Visual impairment

Top PDF Visual impairment:

Including students with visual impairment in a colombian state university: a descriptive case study

Including students with visual impairment in a colombian state university: a descriptive case study

From this piece of evidence it can be inferred that people with visual impairment require tactile material for knowing the exact place in which they are, and for being directed through the path they have to follow for reaching their destination; hence, due to the absence of the required signaling system, this student has to depend on the help of other people. In the same document cited above, the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ibid) it is also indicated that both, the inside and the outside of buildings should be equipped with a signaling system that indicates routes, identifies areas and warns about obstacles; however, the SWVI and professors explain that in this institution only some buildings have been improved with ramps for facilitating the access to students with special needs, but the need of appropriate signaling that orients blind people still remains, which increases the
Mostrar más

86 Lee mas

Does visual impairment in a child or an adolescent affect their parents' quality of life? : A literature review

Does visual impairment in a child or an adolescent affect their parents' quality of life? : A literature review

The presence of physical symptoms, burden, anxiety and stress has also been reported in some of the studies. The appearance of severe physical symptoms (extreme emotions, panic attacks, insomnia, eating problems…) is only mentioned in two of the articles in which the visual impairment was caused by a carcinogenic tumour and it was treated with enucleation (Ek, 2000; Ulster & Antle, 2005). On the other hand, the physical tiredness and the burden resulting from the child’s constant care demands are often mentioned in a descriptive way. In a study on the burden and the depression of blind adults’ caregivers (Braich, Lal, Hollands, & Almeida, 2012), the heaviest burden was related to the VI’s level, the number of close supervision hours and the caregiving intensity. Another aspect that reflects the burden on carers which has also been observed in this study review is that the mothers are who show higher levels of burden, because usually are main caregivers. Anxiety is been reported quantitatively in Lakshmi & Jabeen (2012) who found that, regardless of the children’s or the parents’ gender, the anxiety levels were significantly higher in parents’ whose children were visually impaired than in parents whose children were not visually impaired. In parents’ experiences signs of anxiety were also detected because of the lack of information, or letting the child develop some independence. Stress is also a highly present QoL indicator in the qualitative researches; while Speedwell et al. (2003) did not found significant differences in stress levels between parents of visually impaired children and parents of not visually impaired children, Tröster (2001) and Lee et al. (2014) did find some. In Tröster (2001) it is also found that mothers of children with low vision are more stressed than those who have blind children and, according to the author, it could be because they are more demanding regarding their children’s abilities and underestimate their limitations, or because it is not a condition as defined as blindness.
Mostrar más

30 Lee mas

Intelligence Scale for children with visual impairment - professional version: performance by type and degree of disability

Intelligence Scale for children with visual impairment - professional version: performance by type and degree of disability

In this way, it is important to consider the EPIC-DV, initially as a tracking tool, given its ease of application, the speed of data collection, as well as the possibility of collective application. It is intended that such instruments enable professionals who, through their application, can identify strengths and weaknesses of the child, which could later be veriied through the application of other instruments with the infant, as well as using other tools and evaluation methodologies that complement this investigation. In this sense, the importance of using instruments that present evidence of validity for this speciic population is highlighted, though unfortunately is still cha- racterized by the gap in our country. Overall, the PAIC-DV and the EPIC-DV aim to remedy, in parts, the diiculty encountered by professionals when faced with the need for cognitive assess- ment of children with visual impairment.
Mostrar más

14 Lee mas

Race analysis in swimmers with visual impairment at the 2012 London Paralympic Games using individual distances method

Race analysis in swimmers with visual impairment at the 2012 London Paralympic Games using individual distances method

International Paralympic Committee (IPC) establishes a classification system for swimmers with visual impairments, categorizing them into three functional classes using as criteria the degree of visual acuity, field of vision and light perception (Daly, Malone, Burkett, Gabrys, & Satkunskiene, 2009; Malone, Sanders, Schiltz, & Steadward, 2001; International Paralympic Swimming Comitte, 2005). Race analysis based on individual distances (Veiga, S., Cala, A., Mallo, J., & Navarro, E. (2013) provides the distances traveled by the swimmer in each of the race segments, having the emergence of the swimmer´s head as a reference for analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of functional classification on race performance parameters in Paralympic swimmers with visual impairment through the individual distances method.
Mostrar más

5 Lee mas

Vocational guidance in people with special educational needs as the result of visual impairment during the transition stage from high school to advanced education

Vocational guidance in people with special educational needs as the result of visual impairment during the transition stage from high school to advanced education

