subwavelength cavities are drilled in an acoustically rigid surface. The number of cavities required is in general one less than the number of diffracted modes, so that all these modes are canceled except for one, which is the carrier of the wave at the desired reflection angle. It has been shown that unitary efficiency can be achieved for one and two cavities per unit cell, and nearly unitary in the case of five cavities, showing also the great potential that this method has for the design of more efficient anomalous reflectors. This approach presents several advantages in comparison with previous approaches based on gradient index metasurfaces, since no continuous variation of the index or the surface’s is required, but just a discrete number of properly selected cavities. The presented
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D-atoms are at general Wykoff positions 4e. Briely, the structure is built up by two types of octahedral MD 6 polyhedra, running along the c-axis of the unit cell, over which the Ta(V) and Co(OOO) ions are distributed in a disordered way. The Ca(OO) ions are located in the holes generated by this arrangement of octahedra, coordinated by twelve D-atoms.
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The wavelength path difference, m, between identical sheets is the greatest common divisor of h, k, l . The sheet orientation is the plane containing the three points found by moving along the 0A axis h/m units, along the 0B axis k/m units, and along the 0C axis l /m units, where one unit, a, is the length of the edge of the unit cell (lattice constant). If any of h, k, l = 0, the sheet is parallel to the corresponding axis. Note that for NaCl the edge of the unit cell (distance, along crystal axes, between identical atoms) is twice the Na–Cl separation.
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For the others samples, the final global optimized parameters were: scale factors, unit cell parameters, delta2 parameter (for the fits containing the low r-regions) and ADPs. In some cases, as described in the Results section, atomic positional coordinates were also varied. Moreover, the spdiameter parameter was also adjusted to fit the nanocrystalline component in the ye’elimite-bassanite sample. It is important to point out that we do not report errors for the refined parameters as the standard deviations are not properly calculated by PDFgui. This is because the standard data reduction obtained by PDFgetX3  does not include the dG column, standard deviations of G, which is needed to properly calculate the errors.
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Let us now focus on the SRR-based structures. It is ob- vious that the circuits of Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), reported for the first time in Ref. 15 by Martin et al., cannot be simulta- neously correct since they predict identical transmission zero frequency (provided identical SRRs are used). In Ref. 15, it was argued that the left handed band in a CPW loaded with 4 SRR and 4 shunt strip pairs was slightly situ- ated to the right of the stop band measured on identical structure without the presence of the strips. But the greater number of stages obscures the position of the transmission zeros, as has been recently discussed by some of the au- thors [21,23]. The problem is that the CPW structure of Fig. 5 is not properly modelled by the circuit of Fig. 6(a). The shunt strips are not actually allocated at both sides of the SRRs, but just on the top of them. Thus, the circuit model (unit cell) of the CPW loaded with SRRs and shunt strips must be modelled as depicted in Fig. 12 [21,23,24]. However, this circuit model can be transformed to a model formally identical to that of Fig. 6(c), but with modified pa- rameters [21,23]. That is the reason why the model of Fig. 6(c) perfectly fits the simulated (or measured) frequency re- sponses of SRR/strip loaded CPWs. From this transformation, which involves a tedious calculation, the shift of the transmis- sion zero towards lower frequencies as compared to the structure without shunt strips can perfectly be explained. Fig. 10. Improved lumped element equivalent circuit model (unit
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obtained by the augmented spherical wave method. Also the localization of the magnetic moment inside the unit cell, the effect of pressure and the substitution of Co atoms by Fe atoms were studied at the temperature of 0 K. Metallic Co showed a magnetic moment of 1.5 µ B while metallic Y showed its nonmagnetic behavior. Inside
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Four proteins were more abundant in the cell wall fraction of untreated COV1 cell suspensions (Fig. 5; Table 1; Supplementary Data Table SIII). These proteins have previously been identified in the cell wall (Bayer et al., 2006; O’Brien et al., 2012) and COI1 dependency was demonstrated in independent studies. Oligogalacturonide oxidase 1 (OGOX1) was recently character- ized and specifically oxidizes oligogalacturonides. Plants over- expressing OGOX1 were also shown to improve resistance to Botrytis cinerea (Benedetti et al., 2018). A putative BERBERINE BRIDGE ENZYME gene (AT2G34810) was previously found to be induced by MeJA treatment or wounding and to be COI1 dependent (Devoto et al., 2005). Consistently, the phytotoxin coronatine induced accumulation of the elicitor-responsive transcript for the berberine bridge enzyme of Eschscholtzia californica (Weiler et al., 1994). Several