts of our country . Finally symbolic because it impacts on culture, their customs and traditions and the development of everyday life.
In this way, the emergence of guidelines like Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry (UNWTO 1995), the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (UNWTO 1999), the report of the World Ecotourism Summit that resulted in the Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism (UNWTO 2002), the Sustainable Development of Ecotourism: A Compilation of Good Practices in SMEs (UNWTO 2002 -2003) and in different UNESCO programs, posed the need for regulating sustainable development in a global context. This view integrates three dimensions: the economic, which aims to maximize the economic resources and positive growth that ensures a viable long-term development; the environmental, that promotes environmental preservation, awareness and the use of both the natural and socio-cultural values of the area, and finally, the social, which respects the identity and authenticity of local communities by incorporating the principles of justice and equality (Deery et al 2005). All of these three dimensions attempt to establish an integral vision of how to plan development (Gutiérrez 2008). According to Sotelo (2005), this is an idealistic model that aims to strike a balance between the ecological, economic and social aspects. According to García (2009) and Quintero (2005), the model of sustainability can be reached only if there is a clear balance of these three dimensions and two basic objectives are achieved: 1) to preserve the quality of the environment and 2) to improve residents’ quality of life. The latter is understood as a social group’s ability to fulfil their needs with the available resources in a certain area. Residents see the benefits in factors like income, health and education.
In this study the smallest mature male had a total length of 11.7 cm while the smallest mature female had a total length of 12.0 cm. Uchida and King (1962, in Morales 1991) mentioned that the tilapias attain their sexual maturity at three months old with a total length of 8 to 16 cm. Gómez et al. (1993) found for O. mossambicus that the total length of the smallest mature male and female were between six and eight cm, and three months of age. Ramos-Cruz (1995) indicates that O. aureus reaches the sexual maturity at 22 cm of total length at six months old. Fawole and Arawomo (2000) cited for S. galilaeus that males in Opa reservoir matures at about the same size as the female (12.5 and 11.7 cm respectively). This difference arises because the sexual maturity is a function of the size and may be influenced by the abundance and sea- sonal availability of food, the temperature, the photoperiod and by other environmental fac- tors in different localities (Nikolsky 1963, Babiker and Ibrahim 1979).
Environmental interpretation firstly appeared in the service system in the national parks in American. Now it’s a widely-used way in which the developed countries implement the environmental education in eco-tourism sites. Since China haven’t established environmental interpretation system universally, Hainan can be the first tourist area to experiment, which possess the fragile forest resources and cultural sites as mentioned before. The environmental interpretation process is a communication process between information transmitter, information and information receiver through the media (Tilden, 1997). Therefore, the validity of the environmental interpretation depends on four aspects: the accuracy of information, the ability of information transmitter, the carrying capacity of media and the information receiver. Given this, for the environmental interpretation of tourism in Hainan, it needs to strengthen the accuracy of information, train the commentators and improve the quality of transmission media. The commentators are the most part as they service the tourists directly. They should get the professional training courses. Only passing the assessment and getting the qualification can they do the practical work. Also interpretation way needs to be innovated and make tourists keep the interest all the time. For the uncertainty of the information quality tourists receive, tourists should be distinguished, especially focusing on the tourists who are absent-minded.
Follow the concept of sustainable development, adhere to the principle of protection first, rational development, scientific management, and everlasting use, to realize the unity of environmental benefits and economic benefits, and avoid blindly exploiting for temporary benefits. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-evaluate environmental impacts, that is, to analyze and evaluate the environmental impacts that might derived from different aspects of tourism so as to avoid serious environmental problems. The island’s ecological system is relatively independent, and has a greater response to external disturbances, thus through the establishment of nature reserves can restrict the construction of tourist facilities and reduce the damage to the environment that caused by tourist activities. Islands can increase the area of national parks and nature reserves, which can protect the original ecosystem of the island to a great extent, and the various forms of protected areas can enrich the tourism activities of the islands. For example, visitors can watch various kinds of wild animals and plants in nature reserves.
In a similar position, the Ethnobotanical Stewardship Council, “is dedicated to transforming lives through assuring the safety and sustainability of traditional plants” (Wickerham, 2014). During the World Ayahuasca Conference, organized annually in Spain, ethno ‑pharmacologist Dennis McKenna (2014) also approached the subject of sustainability, he believes neo ‑shamanism has actually helped rescue and preserve indigenous traditions that would have vanished otherwise, he also stressed the need to ensure cultural, environmental and economic sustainability for host communities. In a similar position, the national Secretariat for Tourism in Mexico, SECTUR (2012), has already established plans and methodologies for tourism destinations whose goal is “to generate sustainable development through tourism activities and to increase the quality of life in host ‑communities.”