This work is a part of the current investigation project that corresponds to a post- graduate scholarship from the CONICET (National Council of Scientific Investigation). We’ve analyzed the reasons that guide the visually impaired people’s choices in the transition from school to advanced education, depending on whether it’s about blindness, moderate or severe visually impairment. In addition, we’ve compared the choices made by visually impaired people according to their disability degree and with the sighted people choices. So, this work arises from the scarce information about this issue, and on the corresponding approaches and intervention strategies to those with this disability.
Mostrar más

19 Lee mas

Environmental injustice and mobility impairment

Environmental injustice and mobility impairment

Fear of other people may be a reason why some disabled people do not leave the house as much as they might want to or it might be fear of crime. For example, visually impaired people who use long white canes or physically disabled people who use wheelchairs are identifying themselves as vulnerable people who might present an easy target for muggers. Sixty per cent of disabled people in the UK did not have household car access in 2002. This figure increased to 88 per cent for those with a visual impairment (Cahill, 2010). A disturbing trend in the UK is a seeming increase in the amount of abuse directed at disabled people often when they are using public transport. Many disabled people too feel that the area surrounding their house is a hostile environment because of the poorly maintained pavements and surfaces. Public transport can present problems as well. The experience of waiting for buses, the long waits, the lack of knowledge as to when a bus is due to arrive at the stop, the sheer inconvenience, the fear which can accompany waiting for the bus. Clearly there is much more work to be done in making disabled people feel that they have an equal right to use public space.
Mostrar más

20 Lee mas

Capturing the Severity and Impairment Associated With Depression: The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) Validation in a Spanish Clinical Sample

Capturing the Severity and Impairment Associated With Depression: The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) Validation in a Spanish Clinical Sample

Among the emotional disorders, the most prevalent lifetime syndrome is a major depressive episode (1, 2). It is among the most common reasons for consulting a general practitioner (3–5). This happens not only in adult’s population, but also among young people the major depressive disorder (MDD) is considered one of the leading causes of disability (6–9). In Spain, depression is the most pervasive mental disorder, with a 12- month prevalence estimated at 3.9%, and a lifetime prevalence estimated at 10.5% (6). To the epidemiological magnitude of this disease, it is important to add its special tendency toward chronicity (7) and its high rate of comorbidity (10), especially with anxiety disorders (11). Moreover, research has shown that depression is associated with significant functional impairment, with poorer quality of life, disability, and important costs (personal, social, and economic) (2, 10, 12). Furthermore, regarding the functioning domains, depressive symptoms have stronger associations with role limitations due to vitality, mental health, physical and emotional, and social functioning problems than anxiety symptoms (2). In view of these data, there is a need to develop screening strategies for the emotional and behavioral symptoms related to MDD (6, 13). Furthermore, because depressive symptoms are accompanied by significant distress and impairment, it is important to capture the severity of the impairment and assess it in research and clinical settings.
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

ASCCI: Alternatives sports of children with cognitive impairment

ASCCI: Alternatives sports of children with cognitive impairment

Alternatives Sports of Children with Cognitive Impairment, ofrece los servicios en la formación de nuevas habilidades por medio de deportes alternativos. Esta empresa atenderá y formara a chicos y chicas sin importar su estrato socioeconómico ya que puede ser adaptados para jóvenes con discapacidad cognitiva en pro de la promoción del mejoramiento y bienestar de la calidad de vida gracias al desarrollo de programas de ejercicio y actividad física que van de la mano con el control y direccionamiento en la modalidad de discapacidad cognitiva y que conlleva a obtener oportunidades de hacer parte de esta nueva forma de ver los deportes en la sociedad.
Mostrar más

69 Lee mas

La eficacia de la terapia visual basada en la eficacia cientifica en casos de discapacidad visual

La eficacia de la terapia visual basada en la eficacia cientifica en casos de discapacidad visual

La adaptación sacádica (AS) ha sido utilizada durante décadas como una herramienta de exploración de los mecanismos de la plasticidad en modelos animales y humanos. Se descubrió que habitualmente, cuando un sujeto practica una serie de sacádicos en torno a un estímulo visual, el cual a su vez es desplazado durante el movimiento, se producen post-sacádicos erróneos. Sin embargo, cuando tienen lugar numerosas repeticiones, finalmente se produce un aumento en la amplitud de los sacádicos gracias a la plasticidad (Lèvy-Bencheton et al., 2016).

