La periodización es necesaria para la disciplina histórica, en tanto que genera una organización significativa del pasado; asumiendo, claro está, las continuidades y cambios. En este contexto, la idea de “estilo” o la de “ojo de la época” son discutidas por la autora en el ter- cer capítulo. Un análisis estilístico formal, de cualquier manera que se haga, puede explicarnos la forma de operar del pensamiento visual y ejemplifica con el trabajo que Alpers realiza estableciendo las dife- rencias entre el arte italiano y el del norte de Europa. Ciertamente Alpers hace patente que el estilo se conecta con una “forma de ver”. Sin embargo, el concepto de estilo también implica algunos pro- blemas para el trabajo historiográfico: el acercamiento “evolutivo” a la cultura visual y material; la implicación moral y poco útil de la caracterización estilística; así como la etiquetación mecánica que obstaculiza el análisis abarcador y profundo de los artefactos. Jordanova subraya que en realidad los objetos e imágenes ex- presan interacciones dinámicas y complejas, de tal suerte que son mediadores; es decir, “están en conversación creativa con los con- textos en los cuales son elaborados y utilizados; hacen más que reflejarlos” (107). 11 Dicho de otra manera, las imágenes y los objetos
The visual spectacle of the lights shows a marked difference in the “point of view”; that is, the early modern differs from the medieval and the moment of transition, rough- ly corresponding to the (long) fifteenth century, has been our focus here. I began with an internal source, a late medieval epigraph concerning the herem (alatma, niduy), a rite usually seen as the main instrument for maintaining qehilla discipline. The formulation of the authors of the ordinances makes it clear that they were perfectly well aware of the effect of lights and shadows upon the onlooker. Indeed, the gradual snuffing of the candles and the ensuing darkness would cause nothing less than truth itself. For the communal leaders in charge of drafting the taqqanot lights/darkness have meaning. The communal leaders had previously reflected on their significance as have so many of the sources adduced above. The varied implements of lighting contrast with the stories of meaning. The same material object can be understood in terms of both: agency and coded meaning. The brief but expressive phrase of Duran in the first half of the fifteenth century [“everyone knows that an old lamp of heres is maus”] shows that there were various considerations –such as esthetics- operating in the realm of illuminations quite apart from the strictly legal, juridical or halakhic ones. These results of considerations about the material objects reveal historicity, ideology, spirituality and social relations. In this case, the kindling of the lights reflect –amongst other matters– a cohesiveness which is surprising because it is frequently absent in the writings based on other partial factors such as demographics, politics, gender or class.
52,000 coins, most dating to the reign of the emperor Carausius (MOORHEAD et al., 2010; BREEZE, BISHOP, 2013). Less ap- preciated, perhaps, is the scale of the new research resource now disseminated by the PAS in the form of geo-referenced object records in a publically accessible online da- tabase. The focus of this paper lies on the research insights which may be derived from objects en masse. Recent large-scale studies have explored the potential of such data for the study of settlement and landscape his- tory and coin circulation (BRINDLE, 2014; WALTON, 2012). Our emphasis instead lies on illustrating the contribution of the new data to the understanding of artefact form (in terms of typological range), circulation, con- text of use and decoration. We first outline the Scheme itself, its genesis and develop- ment and set out the general characteristics of the Roman period data, its composition, scale and distribution before exploring some objects and their decoration in greater detail. Our principal examples comprise an artefact type, the bow brooch, a key element of pro- vincial costume in Roman north-west Europe, andvisualculture as expressed in the form of figurines created (primarily) as votives and in the iconography of other objects bearing figural and polychrome enamel decoration. intRoDuction
the site was that anyone in the United States could make a list of the country’s issues and give their opinion on what its main priorities should be. Gilliam’s aim was to constitute a form of e-governance to offer President Obama a valuable public consultation tool. The web site was launched but was not incorporated into the president’s programme of communications strategies. The initiative continues today, providing a forum where some ten thousand US citizens discuss what the priorities of their current government should be. I mention the example of White House 2 because it is an example of a form of politics driven by the internet. Two of its features make it especially representative of the current political context: 1) White House 2 is an individual, non-party-aligned project collectivised through online interaction and debate; 2) its primary goal is to create open, transparent information that contributes to public involvement without directly interacting with the power structures of conventional representative democracy.
