This part of the essay consists on explaining the meaning of this work. For doing that, I made a small study using a survey assign by the University Jaume I to know how hotels have their CRM nowadays in the ValencianCommunity. I travel around the community making personally the surveys; at the end I have twenty of them. With the information obtained, I have extracted what I considered the most important to have clear results about the use of CRM in hotels.
The municipal communication departments represent the best way in the management of institutional communication and public relations at city councils. Although its birth was linked mainly to the functions of press office, we find an evolution in the functions and organization that has led to global com- munication departments that manage public relations with all the stakeholders. In the- se offices where different communication techniques coexist, digital communication especially occupies a prominent role. In this context, this research has as its fundamental objective to know how the management of relations with media is carried out because of its interest in being a key public of public rela- tions and acting as a public channel to reach citizens. The geographical scope of the re- search focuses on the ValencianCommunity where the cases of municipalities of different population sizes and belonging to the provin- ces of Castellón, Valencia and Alicante will be studied. In order to achieve the objectives,
In the ValencianCommunity (Spain), the programme of maternal pertussis vaccination during pregnancy started in January 2015. The objective of this study was to estimate in this region the vaccine effective- ness (VE) in protecting newborns against laboratory- confirmed pertussis infection. A matched case–control study was undertaken in the period between 1 March 2015 and 29 February 2016. Twenty-two cases and 66 controls (+/− 15 days of age difference) were included in the study. Cases were non-vaccinated infants < 3 months of age at disease onset testing positive for pertussis by real-time PCR. For every case three unvac- cinated controls were selected. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multiple conditional logistic regression for association between maternal vaccination and infant pertussis. Other children in the household, as well as mother- and environmental covariates were taken into account. The VE was calculated as 1 − OR. Mothers of five cases (23%) and of 41 controls (62%) were vaccinated during pregnancy. The adjusted VE was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56.6 to 98.1). The only covariate in the final model was breastfeed- ing (protective effect). Our study provides evidence in favour of pertussis vaccination programmes for preg- nant women in order to prevent whooping cough in infants aged less than 3 months.
As formerly commented, Spain and, within it, the Valencia Community, can be deemed as one of the European countries where the highest amount of CLIL initiatives have recently emerged (Eurydice 2006). In relation to that, the present study revealed that two out of the four schools examined have introduced CLIL in some of their nursery or primary education subjects with the English teachers counselling, which appears to be decisive in the correct CLIL implementation (Pavón-Vazquez & Ellison 2013). Therefore, focusing on one of the aims of the research, that is, determine whether CLIL is offered in secondary education in l’Alcalatén region, it can be asserted that none of the schools have followed that path, even though it could be introduced in the future through a progressive implementation. Nevertheless, despite forming part of the centre curriculum, it is interesting to underline that only two out of the five content teachers interviewed from the Colegio Puértolas Pardo were aware that the centre offered a subject through CLIL. That could be an after effect derived from a not well-planned organisation among the different departments of the centre.
Although the ValencianCommunity is a bilingual region, in which both languages, Catalan and Spanish, share official status, effective bilingualism is not the norm. If both co-official languages status and social widespread are compared with the linguistic context in other autonomous communities sharing both the same official languages, such as Catalonia or the Balearic Islands, the minority position of Catalan in favour of the dominant language, Spanish, is evident. This linguistic imbalance in the ValencianCommunity, Catalan being the minority language in its own historical territory has raised increasing interest in recent years (Safont 2007, González-Martínez 2010, Calatayud 2011, Portolés 2014).
Phase 3 consisted of interviews with female His- panics (N=18), who typically purchase and prepare food in traditional Hispanic families, using open-ended ques- tions to elicit personal reflection on native food habits in comparison to US food habits. Phase 3 interviews were also recorded by audiotape (n=11) with interviewee consent. Interviews took place either in the homes of interviewees or at the community center. Responses were annotated during interviews, and responses were verified by reviewing recordings. Four interviews were conducted in English, and 14 in Spanish. The primary investigator translated interviews conducted in Span- ish. Questions used in Phase 3 probed themes such as food purchasing and prices, availability of ingredients, meal patterns, influences on food choices, the meaning of healthy eating, perceived differences in food between the country of origin and the US, preparation methods, food preferences of children, American foods avoided, and favorite restaurants.