29 Lee mas

Therapeutic application of melatonin in mild cognitive impairment

Therapeutic application of melatonin in mild cognitive impairment

Abstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an etiologically heterogeneous syndrome defined by cognitive impair- ment in advance of dementia. We previously reported in a retrospective analysis that daily 3 - 9 mg of a fast-release melatonin preparation given p. o. at bedtime for up to 3 years significantly improved cognitive and emotional perform- ance and daily sleep/wake cycle in MCI patients. In a follow up of that study we now report data from another series of 96 MCI outpatients, 61 of who had received daily 3 - 24 mg of a fast-release melatonin preparation p. o. at bed- time for 15 to 60 months. Melatonin was given in addition to the standard medication prescribed by the attending psychiatrist. Patients treated with melatonin exhibited significantly better performance in Mini–Mental State Exami- nation and the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s disease Assessment Scale. After application of a neuropsy- chological battery comprising a Mattis´ test, Digit-symbol test, Trail A and B tasks and the Rey´s verbal test, better performance was found in melatonin-treated patients for every parameter tested. Abnormally high Beck Depression Inventory scores decreased in melatonin-treated patients, concomitantly with the improvement in the quality of sleep and wakefulness. The comparison of the medication profile in both groups of MCI patients indicated that 9.8% in the melatonin group received benzodiazepines vs. 62.8% in the non-melatonin group. The results further support that melatonin can be a useful add-on drug for treating MCI in a clinic environment.
Mostrar más

13 Lee mas

Validación del Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) para la detección de demencia en población mexicana

Validación del Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) para la detección de demencia en población mexicana

The objective of the study was to validate the Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) in Mexican population for the detection of memory disorders associated with demen- tia. Participated 101 healthy volunteers and 61 patients with Alzheimer’s disease in mild and moderate degree, recruited in residences for older adults and in the service of Geriatrics of a University Hospital. We applied the MIS, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Test of Pfeiffer, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. The results indicated signif- icant differences between the sample control (M = 7.57, SD = 0.79) and patients (M = 1.44, SD = 1.43) in the total score of the MIS (maximum = 8). The sensitivity of the MIS is 75% and the specificity is 66%. These and other results indicate that the Mexican version of the MIS complies with requirements of brevity, simplicity and sensitivity for the detection of alterations of memory.
Mostrar más

10 Lee mas

Estudio de discapacidad visual e iluminación en centros de carácter social para personas mayores

Estudio de discapacidad visual e iluminación en centros de carácter social para personas mayores

que leían recibía una iluminación de 3500 lux en vez de 500 lux. Por lo tanto, estimamos oportuno que las autoridades competentes consideren la opción de realizar un mínimo cambio en la legislación actual, con el objetivo de incluir una adenda al decreto 14/2001 de 18 de Enero en su artículo 22, en el cual se incluya la necesidad de adaptar localizaciones específicas para usuarios con discapacidad visual en las cuales la iluminación pueda llegar al menos a 3500 lux, con capacidad de regulación de la misma. Igualmente, se antoja necesario que se empiece a considerar la necesidad de incluir dentro de la cartera de servicios públicos la asesoría y ejecución de programas de rehabilitación visual, ya que el número de usuarios de centros de carácter social con discapacidad visual irá en aumento.
Mostrar más

42 Lee mas

Utilidad clínica de la microperimetría en rehabilitación visual

Utilidad clínica de la microperimetría en rehabilitación visual

Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sistematizada en bases de datos. Además, se exploró la bibliografía de los artículos encontrados para ampliar la búsqueda. Se incluyeron también libros relacionados con la temática. Resultados: Laishram (2017) Demostró que la microperimetría es una herramienta efectiva para la evaluación de la función macular y progresión de la enfermedad. Pacella, et al (2012) Evidenciaron que tras entrenamiento con microperimetría a pacientes con DMAE y maculopatía miópica, obtuvieron mejoras estadísticamente significativas de la agudeza visual (AV) para lejos (P<0,01), y mejora en la sensibilidad retiniana media. Verdina, et al (2013) realizaron un estudio de casos y controles a pacientes con enfermedad de Stargardt. Evidenció una mejora en la estabilidad de la fijación, una mejora estadísticamente significativa (P<0,007) en la velocidad de lectura, sensibilidad retiniana y agudeza visual de lectura, en el grupo tratado.
Mostrar más

30 Lee mas

Clinical and Demographic Predictors of Conversion to Dementia in Mexican Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment

