Leadership style has received an extensive attention over the last decades, as studying the different styles of leadership from different approaches; it would lead to provide the optimal-based model of leaders, which maximizes the effectiveness of those leaders. Leadership has been an important topic in the social sciences for many decades. Recently there has been a renewed interest in leadership. Northouse (2018) notes that this recent resurgence of interest in studying the topic of leadership appears to be accompanied by an acceptance of the distinction between transactional and transformational leadership, with an emphasis on the latter. Baškarada, Watson, and Cromarty (2017) compare transactional and transformational leadership with other differentiations in leadership such as relations of oriented leadership, consideration-initiating structure, and directive-participative or autocratic- democratic leadership (Willis, Clarke, & O’connor, 2017). Bass and Stogdill (1990) claim that the transactional- transformational model is a new paradigm, neither replacing nor explained by other models such as the relations oriented-task oriented leadership model. Some authors describe concepts similar to transformational leadership as charismatic, inspirational or visionary leadership. Bass and Riggio (2006) suggested that transformational leadership’s popularity might be due to its emphasis on intrinsic motivation and follower development, which fits the needs of today’s work groups, who want to be inspired and empowered to succeed in times of uncertainty. Clearly, many scholars are studying transformational leadership, and it occupies a central place in leadership research. As its name implies, transformational leadership is a process that changes and transforms people. It is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals. It includes assessing followers’ motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings. Transformational leadership involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them. It is a process that often incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership.
12 Lee mas
The questionnaire identifies how often different leadership styles are exercised. The frequency with which the respondents exhibit these behaviours vary significantly. The results indicate that respondents, with the exception of respondent 6, consistently scored higher in the transformational styles of leadership than the transactional or laissez-faire styles of leadership. The majority of project managers included in this study exhibit behaviour related to the transformational styles of leadership more frequently than they do behaviour related to the transactional styles, a finding substantiated by interviewee number 1, who states that the project manager must ‘guide everyone to where they need to be going… making sure that everyone is moving in the right direction’. This is in agreement with Kirkbride (2006), who suggests that ideally a leader’s profile should show higher scores on the transformational styles and lower scores on the transactional and laissez-faire styles. However, although the respondents, in general, exhibit behaviour related to the transformational styles of leadership more often, the results also show that respondents frequently exhibit behaviour related to the transactional styles of leadership, in particular the contingent reward style. This finding is in agreement with Bass (1985, cited in Hartog et al., 1997) who states that transformational leadership builds on transactional leadership, and goes on to contend that the transformational and transactional leadership styles are not mutually exclusive (Bass and Avolio,1994). Consequently, it may be suggested that project managers within the construction industry exhibit different leadership behaviour in different situations or project contexts.
13 Lee mas
Leadership has been always a crucial issue since organizations and companies are permanently in a constant struggle to be increasingly competitive. Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to achieve organizational goals. The word leadership has been described in terms of the position, personality, responsibility, influence process; instrument to achieve a goal, behaviors (Limsila & Ogunlana, 2007). Most definitions have a common theme of directing a group towards a goal. Therefore, the leadership can be broadly defined as the relationship between an individual and a group built around some common interest wherein the group behaves in a manner directed or determined by the leader (Shastri, Shashi Mishra & Sinha, 2010). Leaders can influence the behavior of their followers through the use of different styles, or approaches, to managing others. For the past three decades, a pair of predominant leadership styles (transactional and transformational leadership) has received a significant amount of attention.