profession is becoming more patient orientated and implementing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). CPS in various countries has similar objectives with different emphasis, definitions, labels and using different tools. However, they can be classified using a broad hierarchical model based on clinical decision making and the extent of change required (Box 1). The challenges faced by the profession are related the development of a new patient orientated model of pharmacy which affects health care policy, education and research, the evolution of the market, the individual and organisational approaches to change and the implementation of CPS. These issues and previous research conducted in pharmacy practice have been synthesised to provide a platform for change that can guide a holistic and integrated approach to CPS implementation. Implementation can be conceptually framed in six levels: clinical, service provision, community pharmacy, professional organisation, government and stakeholder (Figure 1). Past experience with service implementation has seen the application of programs that include one or two of these levels in practice rather than a holistic approach. A concentric model was developed to illustrate the implementation of CPS and the holistic and integrated approach required to support change. A program (conSIGUE) being conducted in Spain has attempted to integrate all six levels to support the implementation and evaluation of a medication management service (Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico)
HLM accounts for variance simultaneously at multiple levels ~e.g., individuals, groups!. Multilevel modeling is thus a useful approach to examining the construct validity of concepts like SOC that are thought to have both individual and community- level “climate” properties. Indeed, several of the block-level predictors were significant in predicting respondent-level SOC. Further support for Perkins and Long’s ~2002! model of social capital was obtained in that block-level empowerment ~collective effi- cacy and informal social control! and neighboring predicted individual SOC ~either cross-sectionally or over a 1-year lag!, and both block-level civic participation and change in block participation were significant predictors ~in separate models!. And yet, the most consistently robust social climate predictor of individual SOC was placed- based attachment to the street block. Civic participation and place attachment, the only two block-level predictors significant in both HLM models, were significant only as residualized time change variables in predicting T2 SOC. That is to say, increasing block-level participation and place attachment predicted higher individual SOC at T2, but the absolute level of T1 participation and place attachment did not significantly predict T2 SOC.
Community Based Learning and Community Based Pedagogy Community based learning refers to a variety of methods, programs and strategies that educators conduct to link the curricular aspects to the surrounding communities, including local institutions, scholar subjects, cultural aspects and natural environments (Abbott, 2014). This type of learning is motivated by the belief that every community has intrinsic educational assets that can be used for educators to improve students’ learning experiences. According to Cooper, He, and Levin (2011) Community Based Learning is an action-oriented method to help teachers to educators learn more about other cultures, especially the home communities of their students. This pedagogical strategy not only links theory to practice, but also allows educators to immerse themselves in cultures different from theirs. In this sense, this strategy implies educators and students working together in pursuing a common goal that has a positive impact in their communities. In addition, Community-based pedagogies are practices that give important relevance to the role of the educational community members with regard to the identification of different issues that affect them, the planning of certain strategies and actions to deal with such issues, and the execution of a resulting plan in order to intervene the identified issues. Besides, it is an asset-based approach that not only recognizes the importance of the curriculum standards that teachers need to address in their lessons, but also it emphasizes local knowledge and resources as starting points for teaching and learning (Sharkey & Clavijo, 2016). In other words, community-based pedagogies allow teachers and students to be more aware of their social responsibility regarding the different issues that affect in a certain way their communities, and make them active participants in the problem-solving process of those issues.
The theoretical methods used were the logical-historical, the analytic-synthetic, the inductive-deductive and the systemic approach. The logical-historical permitted to understand the evolution and development of the teaching learning process of the French language to young learners in their community, to reveal its history, the main stages of its development, and its major historical connections. The analytic- synthetic was used in the processing of the methodological theoretical information obtained from the different consulted sources as well as the resulting data from the application of the different instruments. The inductive-deductive was used in the establishment of general and particular theoretical considerations expressed by different specialists on the topic object of research and in the analysis and interpretation of the data obtained through the different instruments applied. And the systemic approach to explain the systemic character of the whole process. From the empirical level different methods and techniques were used, which provided the direct practical contact with the research object, the reflection on the process of implementation of the proposal, and the assessment of the transformations. These methods and techniques were document analysis, observation, interview, questionnaire, learning research journal, recordings, and triangulation. They are explained in detailed in 2.2.
La proliferación de ofertas de empleo solicitando community managers y la multiplicación de cursos que preparan para ejercer como tales han convertido esta confusa profesión en un oscuro objeto de deseo y en un terreno abonado, dada la coyuntura socioeconómica en la que nos encontramos, donde desempleados y profesionales de diversas áreas relacionadas con la comunicación, marketing e informática luchan por ocupar dichos puestos, en una batalla en la que la mayoría de las veces triunfan los becarios. Existe un gran desconocimiento sobre esta figura profesional desarrollada desde la dirección de Relaciones Públicas en el ámbito on line. Pero ¿qué son realmente?, ¿qué lugar ocupan en las corporaciones?, ¿qué funciones desempeñan? Son algunas de las cuestiones que se pretenden resolver en este artículo.
