The purpose of this research was to find the principles of contracting in contract n. ° 638 of 2013. The study is qualitative, the hermeneutic method, the approach used is analytical descriptive in the interpretation of the state contract of the fill holes machine of Bogotá, identify and decompose the parts or elements of the phenomenon and thus observe its causes, the nature and the effects. In the dynamics of the methodological design a legal theoretical triangulation was carried out (constitutional, jurisprudential and normative), starting from bibliographic and graphic web sources of the constitutional, legal, regulatory norms, jurisprudence of the High Courts, specialized doctrine in the contracting of goods and reports proffered in The administrative action by the fiscal control bodies. The data collection was used from different sources, which provided diverse interpretations in the analysis of the violated principles of State contracting, through bibliographic cards, reading cards, analytical summaries and documentary analysis. The investigation concluded that the contracts No. 638 of 2013 violated the principles of planning, effectiveness, efficiency, economy, publicity and the constitutional and fundamental principles of the prevalence of the general interest, the essential purposes of the State in connection with the right fundamental equality.
The Mexico City Policy or Global Gag Rule, introduced by Ronald Reagan and reinstated by every Republican administration since, restricts United States’ funding for international development to foreign Non-Governmental Organizations that are related in any way to abortion, with few exceptions. Donald Trump’s 2017 version of the policy was increased to affect funds that would also be dedicated to treat lethal illnesses like Ebola, HIV/AIDS, or Zika. Due to the nature of the policy and its detrimental effects on women’s rights in developing countries, Trump’s Global Gag Rule violates various international law instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and the guidelines established by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), as well as the Sustainable and Millennium Development Goals (SDGs and MDGs). Domestically, the Global Gag Rule would also go against the United States Constitution, by violating Equal Protection Principles, the First Amendment, and the Right to Participate in the Political Process. The Global Gag Rule would also have an important human impact, since it would impact on the health of women by making them more vulnerable against HIV/AIDS, Zika, Ebola, and Malaria. It would also impact on the availability of contraceptive measures, causing more Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), a lack of information about reproductive health and contraceptives, more unwanted pregnancies, and, ultimately, more abortions, which would be unsafe due to the lack of safe measures to implement them. The Global Gag Rule also has an important and detrimental impact on NGOs, particularly those located in developing countries, and, therefore, the ones that are needed the most. NGOs in countries like Kenya and Ethiopia have already suffered the terrible consequences of the policy, being forced to close down clinics and becoming practically and politically ineffective and helpless.
Abstract: This paper sets forth several legal, philosophical and economic elements for a general theory on the right to private property and economic freedom, which might explain why it is a fundamental right. Firstly, this Article draws a unified notion of the right to private property and economic freedom, which must be distinguished only analytically from the several property rights that might be regulated and even expropriated by the government. Secondly, this Article explains, according to Thomas Aquinas’ natural law theory, why the right to private property and economic freedom is a secondary natural right. Third, this Article further explains, under the Austrian theory of the market process, how it is that the legal protection of the right to private property and economic freedom gives place to a virtuous process creating economic development, poverty reduction and social peace. And finally, this Article also expounds how it is that the violationof this right generates the contrary effects, namely: underdevelopment, poverty and social conflict.
where CPR stands for “Crop and Pastureland Rents” and MQV stands for “Mining and Quarrying Value Added.” The CPR data is obtained from Joshua Wilde who constructed the total land rents in accordance with raw data provided by Giovanni Ruta at The World Bank. Ruta takes the value of each crop or pastureland commodity (meat, milk and wool) produced in a given country for a given year and combines the values with estimates of production costs to impute a land rental rate for each product. He then aggregates over all agricultural products to find total rents to cropland for each country.
Abstract: The abandonment of newborns is a worldwide problem that should stir social and legal reflection, in order to obtain protection of the newborn. Ecuador is not an exception and every year multiple newborn abandonments are reported in alarming conditions. About methodology, we use here an analysis based on realistic cases to show the vulnerability of abandoned infants and the experience of State sponsored baby hatches for their reception. This problem is analyzed with the following order: after an introduction, we see the right to life and care regarding newborns’ abandonment. Next Chapter is about the legal and institutional obligations of the State with respect to the child. Then we see the State foster care, the legal viability in Ecuador to establish baby hatches in order to deliver babies in safe conditions, and, at last, the conclusions. This exploratory study seeks the viability of replicating the State baby hatches project to deliver babies in safe conditions, in Ecuador, in order to protect life and integrity of the child, that is constitutionally protected. For this purpose, decriminalization of infants’ abandonment in safe conditions is needed.
Abstract: With the objective of highlighting the value of the fundamental right within the fundamental rights, according to the Political Constitution of Colombia (and other constitutions) and, within its line of research in history of the institutions-I, the author makes some reflections on the right to life , Following a deductive methodology, according to the most important aspects that both the doctrine and the jurisprudence have contributed to structure the article in several sections such as: (i) its sacredness, (ii) a right to death?, (iii) the ontological dignity of the Life and (iv) the day of life, which recognizes the protection of this rightof every person, as the foundation and end
Therefore, the normative dispositions, of any rank, have to be the result of the previous analysis with the objective to know the facts, their causes and effects, possible regulations, their effects, to be able to determine what is the precise form that must be demanded or or of the legal institution that wishes to be regulated; the fulfillment of certain formal requirements in its creation and the observance of legal technical principles that govern in a determined juridical order. The means and institutions that promote compliance with the provision and the rights and duties resulting from such situations must be created, both in the order of social and material conditioning, from the prevailing socio-economic and political bodies that are necessary for its application, as the secondary legal regulations and necessary to implement the rule of law. The objectives or purpose of the standard must also be clearly defined, or, what is the same, what is the purpose of regulating that relationship, if the conditions set out above exist for its realization, and then the validity of the norm , it will not only be manifesting the functionality of the law, but will also be in the formal order, being possible, then, that the norm obtains the active consensus of its recipients, their acceptance, compliance and even their defense. Once the norm has been established, it must be applied and respected not only by citizens, but also by other social institutions and, in particular, by the lower bodies, which are formally prevented, thanks to the validity of the principle of legality, regulating different or contrary, to limit or extend the circumstances in which the previous legislation is to be applied, unless the provision itself authorizes its development.