26 Lee mas
The Professional Learning Community (PLC) is one of the changes introduced by The Teacher Education Division or Bahagian Pendidikan Guru (BPG) in the Continuous Professional Development Plan or Pelan Pembangunan Professional Berterusan (PPPB) since 2013. The initiative is implemented to improve the quality of teachers and the excellence of schools as announced in Wave 3 (2020–2025), which aims to enhance the professional excellence of teachers especially novice teachers. Previous studies have found that, they having a problem with classroom management and need support from expert teachers in order to help them to improve their teaching and learning quality (Fariza & Hazrati, 2109). In order for each student to succeed, the education system must have the best quality. The quality of education is determined by teacher’s quality of the teaching, which thus leads the element to be put into highest consideration. (Zanaton, 2017). Indirectly, teacher professionalism can be enhanced when teacher’s quality of teaching and student’s quality are emphasized. PLC is a concept of collaborative learning of teachers (Mohd Faiz et al. 2016); and administrators explore and share the learning continuously followed by taking actions based on their learning. Giles and Hargreaves (2006) described PLC as the practice of teachers who frequently engage in discussions, by consistently paying attention to the teachers’ teaching and learning process. Zuraidah (2012) considered PLC as a community that shapes a learning culture in an educational organisation where not only students learn in the community, but everyone also has a responsibility in implementing PLC in the community. The PLC practice needs support from committed leaders in shaping PLC in schools. An effective leadership style can affect PLC implementation, thus enhancing teachers’ quality and student’s excellence. Azlin Norhaini et al. (2014) stated that effective leadership associated with specific leadership styles such as transformational and transactional, which carry out activities to enhance teacher and student’s achievement.
8 Lee mas
To improve patient safety is a priority at the international level, and error reporting in health care organisations is a fundamental tool for it since it provides valuable information about the way assistance procedures should be modified and health care professionals should be trained. Nurses are the professional group in health care organisations that spends the most time with patients and, therefore, their error reporting behaviour is crucial to improving patient safety. Not only does this error reporting behavior depend on nurses’ personal attitudes but it also depends on organisational aspects and manager’s leadership style. Therefore, the interaction between nurses and their managers plays a central role in nurses’ error reporting behaviour. However, little theoretical work has been undertaken to analyse this interactionhas attempted to take a modest step forward in closing this gap in the literature by considering a principal-agent model in which the principal, the nurse manager (for whom four leadership styles are considered: transformational, soft transactional, hard transactional and authoritarian), asks the agent, the nurse, (for whom three styles of error reporting are considered: passive, reactive and active) to perform a task with certain patient. If the nurse makes a mistake while treating the patient, she has to decide whether to report it to the manager, taking into account that the manager can observe whether the patient suffered an accident.
27 Lee mas
(charisma), intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration—and three dimen- sions of transactional leadership—contingent reward, management by exception–active, and passive leadership. Extraversion was the strongest and most consistent correlate of transformational leadership. Although results provided some support for the dispositional basis of transformational leadership--especially with respect to the charisma dimension. The first transformational leadership behavior, idealized influence, refers to leaders who have high standards of moral and ethical conduct, who are held in high personal regard, and who engender loyalty from followers. The second transformational leadership behav- ior, inspirational motivation, refers to leaders with a strong vision for the future based on values and ideals. Leader behaviors falling into this dimension include stimulating enthu- siasm, building confidence, and inspiring followers using symbolic actions and persuasive language. The idealized influence and inspirational motivation dimensions are highly cor- related and are sometimes combined to form a measure of charisma (Bass, 1999). The third transformational leadership dimension is intellectual stimulation, which refers to lead- ers who challenge organizational norms, encourage divergent thinking, and who push fol- lowers to develop innovative strategies. Individual consideration, the fourth transforma- tional leadership dimension, refers to leader behaviors aimed at recognizing the unique growth and developmental needs of followers as well as coaching followers and consult- ing with them (Bono & Judge, 2004).
143 Lee mas
Emotional Intelligence can be defined as an ability to manage emotions. Therefore, EI can be worked on and improved. EI is important not only in the company but in the lives of people, because the relationships between people are better handled. For example, when there is a problem that causes a feeling of anger, if the person has a high level of emotional intelligence, it would be able to identify these emotions, understand, analyze and manage them in a way that does not affect others. “Various facets and components of EI have been claimed to contribute to success and productivity in the workplace. EI is claimed to predict occupational success because it influences one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Bar-On, 1997). It has been found that workers who have a high level of emotional intelligence are also declared to be adept at designing projects that involve infusing products with feelings and aesthetics (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). On the other hand, it has been observed that managers with high Emotional Intelligence, show superior performance both in terms of contextual performance (teamwork and cohesiveness) and task performance (quality of job completed) (Carmeli, 2003). In this case, people with high level of EI have a high performance at work, being able to work in team and the quality of job, generally speaking is high. According to McClelland (1973) academic knowledge and intelligent quotient (IQ) are not enough for good job performance. Gardner (1983) explain that Comprehension and knowledge is not enough. Success in work and life does not depend only of IQ. Social or interpersonal intelligence is differentiation of success in certain professions. This means that a person with a high level of academic knowledge or a high IQ, would not necessarily be able to handle your emotions well so that it can adequately address any situation that may arise within the company. People with high IQ are not always able to handle stressful situations or teamwork if not possess qualities and skills emotional intelligence. To be successful and have a high performance in the company is necessary to have not only intellectual but also emotional intelligence.