why “ecology blends environmental sciences with human culture” (Babe 1997: 1-2). as such, culture, although created by human beings, necessarily includes dimensions of the material or objective and symbolic or subjective. the material dimension of culture consists of a set of goods, utensils, practices and institutions created to face natural or objective physical circumstances. anthropology defines it describing “culture is a set of tried and proven ans- wers which have been balanced against environmental incitements. it is the functional equivalent to instinct” (lamo de espinosa et al. 1987). this material dimension of culture is made up of information technology, the market and political organization, that is, those institutions that allow human beings to satisfy their needs and find fulfillment. the symbolic dimension encompasses both the spiritual and the symbolic parts. it consists of the norms that rule each social group, that is, ideas, interpretations, beliefs, traditions and even aspirations. Both materialand symbolic aspects allow us to understand that heritage is not only a set of monuments or natural reserves. heritage also re- fers to spiritual legacy, beliefs and traditions.
Todas las observaciones anteriores se tendrán en cuenta en las modificaciones que se le realicen al material antes de pasar por la fase de pilotaje. Es importante aclarar que las definiciones de las estrategias, de las actividades, los marcos conceptuales, la descripción de las actividades mismas y las instrucciones a dar durante cada procedimiento y tarea están incluidos en los resultados de la investigación realizada por Rodríguez (2008) que tenía como objetivo adaptar el documento de la versión original en inglés a la versión final en español. En el presente estudio el objetivo es diseñar y validar los recursos lingüísticos y el materialvisual que se va a emplear en cada procedimiento fonoaudiológico y por eso no se vio la necesidad de darle a conocer a los jueces todo lo relacionado con las definiciones conceptuales ni procedimentales. Sin embargo, la matriz de registro contenía el nombre de la actividad, el autor que la proponía, el objetivo fonoaudiológico, la instrucción a dar y los materiales que estaban siendo validados. Sin embargo, se tendrá en cuenta la sugerencia de los jueces y por eso el producto de esta investigación tendrá una cartilla de instrucciones en la que se encuentre la definición conceptual de cada actividad, el objetivo, la instrucción, los recursos lingüísticos y el materialvisual a usar en cada uno de los dos procedimientos, la evaluación diagnóstico y la intervención terapéutica.
Otras dos divinidades que se materiali- zan en la casa nuer son Chol y Biel. Chol, según nuestra informante, es el padre de Biel. Ambas divinidades viven en el cie- lo. Su carácter es claramente masculino: protegen a los hombres cuando van a la guerra, a quienes viajan y al ganado fren- te a los animales salvajes. Vacas, guerra y viajes son elementos todos ellos vincu- lados a los varones. Nuevamente, la in- formación complementa la obtenida por Evans-Pritchard (1970: 30, 57), quien sólo dice que Chol es una deidad de las alturas relacionada con la lluvia, el rayo y un tipo particular de árbol. Respecto a Biel, Evans-Pritchard (ibid.: 97) dice que es un “duende de la naturaleza”, un espíritu telúrico, del que existen varios tipos diferentes (de las cenizas, cobras, termiteros, etc.). La representación de estas deidades son dos arbolillos secos clavados verticalmente en el suelo del conjunto de habitación (Figura 51), para los que Evans-Pritchard da el nombre de riek. La oposición entre el mundo mas- culino y el femenino tiene su correlato material en estos altares: significativa- mente, las divinidades femeninas están a ras de suelo, mientras que las masculinas se elevan hasta la altura de una persona o la superan. Este es un tema que mere- ce posterior estudio. Según Evans-Prit- chard (ibid.: 206), los postes representan para los hombres, la asociación entre los
In sum, this paper analyzes the relation between one of the most respectable institutions of capitalism, competition, and feelings of happiness, and studies if this relation varies across ethnic groups using data from the 2005 wave of the World Value Surveys (WVS). Using the WVS improves over the Brandts et.al (2005) study in that the WVS build on representative samples and avoids the problem of self-selection typical of experimental studies. It also improves over the Fischer (2008) study in that my paper considers a subjective opinion about whether an individual thinks market competition is good or harmful (see below) which, as argued above, constitutes an individual measure and it may also be considered an ex-ante opinion, independent of the actual competitive environment derived from any aggregated approximation to competition, such as the KOF globalization index.