Clinical and Demographic Predictors of Conversion to Dementia in Mexican Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment

background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a clinical stage between normal cognitive aging and dementia. the clinical course of MCI is heterogeneous, with a significant number of cases progressing to dementia or reverting back to normal. Objective: to determine the predictors of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia among Mexican older adults. Materials and Methods: a sample of 175 persons underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation to establish mild cog- nitive impairment diagnosis. these patients were followed-up for a mean 3.5 years. results: Mean age was 81.7 (± 6.9) years, 57% were women, and mean education level was 9.5 (± 6.1) years. Sixty-one percent of mild cognitive impairment participants progressed to dementia. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that progression to dementia was associated with age (HR: 4.95; 95% CI: 1.96-12.46; p = 0.001), low education level (HR: 5.81; 95% CI: 1.90-7.78; p < 0.002), history of stroke (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.37-11.16; p < 0.012) and cognitive decline (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.18-1.45; p = 0.000). Conclusions: age, poor educa- tion, cognitive decline, and a history of stroke were predictors of conversion to dementia. the identification and control of modifiable risk factors could influence conversion to dementia. (ReV InVeS ClIn. 2017;69:33-9)
Mostrar más

7 Lee mas

←
				
											Volver a los detalles del artículo
									
				Más allá de la baja visión

← Volver a los detalles del artículo Más allá de la baja visión

La baja visión se convierte en una parte constante de la vida familiar. La facilidad con que la persona con limitación visual pueda lidiar con el deterioro visual es directamente proporcional al apoyo familiar que recibe (37,38). Los cambios en la vida familiar son evidentes, como la ubicación de los muebles y la iluminación, ya que pueden requerirse cambios para eliminar los riesgos de un accidente casero (39,40). Cuando la familia trabaja en conjunto para proporcionar apoyo y afrontar lo relacionado con la discapacidad visual, el paciente puede ganar autonomía y descubrir la forma de desempeñarse con la mayor independencia posible (19). Si el paciente percibe la reacción y el interés de la familia como algo positivo, puede ser más abierto sobre las necesidades personales y aceptar la ayuda de otros miembros de la familia (41).
Mostrar más

10 Lee mas

Validacin del Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) para la deteccin de demencia en poblacin mexicana

Validacin del Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) para la deteccin de demencia en poblacin mexicana

El objetivo del estudio fue validar el Memory Impairment Screen (MIS; por sus siglas en inglés) en población mexicana para la detección de alteraciones de memoria asociadas a la demencia. Participaron 101 voluntarios sanos y 61 pacientes con Enfermedad de Alzheimer en grado leve y moderado, reclutados durante un año en Residencias para Adultos Ma- yores y en el Servicio de Geriatría de un Hospital Universita- rio. Se aplicaron el MIS, el Mini-Mental State Examination, la prueba de Pfeiffer, y la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica. Los resultados indicaron diferencias significativas entre la mues- tra control (M = 7.57, DE = 0.79) y los pacientes (M = 1.44, DE = 1.43) en la puntuación total del MIS (Máximo = 8). La sen- sibilidad del MIS es de 75% y la especificidad de 66%. Estos
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

Impairment of memory in epilepsy.pdf

Impairment of memory in epilepsy.pdf

Whilst the majority of single cases reviewed here show profound retrograde loss of remote memories for events and facts learned decades before the onset of epilepsy but relatively preserved new learning, the evidence bearing on these matters in the group studies is mixed. Barr et al. (1990), examining post-surgical TLE patients, found sig- nificant correlations between two measures of remotely acquired semantic memory—famous face naming and recognition of television programs—and verbal anterograde memory, but only amongst left temporal lobectomy patients. Lah and colleagues, in studying both pre-surgical (Lah et al., 2006) and post-surgical (Lah et al., 2004) patients, found numerous correlations between remote memory measures and both anterograde memory and lan- guage tasks. Only autobiographical event memory failed to correlate with any anterograde memory task. In contrast, Butler et al. (2007) describe a group of 22 patients with TEA who performed normally on standard tests of anter- ograde memory but showed substantial impairment on a test of autobiographical memory across many decades. Finally, Voltzenlogel et al. (2007) found that patients who underwent right temporal lobectomy showed improvement in their ability to remember recent events after surgery, and that this change correlated with their improvement on delayed recall of a short story. Summarizing these results, it appears that performance on standard anterograde memory tests can account for at least some of the impairment seen in remote memory amongst patients with TLE, both before
Mostrar más