Barreiro P (1994). Modelos para la simulacio H n de dan os meca H nicos y desarrollo de un algoritmo de evaluacio H n de maquinaria para los principales cultivares de albaricoque manzana melocoto H n y pera. [Models to simulate mechanical damages and development of an evaluation algorithm for evaluating machinery for the most traded varieties of apricot, apple, peach and pear]. PhD Thesis. UPM Madrid Bollen A F; Dela Rue B T (1990). Impact analysis using video
Bioenergy, the use of biofuel for power and heat, has during the last decade attracted considerable interest and expectations. The greatest upsurge in interest has focused on biomass prepared into biofuel (mainly ethanol and biodiesel) used to power transport vehicles. It has been widely hoped that the use of biofuel can contribute to the solution of a range of problems including reduction of greenhouse gas emission, provide a renewable and therefore sustainable energy source, and increase the agricultural income for rural poor in developing countries. If these achievements could indeed be made, there would be very strong ethical arguments in favour of liquid biofuel production. In the last few years, however, serious concerns have emerged and have, during the last year, grown in strength and significance. There are well documented claims that there are serious harmful consequences of biofuel production which have been grossly underestimated, and that the alleged benefits have been considerably exaggerated. The growing concerns are strikingly reflected in the title of a recent working paper for the OECD: Is the cure worse than the disease?’
national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incom- patible with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations’ (sixth provision). This definition of one of the few rights—perhaps the only one—to have been given an international legal definition before achiev- ing a national or state-based one was reaffirmed in the second document, ten years later, which likewise defended this right, but also established a necessary link between equal rights (individu- als) and democratic government (representative of all groups) and the legitimate defence of the prin- ciple of territorial integrity. Thus, any claim by a territorial minority that neither belongs to an empire nor has been a colo- ny is conceived of as a conflict between certain citizens and their state and therefore falls be- yond the scope of the right to self- determination. This right is thus understood to have served to legitimise the decolonisation processes that followed in the wake of World War II, but to have had no bearing at all on the third wave of state formation 1 that fol-
If Italian leftist leaders made mistakes, the emerging fascist leadership showed unusual foresight and skill. While it is easy to see why Italian landlords supported fascism, the early gradual movement of Italian peasants in that same direction is owing to leadership skill. Learning from the left, fascism offered emo- tional solidarity to the rural poor and began to articulate peasant grievances. Now the fascists, as well as the socialists, demanded respite from economic crisis and state inputs to alleviate rural poverty. But unlike the left, Italian fascism had great economic reserves upon which to draw. These were the wealth of the landowning class whose interests were the real motive behind Italian fascism, despite the sympathetic discourse presented to peasant audiences. In a direct competition involving material resources, fascism had a distinct advantage. Whereas the left could only extract material concessions gradually through reforms of the state, the fascists could bypass the state entirely and direct landlord wealth into winning back peasant loyalty and drawing peasant support away from the left.8 Fascist organizers created fascist unions and encouraged peasants to join. The unions, working directly with landlords, delivered rewards and concessions quickly without having to produce changes in the laws, as the socialists were working to do.
Abstract. Sign language is the natural language of deaf people. Therefore it is their greatest cultural asset. However, similar to other minority languages, sign language has been discriminated, even being denied its recognition as formal language. This linguistic marginalization has meant a communicative barrier for deaf communities. Sign languages have been excluded in their own societies, even going have forbidden this way of communication in public spaces. Objec- tives: Analyze the legal status of sign languages in different countries and the legal form that supports them in access to education. Methodology: in this paper we carry out a review of the current state of sign languages from both the normo- legal as well as the social and educational perspective. Likewise, we analyze the effects that the different conceptual and ideologies approach towards the sign language, and the models of action that these entail, have provoked in the social development of the deaf communities. Results and discussion: there has been a great advance in the legal recognition of sign languages in most countries, but legally recognized rights do not achieve a full exercise or guarantees of access to education on equal opportunities. Keywords: deaf community; sign language; cultural rights; right to education; social and educational intervention.
in Cuba necessarily imply the analysis of the limitations of private interest that res- trict their powers and impede the full enjoyment of the use, possession, enjoyment and disposal of lands and certain property that legally They belong to them, with the inclination to recognize the rightof the property that the own grants and at the same time obstructs. Therefore, it is understood that the faculties of the person over an object that the law gives in property, can be disposed to his will, despite empha- sizing that this legal situation does not accept this recognition so unlimited due to the form of production that emanates in our society; Having to impose reasonable limitations, but that these should not obstruct some voluntary actions, the rightof ownership of these legal holders on land and certain agricultural goods.
If you are hiring a single interpreter in one language pair, you can contact him or her directly using the directory of a recognized professional association. Ideally you will look for someone with the experience and specialization that make them a good ﬁt for your event.