The role of the board is to establish not only the right cultureand behaviours but also the right incentives and disincentives. In doing so, the board must be credible in the eyes of employees and stakeholders. The new Code therefore states that boards are responsible for workforce policies and practices which reinforce a healthy culture. Employees are expected to display the right behaviours, and the board should set the standards, observe those behaviours and critique them if necessary.
it says in the life of the Alliance. Creating informal savings groups among the poor (now canonized by the donor world as “microcredit”) is a major worldwide technique for improving ﬁnancial citizenship for the urban and rural poor throughout the world, often building on older ideas of revolving credit and loan facilities managed informally and locally, outside the purview of the state and the banking sector. Savings and microcredit have many advocates and visionaries in India and elsewhere. But in the life of the Alliance, savings has a profound ideological, even salvational, status. The visionary of the speci ﬁ c philosophy of daily savings for the Alliance is the president of the National Slum-Dweller’s Foundation, A. Jockin, who has used daily savings as a principal tool for mobilization in India and his central strategy for entry and relationship building in South Africa, Cambodia, and Thailand. He is the missionary of a speci ﬁ c idea of daily savings among small-scale groups, which he sees as the bedrock of every other activity of the federation. Indeed, it is not an exaggeration to say that in Jockin’s organizational exhortations wherever he goes, Federation = Savings. When Jockin and other members of the Alliance speak about daily savings, it becomes evident that they are describing something far deeper than a simple mechanism for meeting daily monetary needs and sharing resources among the poor.They are also speaking about a way of life organized around the importance of daily savings, which is viewed as a moral discipline (in Jockin’s words, it is like “breathing”) which builds a certain kind of political fortitude and commitment to the collective good and creates persons who can manage their aﬀairs in many other ways as well. It is something like a spiritual discipline whose spread Jockin and other leaders see as the building block of the local and global success of the federation model.
Although the idea that technology has an impact on differ- ent aspects of our culture may seem oversimplified and highly deterministic, the premise is not entirely incorrect. Technology does not affect society in a linear way; rather, in combination with many other elements, it creates conditions of possibility that suggest rather than determine possible futures (Hawk et al., 2008). It could be said that all technologies intervene in the human environment and modify it to some extent, thereby changing, more or less radically, the conditions of existence of different cultures and permitting certain practices to be rendered obsolete while placing other previously impossible practices within our reach. The changes that have occurred in modern societies are partly related to the introduction of ICTs in our lives. We live entirely in a digital environment and digital technologies are present in all aspects of our lives. We use digital technologies, in fact, almost unconsciously. They are present in all areas of business and underlie financial transactions. They are also present in the media and cultural production, often distributed digitally. Charlie Gere suggests that the sheer extent of the presence of digital technology in our lives indicates the existence of a digital culture. Gere states that digitization can be considered a marker of culture because it includes artifacts and systems of meaning and communication which clearly demarcate contemporary lifestyles (Gere, 2002, p.12). This would indicate that technology is not on the margins of an analysis of culture but is, in fact, central. Increasingly complex technological environments are beginning to shape a dialogue with all cultural production actors. The complex technologies that we use today cannot be considered as mere
civilizations are different growths, pursue different goals, embody different ways of living, are dominated by different attitudes to life; so that to understand them one must perform an imaginative act of ‘empathy’ [Einfühlung] into their essence, understand them ‘from within’ as far as possible, and see the world through their eyes» (Berlin: 210). What Herder called «Einfühlung» Vico called «fantasia» (ibid: xix): the mental exercise of imaginative recrea- tion with the intention of penetrating other cultures from within. Both Vico and Herder share with Nietzsche and Foucault «the cardinal truth that all valid explanation is necessarily and essentially genetic» (ibid: 34). A Deweyan analysis of the shapes and meanings of experi- ence would be the appropriate parallel, and a Peircean combinatory analysis of «habit» and «tradition» would illuminate the contours of an interpretative tradition (such as Christian exegetics or neo-Romantic poetry) better than a simple historiological analysis of cultures and languages. But whatever the method used, the context remains the same: never to give up the singularity of the experience in favour of some retroactively justifed or ideologically coloured story about how things ought to have been as opposed to how things actually were, or seemed, in all their richness, through the prism and prison of the world view andculture we want to understand, deeply.