21 Lee mas

FLUIDEZ VERBAL EN EL DETERIORO COGNITIVO LIGERO: ANÁLISIS CUANTITATIVO Y CUALITATIVO

FLUIDEZ VERBAL EN EL DETERIORO COGNITIVO LIGERO: ANÁLISIS CUANTITATIVO Y CUALITATIVO

Avanzar en el estudio del perfil neuropsicológico del DCL es de suma importancia de cara a precisar el propio concepto, y por tanto, progresar en el conocimiento de la fase previa a la demencia. En este sentido, las funciones lingüísticas no han recibido, a nuestro juicio, suficiente atención desde una perspectiva neuropsicológica. Los escasos estudios sobre el lenguaje en el DCL se han centrado principalmente en aspectos como la comprensión auditiva o la denominación por confrontación visual. Sin embargo, no abundan los estudios de un componente lingüístico tan importante como es la fluidez verbal, especialmente, aquellos realizados en lengua castellana.
Mostrar más

14 Lee mas

Mild cognitive impairment

Mild cognitive impairment

In a different study, Ritchie et al, with the objective of evaluating the predictive validity and temporal stability of the diagnosis criteria of MCI, analyzed a sample of 833 subjects with subclinical cognitive impairments, taken from a previous longitudinal study called the Eugeria Project, ca- rried out in Montpellier, in the south of France. The sample was representative of the population and covered urban as well as rural populations. The study followed the cohort of subjects during a period of 3 years. During the irst year, subjects were evaluated with an instrument used to screen cognitive functioning denominated Détérioration Cognitive Observée (DECO), which has demonstrated in diverse stu- dies its high sensitivity to detect early changes in cognitive functioning due to different causes, observing the degree of change during the last year. Its estimation is similar to the one of a close person who has had continuous monthly con- tact with the patient during a period of three years. Using a neuropsychological computerized exam which covers most of the cognitive functions, six cognitive domains were selec- ted; attention, primary memory, secondary memory, visuo- spacial skills, language and reasoning. In a second phase, MCI subjects were classiied. The results showed that MCI prevalence in the general population was approximately 3.2%, and of cognitive impairment adjusted to their age of 19.3%. Thus, MCI turned out to be a poor background to a preclinical dementia phase in a period of three years, with a risk of conversion of 11.1% constituting, in general, an unstable group, because most of the subjects who belonged to this group, experimented category switches every year. On the contrary, the cognitive impairment adjusted group proved to be more homogenous and stable, with a conver- sion rate to dementia of 28.6% in a period of 3 years. The researchers came to the conclusion that criteria for MCI pro- vide a poor performance when applied to a representative sample, given the fact that in most of the investigations which proposes MCI as a clinical diagnostic entity, samples have been obtained out of small selected clinical groups. Because cognitive complaints in older adults are the main
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

TítuloPreserved suppression of salient irrelevant stimuli during visual search in age associated memory impairment

TítuloPreserved suppression of salient irrelevant stimuli during visual search in age associated memory impairment

Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 10 AAMI older adults (four females; mean age 83.10 ± 9.80 years, age range 64–96 years), recruited from the Gerontological Complex La Milagrosa in A Coruña (Spain). All had normal or corrected- to-normal visual acuity, and reported normal color vision. They underwent a standardized diagnostic assessment comprising medical history and neuropsychological assessment to examine mental capacity and to rule out the presence of dementia, which includes the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein et al., 1975; Blesa et al., 2001) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; Sheikh and Yesavage, 1986). Participants were considered to have AAMI if they met all the following diagnostic criteria (Crook et al., 1986): (1) Subjective memory complaints affecting routine activities. We specifically assessed subjective memory complaints using one sample question “Do you suffer from forgetfulness?”, (2) Objective evidence of memory loss (a score of at least 1 SD below the mean for younger adults on the Logical Memory subtest from Wechsler Memory Scale (Wechsler, 1945), (3) Absence of intellectual dysfunction, (4) Absence of dementia or any other neurological disease that affects memory (e.g., stroke, depression). Specifically, participants showed absence of dementia as determined by a score above 24 on the MMSE (mean score: 28.30 ± 1.95), and absence of depressive symptoms as determined by a mean score of 2.90 ± 2.38 on the GDS (cut point of 5 or more), (5) No medical disorders that could produce cognitive deterioration (e.g., serious cardiac disease, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and cancer not in remission for 2 years or longer). These ERPs were compared with those obtained in 22 healthy older adults (11 females, mean age 68.5 ± 6.0 years, age range 60–84 years), not meeting the AAMI criteria, from our previous study (Lorenzo-López et al., 2008). All participants in this control group were healthy well-functioning adults without a history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, had normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and reported normal color vision.
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

Show all 3940 documents...