However, above all, disunity in religious life affects the society, both the citizens of the country and potential visitors. In this context, religious tourism becomes an ins- trument of peoples’ rapprochement. The ire- nic nature of religious tourism encourages learning the traditions and customs of other ethnic groups and cultures, promotes the spi- ritual and patriotic education of the popula- tion, and therefore, provides an opportunity to rally people in the effort for peace in the world. Under the circumstances of instability, people need to turn to morally well-establi- shed phenomena. These can be shrines or the pilgrimage places. According to the resear- chers, the importance of religious tourism is growing noticeably in the time of crisis. The Russian Orthodox Church supports the most relevant internal religious tourist destina- tions. It is done with the aim of developing national pride for the monuments of Russian religion, primarily among the population of the country. In conditions of world globali- zation, religious tourism does not stay on the sidelines. The Imperial Orthodox Pales- tine society and the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation signed an agreement on the development of religious tourism and pilgrimage. “The signing ceremony took pla- ce on October 19 in Moscow”, the website of the IOPs (Imperial Orthodox Palestine so- ciety) reports. The program is designed for the period of 2015-2020, and is divided into several implementation stages. The first stage (2015-2016) assumes the formation of a legal, financial and organizational base for further activities. The second stage, scheduled for 2017-2018, is intended to open the National Tourist Offices in the regional branches of the IOPs. Their number reaches 28 in Russia and beyond. The third stage happens to be in 2019-2020. According to the official website of the IOPs, “further qualitative boost of acti- vities, monitoring, controlling and evaluation of work effectiveness, implementation of the best Russian and foreign experience to deve- lop of religious tourism and pilgrimage” is planned in these terms. In addition, the pro- gram includes setting up the conditions to or- ganize the tourist and pilgrimage tours to the Holy places of Russia and world Orthodoxy, and financing scientific research in this field.
The purpose of managing the development of tourism attractiveness of the territory is the formation, generation and development of territorial branding, which is revealed in the formation of competitive or special advantages of a particular region over other regions, as well as the improvement of its image as a tourist destination. The main task in managing the development of tourism appeal of the territory is the creation of such conditions that will attract potential consumers of travel services by increasing in the tourist flow in general.
Electrodialytic Remediation has been widely applied to the recovery of different contaminants from numerous solid matrices solving emerging issues of environmental concern. Results and conclusions reported in studies about real contaminated matrices are summarizes in this work. The influence of the pH value on the treatment effectiveness has been widely proved highlighting the phenomenon “water splitting” in the membrane surface. This dissociation of water molecules is related to the “limiting current” which is desirable to be exceed at the Anion Exchange Membrane in order to produce the entering of protons toward solid matrix. Other important parameters for the optimization of the technique, such as the current density and the liquid to solid ratio, are also discussed through the revision of studies using real solid matrices.
Reig and alcaide (2007: 322) prove in their already mentioned study that disasters and uncertainties triggered by them are a help to environmental journalism in Spain. This was the case of the Prestige, an oil vessel that sank off the Galician coast, north-west of Spain, in 2002. Media coverage set off alarm bells, getting public awareness. This resulted in an enormous social mobilization. People were worried about the environment. howe- ver, one of the main problems about environmental coverage is precisely that most pieces of news make reference to only great disasters such as fires, floods, oil spills, or chemical accidents. This adds to the fact that en- vironment is reduced to sudden events, disasters or controversies. The real fact is that environmental topics are much more varied and are full of interesting questions for the environmentalists and for the average ci- tizen.
Regarding our analysis, which is probably the most important part of the project, we have discovered many different aspects that affect companies’ environmental policies’ implementing. The first conclusion we reach from our empiric analysis is that airlines’ environmental measures are dependent of company’s revenues. It means that the companies give more importance to their economic development rather than their environmental policy. Once a company has achieved having their targeted revenues, then they start working on improving their measures regarding environmentalaspects, increasing their Social Responsibility and making more activities for the society’s benefit. This conclusion is enforced by the second aspect of companies’ economical aspects that we studied: Airlines’ Net Result. We found out that the better net result an airline has, the more environmental measures a company implements.
This work sets out an innovative methodology that aims to facilitate the implementation and continuous improvement of Social Responsibility. It is a methodology that takes account of strategic-economic, social and environmental questions and allows measuring the impact of each of these aspects on the stakeholders and on each of the value areas. It can be extrapolated to all kinds of organisations regardless of their size and sector and admits scaleable models. A marked feature that sets it aside from other methodologies is that it eliminates subjectivity from the qualitative aspects and introduces an algorithm to quantify them.