Science studies scholarship provides models not only for engaging with scientific accounts of the environment, but for tracing the interactions between texts/language/discourse and the wider material world. Scholars in science studies bring an array of social theories, philosophical questions, and historical contexts to bear upon scientific matters, mixing analyses of literature, science, and political forces in complex ways that cannot be predicted in advance. Science studies, because it is informed by social and political theories and yet also contends with the material substances, actions, and agencies of the natural world, puts forth provocative, even jolting, methodologies and reconceptualizations. I would like to propose, then that science studies can complicate and enrich scholarship in the environmental humanities. Science studies, especially the work of Donna Haraway, Bruno Latour, Andrew Pickering, Nancy Tuana, and Karen Barad, grapples with the complex interactions between the natural and the social, the discursive and the material, the sciences and the humanities. In short, science studies offers a rich body of scholarship that forges conceptions of materiality that are neither reductive nor essentialist. These theorists, in fact, offer compelling and productive ways to trace the “mangling” of scientific and other social practices (Pickering), the “intra-action” between discourse and materiality (Barad), and the ways in which networks are “simultaneously real, like nature, narrated, like discourse, and collective, like society”(Latour). These emerging models of materiality are crucial for developing an ecocriticism that does not replicate nature/culture dualisms or reinscribe nature as a blank slate for the imaginings of culture, but instead, seeks to account for the ways in which nature and environment, as material forces, act, interact, and profoundly affect cultural systems, texts, and artifacts. Indeed, it becomes impossible to separate “nature” and “culture” when we focus on the intra-actions of discursive andmaterial forces. Even as most science studies scholarship is not, itself, environmentalist, it may provide theoretical and methodological models that foster the ethical and political project of ecocriticism—to do intellectual work that matters not only to humans, but to the more-than human world.
- Desarrollo de metodologías nuevas: es frecuente encontrar en las escuelas el modelo tradicional en el área de Educación Plástica y Visual. Pero en los últimos años hay docentes especializados y otros que están introduciendo el modelo de la Escuela Nueva, caracterizado por: tener al alumno más activo, proponer actividades y usar estrategias más motivadoras, ser más práctica y participativa, estar relacionado con el cuerpo y la mente, etcétera. Algunas metodologías que se están introduciendo son: Paletas de Inteligencias Múltiples, PBL ( Problem based learning- Aprendizaje basado en problemas), Trabajos Cooperativos o Proyectos de Comprensión.
The Master of Petersburg is another interesting example of intertextuality. Coetzee’s fictional character is called Dostoevsky and is a well-known writer. The author alludes through a complex web of connections not only to some life facts about the Russian writer, but also to some of his works. Fictional charac- ters and historical facts blend to show that truth is out of our reach. Elizabeth Costello contains a number of references to authors and literary works. Cos- tello, who like the protagonist of The Master of Petersburg is a writer, refers to a story by Franz Kafka about an ape that was taught to speak. This reference constitutes the base of her case against the claims of realism, as a narrative form, that it is a truthful representation of reality. Costello argues that «There used to be a time when we knew. We used to believe when the text said, ‘On the table stood a glass of water’». «But all that has ended. The word-mirror is broken, irreparably, it seems» (Coetzee, 2003: 19). The story of Kafka’s ape is later quoted by Costello when she advocates the value of hybridity as a form of resistance to uniformizing thought, an idea widely discussed and defended by postcolonial scholars. Kafka’s story is not the only intertextual reference Coetzee relies on to expose the cruelty against animals and in favour of universal humanism as the highest ethical value. The most impressive and also the most criticized is the author’s allusion to the Holocaust. Costello compares animal cruelty to concentration camps:
Profesor Ángel Gato del departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina, para proponerles un proyecto de colaboración con ellos para la elaboración de un material audiovisual docente original que pudiera estar a disposición de los alumnos para el estudio de la asignatura Anatomía I (Esplacnología) junto al resto de materiales complementarios ya facilitados por los docentes (guión de prácticas, exámenes autoevaluativos, apuntes, etc.).