In the field of disaster prevention, the critical role of local knowledge is eloquentlv demonstrated in one of the most often quoted rural development successes in the Sahel, namely the soil and water conservation project in the Yatanga region of Burkina Faso. This project started in the late 1970's when aid workers "introduced" micro-catchment soil conservation techniques from the Negev desert. Toe techniques were community based and required very . low technological and financia! inputs. Toe transplanted methodology was demonstrated in a number of villages as a way of improving tree production in a heavily deforested and degraded area. For the first few years the project stagnated. In retrospect it is easy to see now that it did not initially address the priority of the community, which was to produce food, but as importantly it had assumed that the key to success was the introduction of technology (all be it appropriate) from outside.
Este artículo no es de la traducción en los servicios públicos, pero proporciona ideas que pueden ser útiles para los creadores de políticas, los servicios públicos, los mediadores y los traductores de los servicios públicos que trabajan en un contexto multicultural o con grupos minoritarios. El estudio de Burke, el cual se llevó a cabo en Tanzania, utiliza palabras y conceptos en swahili para construir un marco para entender cómo el contexto social y cultural puede influir en las decisiones de alimentación infantil y la recepción de información preventiva de salud, en particular sobre el VIH infantil. Burke demuestra que la comprensión del lenguaje y la cultura son esenciales para las intervenciones exitosas y la comunicación sobre la asistencia médica. Ella argumenta que la adopción de las perspectivas de las comunidades meta y la explicación de conceptos clave en su propio idioma (variedad) son esenciales para las intervenciones de salud culturalmente relevantes. Ella sugiere que en el contexto tanzano "[c]ore concepts such as shame (aibu), capacity (uwezo), safety (salama) and openness (uwazi) could be used to frame counselling and community conversations because they have more resonance with Swahili-speakers than concepts such as stigma, income, risk and disclosure". [Los conceptos centrales como la vergüenza (aibu), la capacidad (uwezo), la seguridad (salama) y la transparencia (uwazi) podrían ser utilizados para enmarcar el asesoramiento y las conversaciones comunitarias porque tienen más resonancia con hablantes de swahili que conceptos como estigma, riesgo y divulgación] (p.154). Esto se relaciona con algunos de los puntos que, discutidos en este libro, especialmente acerca de la imparcialidad del lenguaje en el capítulo 1, los desafíos socioculturales en el capítulo 2 y las estrategias de traducción en el contexto de los servicios públicos en el capítulo 3. En una declaración que aplica, entre otros, tanto a los escritores como a los traductores de la información y las directrices de los servicios públicos, Burke alerta "people designing public health guidelines to the need to pay careful attention to the language used in communities so as to formalute messages grounded in people’s concerns and experiences". [a las personas que diseñan pautas de salud pública a la necesidad de prestar mucha atención al lenguaje utilizado en las comunidades para formar mensajes basados en Preocupaciones y experiencias de las personas] (p. 152).
In the first place, any attempt to improve the situation requires the allocation of a decent budget to guarantee the possibility of implementing quality linguistic and cultural services and hiring well-trained and professional public service interpreters or cultural mediators as, in the light of the results of this work, it seems that Valencian hospitals do not allocate any amount of money to this end. However, there are some measures that could be adopted especially taking into consideration that the benefits of doing so can compensate the investment made. In fact, an important number of works –such as Hyman, 2009; Flores et al., 2003; Bowen, 2004; Goldman, 2006; Jacobs et al., 2006; Divi et al., 2007– have shown that there are substantial costs to not providing interpretation services in terms of healthcare inefficiencies whereas counting with these professionals among the hospital staff has proven beneficial for all the actors involved in the healthcare setting (patients, providers and healthcare institutions) outweighing the costs of implementing such services (Hyman, 2009: 11).
This chapter presents a series of issues which mainly refer to: What does fostering and keeping Internet as a educative community mean?, and which barriers is society currently building that, intentionally or not, hinder this potential crystallization? This chapter analyzes concepts such as "community", community conditions (those conditions mediating the community, political conditions, the space and the place as community conditions), online community conditions (those conditions mediating virtual communities, political conditions of online communities, (the space and the place as conditions for online communities). Finally, the following question is posed: Does Internet constitutes an educative community?