33 Lee mas
Transactional Memory (TM) is a technique that aims to mitigate the performance losses that are inherent to the serialization of accesses in critical sections. Some stud- ies have shown that the use of TM may lead to performance improvements, despite the existence of management overheads. However, the relative performance of TM, with respect to classical critical sections management depends greatly on the actual percentage of times that the same data is handled simultaneously by two transactions. In this paper, we compare the relative performance of the critical sections provided by OpenMP with respect to two Software Transactional Memory (STM) implementa- tions. These three methods are used to manage concurrent data accesses in ATLaS, a software-based, Thread-Level Speculation (TLS) system. The complexity of this appli- cation makes it extremely difficult to predict whether two transactions may conflict or not, and how many times the transactions will be executed. Our experimental results show that the STM solutions only deliver a performance comparable to OpenMP when there are almost no conflicts. In any other case, their performance losses make OpenMP the best alternative to manage critical sections.
13 Lee mas
To assess aspects related to student satisfaction, they had to rate in a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is the lowest mark and 5 is the highest one, their global satisfaction with the teacher. In particular, this part of the research will compare the evolution of the student satisfaction in two different academic years: (i) the global satisfaction in the 2017-2018 academic year in which instructors did not implement positive practices at class, and (ii) the global satisfaction in the 2018- 2019 academic year in which they incorporated several Positive Leadership actions. Table 2 shows the average scores obtained in this question. As it can be seen, the global satisfaction of the students in the subject on Business International Strategies of the Master in Trade and International Economic Relations significantly increased by 19.25% when the instructor applied Positive Leadership practices in his class. However, the results of the subject on Linguistics Applied to Second Language Teaching show a slight reduction in the overall student. In this regard, it is necessary to mention that the number of answers in this subject in academic year 2018-2019 has been significantly lower than that of the previous year, which could have affected the overall average score. It is also difficult to imagine much possible improvement of a 4.96 evaluation in a 1-5 scale. Additionally, the qualitative results shown in the next section do not seem to show any evidence of discontent, on the contrary, they are 100% positive.
14 Lee mas
Career management represents a key organizational practice in developing HEROs. This strategy is especially fundamental nowadays, when the idea of a fixed career path has become obsolete and employees have to cope with a far more unstable job situation. More than ever before employees have to rely on their own initiative to continuously develop themselves both professionally and personally in order to remain employable. Employability also includes a high level of work engagement because it makes employees fitter to do the job and more successful at doing it. Organizations should motivate workers and give them opportunities to develop their career inside (promotions) or outside the company (Salanova & Llorens, 2007). Research has shown a positive gain-spiral between career development and work engagement. Those employees who carefully plan their career successively select jobs that provide ample opportunities for professional and personal development. Consequently, the levels of work engagement are high (see Salanova & Llorens, 2007). The mechanism for developing the present strategy is by: (1) periodically completing HERO audits, team members, their supervisor, the CEOs, and the customers can monitor the development of healthy and resilient employees, teams, and organizations as a whole over time; (2) including the development of specific skills and competencies in the Employee Development Agreement; (3) re-designing jobs and organizations or by changing the work places thereby fostering employee development; and (4) designing specific work training, especially to increase efficacy beliefs (both individual and collective) and work engagement (see Salanova & Schaufeli, 2009).
