Abstract The first and most prominent UnitedNations Millennium Development Goal (MDG-1) has been widely celebrated. Yet, four reflections should give us pause. Although retaining the idea of ‘‘halving extreme poverty by 2015’’, MDG-1 in fact sets a much less ambitious target than had been agreed to at the 1996 World Food Summit in Rome: that the number of poor should be reduced by 19% (rather than 50%), from 1094 million to 883.5 million. Tracking the $1/day poverty headcount, the World Bank uses a method that may paint far too rosy a picture of the evolution of extreme poverty. Shrinking the problem of extreme poverty, which now causes some 18 million deaths annually, by 19% over 15 years is grotesquely underambitious in view of resources available and the magnitude of the catastrophe. Finally, this go-slow approach is rendered even more appalling by the contribution made to the persistence of severe poverty by the affluent countries and the global economic order they impose.
—The KARAT Coalition is a regional coalition of organizations and individuals. It works to ensure gender equality in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States coun- tries. It was established in 1997 in Warsaw as a network of women’s NGOs to promote implementation of the Beijing PFA. Now it moni- tors implementation of international agreements and lobbies for the needs and concerns of women in the Region at all levels of decision- making fora. KARAT has NGOs from 21 countries as members. An important fact to consider is that today women’s organizations and networks appear in all regions of the world, which was not the case in the early years of the UnitedNations. Most of the organiza- tions mentioned above are global in their scope. These few examples give an idea of the variety of functions, structures and modes of operation of women’s movement in the area of gender-related and equality issues in the context of the UN system. They do reflect both the basic commonalities and present disparities among women in the world today. The multitude of women’s NGOs involved in the efforts and activities around the UN also attests (continued on page 90) —The Center for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL) was
The efforts made by the UnitedNations may be compared to some extent with the ones undertaken by other International Organizations. The European Union, since its inception, considers the equality between men and women as a fundamental principle. Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome is the basis for a complete juridical frame consisting of Directives, resolutions from the European Court of Justice and other legislation (Figueroa, 2006). The many cases presented to the European Court of Justice favored a constant reinterpretation of the meaning and the obligations that emanate from the article 119. On the contrary, the few cases resolved by the UNAT concerning Article 8 of the Charter of the UnitedNations constrain the possibilities of having a clearer definition of the meaning of an article that has, a discussed before, many limitations based on the way that is phrased. This incomplete interpretation can explain the difficulty of establishing the obligations of the Member States and the main organs of the UnitedNations, as well as the designing of concrete practical measures to be implemented in the UN system.
In most debates about drug interdiction, the views of those who oppose that approach are not accepted as legitimate. Indeed, “prohibitionists” demonize drugs and those who oppose drug policies in Latin America frequently demonize the United States as the imperialist power that imposes them. This dual polarization is a main obstacle to establish a meaningful policy debate aimed at broadening the policy consensus necessary for successful policy implementation. This essay surveys the status of coca in the UnitedNations Conventions, explains why it is confusing, and how a few changes would eliminate some of the sources of conflict and help organize and control licit coca markets in the Andes. The current disorganized and weakly controlled legal coca market in Peru has been analyzed to demonstrate its deficiencies and to illustrate possible improvements in international drug control policies.
This publication, produced in conjunction with the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, gives an introduction to the UnitedNations system’s work to promote the respect of all fundamental Human Rights and how you, as an individual or as an organization, can get involved in this work. It was produced in close collaboration with the Ofﬁ ce of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.