Therefore, the identification and selection of materials that have higher durability would promote required performance for a longer time and decrease the impact associated with these two aspects (expenditure of resources and release of contaminants). However, this must be balanced with the possible environmental costs of extraction of these more durable materials. The need to use stones with higher durability could imply measures such as the preservation of quarries of stones with higher durability value (with consequences for territory management). For example in Portuguese legislation, the recognition of quality and value of a certain rock types has lead to definition of geological reserves with restriction on the kind of activities that can be developed. Another related issue is the consideration of materials making allowance for the environmental impact of its fabrication as well as its recycling capability .
Three major ideas can be identified from this quote. One refers to the duplication of efforts. Because institutions are not aware of the work done by other institutions, they might be focusing on the same issues. However, the impact of their work is not the same because efforts are scattered without integrative planning. This is what it calls, “having a handful of pebbles instead of a big rock.” Second, the government has failed to incorporate the efforts of public and private institutions. Failure to incorporate these efforts wastes a good opportunity to multiply existing resources and capacities, which, for some stakeholders, are very valuable and can make a positive impact on environmental sanitation, especially if private organizations are also involved. And third, Costa Rica needs a leader who can unify and coordinate efforts from public and private institutions. This last idea is considered crucial for efficient and effective institutional performance.
Tourists who work as Civil Servants (PNS), Private and Students tend to form one group and have a very positive response to travel agencies and guides. On the other hand, tourists with entrepreneurial work have a very positive response to Attractions. The tourists who work as students tend to give low responses to all aspects. The Tourists with other works are more concerned with the Attractions aspect than the other variables. This explains that tourists who work as civil servants, private employees and students are a market segment paying more attention to the aspects of travel agencies that are used to go to tourist destinations and services provided by guides. The travellers who have status as entrepreneurs prioritize the aspects of attractions especially in natural tourism, cultural tourism and artificial tourism on their visits. Meanwhile, the tourists with the status of students do not prioritize these two aspects (amenities and attractions). Therefore, if you want to target market segmentation in a segment based on profession, as the manager of Bromo Tengger or businessman must be able to improve halal tourism services in the aspects of the Travel Agency, tour services and attractions that are more attractive.
In La Unión a small Project supported by Cartagena University and La Unión’s Council has reconverted an old road that crosses mines and interesting geologic for- mations into a walking cultural route which provides an exciting view of the past of the mines (Manteca et al., 2000). This road, ca- lled “Carretera del 33”, has been promoted in local scale by brochures or newspapers notes and offers the possibility of mixing culture, science, sport and nature. Another route called “Lo Veremos”, placed at the urban zone, allows observing from outside two examples of the old underground mi- ning activity and some mining machinery. More efforts have to be done in this as- pect: hiking routes, eco-tourism, authoc- tonous medicinal flora of the zone, bycicle routes, etc…
First, the inclusion of the sustainable development approach (Serageldin, 1996) in transport planning processes caused a shift in transport planning objectives towards strategic policy goals, such as network efficiency, cohesion or environmental issues. This structure of strategic objectives is intimately linked with the increased inclusion of transport sustainability issues (Greene and Wegener, 1997) into the planning framework. This objective shift has been translated into policy documents by a wide variety of institutions (OECD, 1998; ECMT, 2004; EC, 2004; EC, 1999). Furthermore, it is necessary to broaden the assessment objectives to include the above strategic impacts at the Plan level, given that the scope of the projects might result in impacts elsewhere, either in another transportation field, or in other sectors such as land use, energy or the environment. Thus, national governments are increasingly demanding the inclusion of strategic aspects in assessment methodologies (Bristow and Nellthorp, 2000). However, both the definitions and the subsequent assessment of these strategic impacts are uneven and scarce among official methodologies (Grant-Muller et al., 2001).
It is important to note that another rea- son why nature tourism has not boomed considerably in Nigeria is because the country missed the opportunity to develop its wildlife base or ecotourism in the mid – 1960s, while it was still an agrarian nation endowed with abundant natural resources. During the same period, East Africa was developing rapidly as an ecotourism desti- nation, and succeeded in absorbing much of the available market in Africa. Unlike in West Africa, the East African Travel and Tourist Association was created during the colonial era to promote East African attrac- tions. Furthermore, the civil war of 1967 – 70 and the oil boom that occasioned corrup- tion, insecurity, mismanagement, un- planned urbanisation and rural disivest- ment for giving the country a bad image and putting off tourist from Nigeria.
A questionnaire based on good food production practice was used as a data gather- ing technique. The questionnaire included: employment capacity, raw material handling, environmental conditions of the production process, sanitary aspects, work area, workers’ personal protection system, laboratory analysis and produc- tion capacity in kilos. Version 15.2 of STATGRAPHICS computational software was used for data processing.