We received an urgent request for a visit to a remote area in southern Ethiopia that could be reached only by overland travel by truck. The British missionaries were especially anxious to have advice about a newly proposed alphabet, and I was the only nearbye translation consultant who might be able to help. Recent rains had made the roads almost impassable, but as soon as the roads had dried out, there was danger of fires of elephant grass, and that is precisely what happened. That very afternoon the road ahead was a wall of fire some forty feet high. We could not go back because the fire was advancing faster than we could retreat. So we simply had to drive the truck through the fire. We prepared as well as we could and chose a relatively level stretch of road. There we waited until we could dash through the blaze, throw dirt on the truck, and put out any lurking embers. Finally, we arrived at the village of the British mission.
Abstract: This research aims to show the relationship between the successful implementation of a Marketing campaign and the increase in sales. To test the hypothesis the sale of EPP in the customers of 3M in the sector of Durán where the campaign has been implemented Security is your responsibility has been used as an example. This functional and relational type analysis is supported by interviews with different co-workers of the campaign, as well as a survey of direct users: area managers, maintenance, industrial security or physical security. The purpose of the study is to know their perception about the campaign. The result shows how the use of Marketing as a tool in sales, generates a positive effect on them. Finally, we recommend tactics such as penetrating with new material, or spreading the campaign to other sectors in order to replicate the success obtained.
The need to memorize the entire tradition belongs to the oral culture. The knowledge or erudition culture demands traditional references and logical proof — you have to indicate sources, you have to make quotations. Now, there is only the communicational flux which isn’t interrupted by external proof need. Communication differs from knowledge on that: in the communicational process, which is based on analogical signs, the flux is continuous and self sufficient, without resorting to external proof. The meta-language of knowledge appeared starting with the Renaissance and became more effective with the Reform and Counter-Reform, in the same time with the erudition culture due to the encounter between the Christian and the Antique culture in the educational environment. Now, in the postmodern globalizing times, the encounter between occidental and extra-occidental cultures doesn’t need intellectual erudition because mass media utilizes analogical signs. Nowadays mass media doesn’t need knowledge erudition because it is analogical, self-instructive and functions at a high speed. It is truth, knowledge erudition culture belongs to the printed book and the mechanical industrial era and it hasn’t got a rapid consumption. But immediate consumption of nowadays real mass media leads to the irrational acceptance because they don’t allow for enough time for assimilation and conscious reflection.
Behind this scene is the mosque in which the painting’s viewer stands in order to consume the historic moment with which he is confronted in the painting, and he finds himself considering multiple visualizations of the space he occupies during the act of viewing the painting. Depending on the viewer’s cultural background, he may identify with one of the two archetypes represented by Palomino, the white Christian that dominates the scene or the faceless, marginalized Muslim. His self- identification has a spatial implication because he is standing in a building that was both a church and a mosque, a space that, for all the functions it has today, ceased to function as a mosque. The mosque had been architecturally adapted two centuries before Palomino into a cathedral with chapels along its perimeter; the viewer stands in one of these appropriated spaces and consumes a scene in which the city’s fall to Catholics is symbolized by the surrender of the key to the city. Today’s viewer can purchase a replica of this key at one of the many tourist shops that neighbour the mosque-cathedral. These keys are numerous, it must be noted, because the target consumer identifies its importance as a symbol of the reconquest, and likely aligns his identity with that of the king as a Christian or as coming from Christian heritage.