Through peacemaking, preventive diplomacy and a host of other means, the UnitedNations works to prevent and resolve deadly conflict around the globe and to promote lasting peace in societies emerging from wars. The Department of Political Affairs plays a central role in these efforts: monitoring and assessing global political developments; advising the U.N. Secretary-General on actions that could advance the cause of peace; providing support and guidance to U.N. peace envoys and political missions in the field; and serving Member States directly through electoral assistance and through the support of DPA staff to the work of the Security Council and other U.N. bodies. In carrying out these and other core functions, DPA contributes to U.N. efforts worldwide that span the spectrum from conflict prevention to peacemaking to post-conflict peace building. More information on DPA is available in ST/SGB/2000/10.
are prevented by law from assuming full rights of citizenship, and that they therefore may see their immediate problems somewhat differently. Finding ourselves in agreement on these points, we wish as a group to advise the women of all our countries of our strong belief that an important opportunity and responsibility confront the women of the UnitedNations: first, to recognise the progress women have made during the war and to participate actively in the effort to improve the standards of life in their own countries and in the pressing work of reconstruction, so that there will be qualified women ready to accept responsibility when new opportunities arise; second, to train their children, boys and girls alike, to understand world problems and the need for international cooperation, as well as the problems of their own countries; third, not to permit themselves to be misled by anti- democratic movements now or in the future; fourth, to recognise that the goal of full participation in the life and responsibilities of their countries and of the world community is a common objective toward which the women of the world should assist one another.”
The scope of this Resolution it is broad; while it includes women´s participation at the UnitedNations, it also marks the first time the Security Council addressed the disproportionate and unique impact of armed conflict on women, recognized the under- valued and under-utilized contributions women make to conflict prevention, peacekeeping, conflict resolution and peace-building, and stressed the importance of their equal and full participation as active agents in peace and security (UnitedNations Security Council Resolution 1325: History & Analysis). Resolution 1325 also intends for a women´s perspective on war and peace to become visible in the Security Council. The Security Council, through Resolution 1325 “urges the Secretary-General to seek to expand the role and contribution of women in UnitedNations field-based operations, and especially among military observers, civilian police, human rights and humanitarian personnel” (UN Security Council Resolution 1325, 2000). This Resolution encourages the Secretary-General as well to implement his strategic plan of action, calling for an increase in the participation of women at decision-making levels in conflict resolution and peace processes.
Abstract This paper reviews experience since governments first began, through the UnitedNations, setting time-bound quantitative goals to serve as guidelines and benchmarks for national and international action and development assistance. It argues that, contrary to much opinion, many of these goals have had a major influence on subsequent action and many have been largely or considerably achieved. It discusses approaches to implementation adopted in the UnitedNations Development Decades as well as by the World Health Organization and the UnitedNations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the Bretton Woods’ structural adjustment programmes. It underlines the need for a more nuanced and critical approach to what is meant by goal achievement, drawing on the experience of the Water Decade and the child survival revolution. It examines the ways in which global goals were costed, and draws lessons for the pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals. Appendix 1 summarizes the wide range of goals, targets and results adopted and the results achieved.
15 Between 1990 and 2005, the largest reduction in MMR (30.3 percent) was recorded in East Asia and the Pacific. 61 In 2003, the UnitedNations Population Fund (UNFPA) and partners launched the global Campaign to End Fistula. Women have received treatment for fistula through surgical outreach and family planning campaigns. Initiatives include mid-level health officers, who provide emergency surgery at rural hospitals in the face of doctor shortages. 62 In Asia, since the project’s start, 300 patients per day have received treatment. The key to the success of this campaign was investments in health systems. This included the provision of medical counselling at the community level, capacity strengthening of maternal health professionals and productive partnerships among UN agencies, the private sector and civil society. Although the MMR in Bangladesh remains among the highest in the world, the country managed to reduce it by 22 percent as of 2001, relative to the 1990 baseline of 320 per 100,000 live births. 63 Viet Nam’s success in increasing tetanus immunization coverage from 80 to 93 percent of pregnant women was similarly possible through strong partnerships with UN agencies, working under the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative. 64 Viet Nam has benefited from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI)/Vaccine Fund, which made it possible to raise total government expenditures on immunization by 20 percent. 65
E.2.c.4. In general, UNEP does not foresee any contradictions or conflict with the “Principles for partnerships between the Ramsar Convention and the business sector” as welcomed in Resolution X.12. If anything, cooperation with the business sector might increase since from our experience there is much interest from companies to be associated with the UnitedNations. E.2.c.5. Also in relation to Ramsar’s engagement with civil society no major changes are to be expected. UNEP has strong convening powers and proven ability to catalyze multi- stakeholder processes, including with civil society. UNEP has vibrant interaction with civil society, which cooperates and engages on many levels with UNEP as well as its MEAs. A change in host organization might create opportunities for Ramsar to further diversify its interaction with civil society. UNEP MEAs all have their specific practice for civil society engagement, within the broader overall UN framework. For further information, see also http://www.unep.org/civil_society.