14 Lee mas
GPU-LocalTM  is a hardware TM for GPU architectures that allows for ex- plicit synchronization of work-items through local memory using transactions. GPU-LocalTM is designed on top of an AMD’s Southern Islands GPU and eval- uated using the Multi2Sim 4.2  simulation framework. The Southern Islands’ ISA is extended with two new instructions that mark the boundaries of the transaction: TX Begin and TX Commit. Local memory operations performed within both instructions are considered transactional. Conflicts are detected as soon as the memory access is performed (eager conflict detection). A successful write access performs a back-up of the old value, which has to be restored in case a conflict is detected and the transaction aborts (eager version management). GPU-LocalTM follows a requester loses policy (i.e., the work-item who detects the conflict aborts its own execution). In order to store the old and speculative values, GPU-LocalTM uses existing memory resources. Specifically, in each local memory bank, memory is allocated to store the backed-up value and the work- item identifier for each local memory variable. The memory allocated for this purpose is called shadow memory. We discuss the transactional SIMT execution model and the conflict detection mechanism proposed in GPU-LocalTM, as they are relevant for the purposes of this paper.
17 Lee mas
Best-effort HTM transactions are not guaranteed to com- mit . There are several events that may trigger the abort of a transaction, and some of them always will preclude a hard- ware transaction to finalize. For this reason, best-effort HTM requires a software fallback path provided by the programmer. Typically, this is solved by using a global lock, as shown in algorithms 1 and 2. To start a transaction, the HTM start procedure (HtmStart) is called, which returns whether the transaction was initiated or not. If successful, the transaction needs to be subscribed to the global lock fallbackLock by reading it, thus adding it to its read set. If the transaction cannot start (or it was aborted), it continues through the else path in line 12, where the counter tx.retries is decremented. If this counter reaches zero, the system assumes that the transaction cannot continue in hardware mode, so it tries to lock fallbackLock and switches to an irrevocable software path. This action causes all the active hardware transactions to abort, because the lock was previously read in line 8.
8 Lee mas
Our LogTM-SE implementations follows three steps to ensure that the new value is in place and the old value in the software log: (1) the system brings the cache line to the processor if it is not already there, checking for conflicts through forwarded coherency requests, (2) if there is no conflict, the old data is stored in the first available entry of the stack together with its logical address and (3) the new data is stored in the L1 cache and the log pointer is incremented. Note that the logging process can be treated as a conventional non-transactional store, so conflict checking is not required—the software log is private and thus not accessed by other processors. When a core receives a conflict notification, it re-issues the memory operation again, hoping the conflict to disappear soon. However, LogTM-SE may abort a transaction when a cycle among conflicting requests is detected. When a core has to abort, it has to undo all the changes performed by its transaction. This is done by triggering an exception that jumps to a recovery handler. This handler invokes a software routine that walks the log in reverse order and, for each undo entry, stores the old data at the address associated with that entry. When the first entry of the log is restored—the routine arrives at the head of the log—the handler informs the hardware that it can clear the access summary, recovers the register checkpoint and sets the PC to the value stored in the header log, which corresponds to the start point of the transaction.
208 Lee mas
In order to engage patients in social interactions, our therapist robot should be able to emanate responses at human interaction rates, and exhibit a pro-active behaviour This behaviour implies that the internal architecture of the robot should not only be able to perceive and act. It should also be able to perform off-line reasoning.
34 Lee mas
The issue of text reconstruction is particularly relevant to students enrolled in the translation programs in Argentina. Due to the nature of the translator’s profession, in which mostly transactional written texts are dealt with, it seems important that they be able not only to understand the indications that the producer is sending in “chunks”, but also to be able to reconstruct the text with an adequate organization and staging at the level of macro-structure. This paper will explore the process and production of written transactional texts in students’ L1 and L2. It will also aim to ascertain whether the organizational scheme perceived when a text is read in Spanish is sufficiently self- contained to enhance the formal instructions usually taught in a foreign language, and, thus if students simply transfer the scheme learned in those classes or if, on the other hand, students use the staging and organization at all when producing a transactional text in Spanish, as they might consider that rules do not cross language borders.
31 Lee mas
To take full advantage of the features offered by software TM, but also benefit from the characteristics of the heterogeneous big.LITTLE architectures, our focus is to propose TM solutions that take into account the power/performance requirements of the application and what it is offered by the architecture. In order to under- stand the current state-of-the-art and obtain useful information for future power-aware software TM solutions, we have performed an analysis of a popular TM library running on top of an ARM big.LITTLE processor. Experi- ments show, in general, better scalability for the LITTLE cores for most of the applications except for one, which requires the computing performance that the big cores offer.