glucanases also pos- sess antimicrobial properties (Xu et al., 1994; Glazebrook et al., 2003). In arabidopsis, the BETA-1,3-GLUCANASE 2 (AT3G57260) transcripts were shown to be induced by wound- ing and MeJA (Devoto et al., 2005). Among the endoglucanases identified was Endoglucanase 9. This protein is a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GH9) (also named endo-1,4-β- glucanase 9 or cellulase 3; AtCEL3; Urbanowicz et al., 2007). In rice, the gene encoding an ENDO-(1,3;1,4)-β-GLUCANASE has been described to respond to wounding and MeJA, whereby it was speculated that this response induces cell wall loosen- ing during cell elongation and expansion as a step to regener- ate injured cell walls in wounded leaf tissues (Akiyama et al., Table 2. Differentially regulated metabolites in 2-day-old Ler and COV1 cell cultures following 50 µ m MeJA treatments for 24 h
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As already stated, the BMS was realized with a STM32F4Discovery evaluation board. The firm- ware is written in C. By default, the output pins are reset, so that the relays are normally open. Minimum and maximum cell voltages and maximum cell temperatures are received via CAN mes- sages from the host PC. The cell voltages and cell temperatures of channel one to eight are con- stantly monitored. If the values are within their limits, the corresponding relay is closed. If the measured values exceed the limits the relays are opened. In case of an error (overvoltage, un- dervoltage or overtemperature) an error CAN message is sent. This is realized by checking the historical output status every cycle. The message sets the cell formation unit in idle mode and stops the execution of the MATLAB script, that is used for overall system control (see chapter 3.2.3). Furthermore, an error variable is transmitted, apprising the cause of the error. The output status of all eight channels is sent via CAN bus in an adjustable update rate (one second by default). It is transmitted as 8-bit binary integer variable. This way, every bit represents the status of one chan- nel. Listing 1 shows a reduced source code example of the battery monitoring system written in C. The complete source code is included in the digital appendix D.
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regulating the motility of these cells. Thus, the HDAC 6/ER-α interaction represents a potential therapeutic target, for reducing the metastatic potential of ccRCC. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC 6 and ERα in renal tumor cell lines showed similar effects as ERα knockdown in these cells. Tamoxifen showed en- hanced effects on α-tubulin acetylation in 786–0 cells, and this effect was greater with the addition of pano- binostat. Single agent and combination treatments in- creased HDAC 6 and ER-α expression in C2H6 and 786-O cells; however this did not result in increased HDAC 6 activity. The mechanisms of increased ERα and 786-O expression by treatments are not entirely known. These results indicate that in ccRCC, tamoxi- fen treatment may reduce metastatic potential. Fur- thermore, when combined with an HDAC inhibitor, such as panobinostat (that has cytotoxic effects), can lead to both anti-tumor effects and reduced metasta- sis. Moreover, in 100 ccRCC tumors, HIF-1/2α and HDAC 1 positively correlated with one another; how- ever, HDAC 1 expression did not correlate with over- all or disease free survival. TCGA data further revealed that HDAC 1 overexpression is associated with worse overall survival and higher tumor stage (not statistically significant). Hence, targeting HDAC 1 by using class I specific HDAC inhibitors may not only reduce the invasiveness of the disease, but the level of HDAC 1 itself can be used as a prognostic indicator in ccRCC. Similarly, HDAC 6 mRNA upreg- ulation, although not statistically significant, showed a trend towards worse overall survival as well as higher tumor stage in ccRCC patients. Therefore, targeting HDAC 6 using a class II specific HDAC inhibitor
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The Asperezas Granite is emplaced with mostly distinct contacts in the porphyritic granitoid (Ogp) unit. The porphyritic granitoid (Ogp) forms relatively distinct, large plutons which are intruded with sharp contacts in the Olta Metamorphic Complex (o). The unit also intrudes the migmatite (Omg) unit, but the boundary is less well defined. The granite (Ogr) and granitoid (Og) units occur in outcrops which are markedly elongate in a north-south direction. The contact between these units is diffuse with complex compositional and textural changes over short distances (in the order of 100 m). The granodiorite (Ogd) is only exposed in the extreme northern part of the Sierra de Las Minas in the south of the map area. The boundary of the migmatite (Omg) unit is generally poorly defined and largely constrained by airborne geophysical data.
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However, minor polarization alterations could be observed as produced by a heating effect under illumination. A thermally-induced change in the dielectric constant is expected to occur, as evidenced in the capacitance-frequency spectra in Figure 4, also for an inverted cell. Once again taking 1 kHz and 10 kHz as example, an exponential increase of capacitance with temperature is experienced that abode 300 K may exhibit a temperature coefficient as high as 2 nF cm -2 K -1 when heating the cell. This is an
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