This Report monitors progress in WSIS implementation using the Digital Opportunity Index, which has been developed by the Digital Opportunity Platform, whose members include ITU, the UnitedNations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion (KADO), the Ministry of Information and Communication of the Republic of Korea, LIRNEAsia and LINKAfrica. The authors are particularly grateful to Dr. C. M. Cho of the Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion (KADO) for his vision and insights into early iterations of the Digital Opportunity Index (DOI) and to Doreen Bogdan, Vanessa Gray, Roopa Joshi, Arthur Levin, Mario Maniewicz, Beatrice Pluchon, Susan Schorr and Nancy Sund- berg (ITU) for their insightful comments. The authors also wish to thank Marie-Elise Dumans, Dimo Calovski, Dong Wu and Mohamed Adida of UNCTAD for their invaluable comments. The Digital Opportunity Platform is an open multi-stakeholder partnership that welcomes new partners (www.itu.int/digitalopportunity). Most of the data contained in this Report is taken from the ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database maintained by the ITU. The database is available on CD-ROM or over the Internet as a subscription service. All of ITU’s indicators, reports and databases are available for purchase at www.itu.int/indicators. More infor- mation on ITU’s Reports can be obtained from www.itu.int/publications, and UNCTAD’s reports from www. unctad.org.
Resort Condominiums International Inc (USA) v. Ray Bolwell and Resort Condominiums (Australasia) Pty Ltd (Australia), (Queensland Supreme Court, 1993), 118 Aust. L. Rep. 644, XX YBCA 628, 641. An arbitral tribunal in the United States issued what it termed an “award” ordering an Australian licensee for the duration of the arbitration not to enter into competing arrangements and to deposit into an escrow account all revenues received as a consequence of the license agreement. When the licensor sought to enforce the award in Australia, the Queensland Supreme Court found that the award was clearly of an interlocutory nature and that it did not bring the arbitration to a close. Consequently, it held that the “award” was not an award for the purposes of the New York Convention.
•Desde 1992, el Programa de las Naciones Unidas a través del UnitedNations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute – UNICRI ha desa- rrollado el cuestionario International Crime Victimization Survey – ICVS, encuesta de victimi- zación referente tanto para América como para Europa.
Philippines, Tel Aviv University; KAIBI- GAN. 2002. “The Study on the Consequences of International Contract Migration of Filipino Parents on their Children: Final Scientific Report to the Netherlands-Israel Development Research Programme;” and Battisella, G., and C. G. Conaco. 1998. “The Impact of Labour Migration on the Children Left Behind: A Study of Elementary School Children in the Philippines. Sojourn 13(2): 220-241. All cited in, and also as found in: Scalabrini Migration Center n.d. Also see: Yayasan Pengembangan Pedesaan. 1996. “The Impact of Women’s Migration to the Family in Rural Areas (Dampak dari Migrasi terhadap Keluarga di Pedesaan).” Paper presented at the workshop on Women Migration in Indonesia, 11-13 September 1996, Jakarta, Indonesia. Cited in: “Trends, Issues and Policies Towards International Labor Migration: An Indonesian Case Study” (UN/POP/MIG/ 2005/02), pp. 11, 12 and 16, by C. M. Firdausy. 2005. Paper prepared for the UnitedNations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UnitedNations.