5 Lee mas
Thirdly, the signs of the times require us to think about creating teaching center models that incorporate pedagogical innovations and open, ﬂexible, creative, real and participatory digital projects and in which digital technologies can be the best pretext for innovation and for encouraging creativity in the classroom in order to introduce cross-disciplinary and organizational changes and open up schools to the community. These digital projects should make teachers question their individual roles, promote teamwork and involvement with others, generate synergies with other departments and areas as well as other teaching centers and their staﬀ, and, ﬁnally, help to realize the dream of being “networked and web-based”.
14 Lee mas
The speedup obtained with both versions of ReduxSTM (implicit and explicit order) related to the speedup when using ordered TinySTM and regarding the sequential version is shown in Figure 3 (left). As the performance of the transactional codes depend on the size of transactions, experiments were conducted for different sizes (from 1 to 8 iterations), selecting the best result. Speedup for ReduxSTM is significantly better than that for TinySTM thanks to the ability of the former system to avoid unnecessary aborts and rollbacks. Implicit order is better that explicit one, as expected, as it is more relaxed. ReduxSTM is also able to exploit parallelism from the sequential version, despite it is memory bound.
11 Lee mas
First, we introduce RMS-TM, a Transactional Memory benchmark suite com- posed of seven real-world applications from the Recognition, Mining and Synthe- sis (RMS) domain [86, 87]. In addition to featuring current TM research issues such as nesting and I/O and system calls inside transactions, the RMS-TM ap- plications also provide a mix of short and long transactions with small/large read and write sets with low/medium/high contention rates. These characteristics, as well as providing lock-based versions of the applications, make RMS-TM a useful TM benchmark suite. Our experiments show that RMS-TM is scalable, which is useful for evaluating TM designs on high core counts. Second, to allow TM research groups to run each other’s code and to perform apples-to-apples compar- isons of implementation alternatives, we have implemented a “shim” library , which adapts the word-based “back end” libraries of the Rochester STM suite to the common ABI. This work makes the Rochester STM back ends available, for the first time, to programs written with language-level transactions. We also describe experience at both the ABI and API levels, and present performance comparisons relative to the Intel standard back end.
227 Lee mas
In this context, teachers feel capable and accepted. They integrate into a community and form a professional culture through sharing, developing meanings and communicating values. The interesting but complex job of a teacher becomes clearer within such a community since open dialogues are the norm. Additionally, through interactive communication of values, positive emotions within the community are established, resulting in the teacher demonstrating citizenship behaviour. This relates to behaviour such as punctuality, helping other teachers, volunteering for things that are not required, making innovative suggestions to improve the institution, not complaining about trivial matters, responding promptly to correspondence and not wasting time (Oplatka, 2009). This kind of behaviour supports task performance and improves a social and psychological work environment (Wang, Law, Hackett, Wang, and Chen, 2005). The proper integration of all members into a team to build capacity will help the teachers to not only attain the required skills, but to foster a resilient self-belief in one’s capabilities (Wood and Bandura, 1989). With the resulting self-esteem, the teacher can deliver a high quality service for the institution. Capacity building takes place in this environment since harmony and teamwork is present. The building of capacity creates a sense of belonging, which is associated with positive emotions and is a powerful motivational factor for teachers (Sufi and Lyons, 2003). School managers, who want to improve institutional capacity should therefore intervene and cooperatively create improvement moderators with all members in the community. The emphasis in such an organisation is on authentic self-expression, the development of relationships, and the overall development of a person within a community (Beatty, 2002). With capacity building in mind, Walker (1994) calls for educational institutions to become more flexible and adaptable and create collaboration between all organisational members to establish shared values, collegiality, empowerment, shared leadership and professionalism within the institution. However, the building of capacity is different in each educational setting and generalisation is not possible. Capacity building requires a reflective process from the leaders in their institution in order to establish effective procedures and moderators. Additionally, it requires time as it is a product of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments, and management processes that have accrued slowly and steadily over time through a consistent application (Garvin, 1993).
22 Lee mas