Para evaluar el actual posicionamiento de Paraguay se recurre al denominado “UnitedNations E-Government Survey 2010”, luego se destacan aspectos “ex ante” respecto de la “Visión” y “Postura Estratégica” e-Gov a ser discutidos con las autoridades del Gobierno de Paraguay, se efectúa un Análisis siguiendo un modelo sugerido por el BID, se efectúa un Análisis Externo vs Análisis Interno, se deriva un primer listado de Objetivos Estratégicos de este análisis comparativo, se exponen las matrices a ser utilizadas en el proyecto para determinar prioridades y validar los Objetivos Estratégicos del primer listado, se informa cómo se ha elaborado la programación del proyecto a partir del alcance del mismo, se enuncian los resultados esperados y, finalmente, se exponen el resumen y las conclusiones de lo informado.
When UNCTAD in 1993 took over the work programme of the UNCTC it also inherited the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR). This Group was formalized in 1982 by a UnitedNations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) resolution in response to the desire to increase the knowledge of what went on inside companies. It held its 20th session in 2003. It continues to offer guidance to policy makers, standard setters and the profession in the areas of accounting and reporting, and remains the only forum open to all developing countries and economies of transition on issues related to accounting and auditing. Since coming to UNCTAD, it has produced three guidelines: on integrating environmental costs and liabilities into financial statements (UNCTAD, 1999b); on the qualifications necessary for professional accountants (UNCTAD, 1999c); and yet another on accounting by SMEs. It is currently working on corporate governance and corporate social responsibility within the context of improving the transparency of information provided by enterprises and making them more accountable for their performance and impacts on society.
Algunos organismos internacionales como la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), la UnitedNations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) y la Comisión Económica para América Latina (CEPAL), señalan que en los resultados de las evaluaciones del año 2000, México es uno de los países en cuyos estudiantes de nivel medio superior y superior, los dominios de competencias científicas, matemáticas y de lectura están muy lejos de alcanzar un nivel educativo del mundo desarrollado, y dicho porcentaje no ha logrado el mínimo de compresión lectora esperada.
Abstract: Climate change is a multi-faceted global issue, and the Arctic region is one of the most vulnerable areas currently at risk from its detrimental effects. The Arctic regulates the Earth’s climate, and therefore Arctic environmental protection is necessary dialogue, which needs to be explored in international relations. It is a global issue of the highest importance. This thesis highlights the role of several Arctic players, including the Arctic Council, the leading international forum in Arctic diplomatic relations. This leads into an examination of the work that the UnitedNations has accomplished in respect to climate change and eventually the Arctic policy of two key global powers, the European Union and the United States, is compared. Their divergent perspectives are clear; the EU is a collective political and economic union with no distinct Arctic state of its own, while the U.S. is an independent Arctic nation with more geopolitical and territorial stake in the region. EU and U.S. policy, interests, cooperation and challenges in the Arctic will be explored. Some important key topics include the EU’s recent 2016 Arctic Policy, the Finnish Chairmanship of the Arctic Council, divisive U.S. climate change and energy politics, and U.S. tendency to reject collective, international agreements. In the end, each of their stances on environmental protection are what is truly of importance. Climate change and the Arctic are scientifically linked, and therefore Arctic environmental protection is crucial in the climate change debate. It remains to be seen which of these world leaders will rise up to lead the fight for Arctic protection in the face of its deterioration, and which will succumb to only strategic energy and security interests. One thing is certain: international cooperation in the Arctic is fundamental for its survival in the future.
Así se describe en UNRWA. Annual Report of the Director of the UnitedNations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. Covering the period 1 July 1954 – 30 June 1955. GAOR. 10 th Sess. Sup. 15. UN Doc. A/2978. New York. 30 June 1955. The Gaza strip, a coastal section of south- western Palestine, is about 25 miles long and from three to five miles wide. It formed part of the Gaza District of Palestine, and contains the towns of Gaza and Khan Yunis and a few other smaller towns and villages. It encompasses very little cultivable land and no industries of importance. Until 1948, the present Gaza strip had always been economically integrated in Palestine. Travellers and goods making their way to Egypt used it, before the railway was built between Palestine and Egypt, as the port of the desert; more recently, it remained an important frontier station. Its warehouses stored the wheat and barley from Beersheba that was often shipped from its open roadstead. Its population went out to work into other parts of Palestine. It was a center for administration and marketing. para.62.