cultures of HCPP cells (the bystander cells) (Nualart et al. 2003). As depicted in Fig. 6a, adherent HCPP cell mono- layers can be easily separated from human neutrophils that grow in suspension, permitting the determination of the content of vitaminC (AA) in each cell type separately (Fig. 6a). As expected, uptake of AA in untreated HCPP cells incubated alone was observed because of the presence of the AA transporter, SVCT2, in these cells (Fig. 6b, white circles). Treatment of HCPP cells with PMA (Fig. 6b, black circles) or co-culture with non-activated human neutrophils (Fig. 6b, white triangles) did not alter AA uptake. However, HCPP cells incubated in the presence of AA and co-cultured with PMA-activated human neutrophils showed a consider- able increase in vitaminC uptake (Fig. 6b, black triangles). HCPP cells contained more than 4 nmol of vitaminC per million cells, an amount 15-fold higher than that accumulated by PMA-treated HCPP cells incubated alone (compare black circles with black triangles in panel b). This uptake of vitaminC by stimulated HCPP cells (HCPP cells in presence of AA and PMA-activated human neutrophils) was com- pletely inhibited by cytochalasin B but not by cytochalasin E, conﬁrming the participation of the glucose transporter in this process (Fig. 6c). HCPP cells did not produce superoxide
Variations in the β-carotene, vitaminC and vitamin E content of D. tertiolecta have been shown to result from the nitrogen source used in the culture medium. Differences of 101%, 38% and 69% have been found in β-carotene, ascorbic acid and tocopherol content in mg/g of dry matter, respectively, and differences of 147%, 63% and 37% occurred in β-carotene, vitaminC and E concentrations in mg/litre of culture, respectively. Considering the β-carotene, vitaminC and vitamin E content in mg/g of chlorophyll a, maximum variations occurred in β-carotene content, with differences of 145% among the different nitrogen sources. Maximum β-carotene and vitaminC values were found in urea cultures, whereas urea cultures showed the minimum values for vitamin E.
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that changing the vehicle for ingestion of LT4 from plain water to the same volume of plain water with 1 g vitaminC improves the apparent absorption of LT4 –as it was evaluated indirectly by reduction in TSH level- in a subset of patients receiving this hormone for primary hypothyroidism who do not reach the target TSH level with the usual dose/weight of LT4. The important practical consequence of our finding is that a trial of coadministration of LT4 with vitaminC to enhance LT4 absorption should be considered in patients requiring high doses of LT4 with no obvious cause of LT4 malabsorption. This pilot study needs to be confirmed in a larger randomized, controlled trial.
In order to isolate partial gene sequences of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway (i.e., GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase [GMP], GDP-D-mannose- 3ꞌ,5ꞌ-epimerase [GME], GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase [GGP], L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase [GPP], L-galactose dehydrogenase [GDH], and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase [GLDH]) full-length mRNA sequences from different plants species were obtained from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). These sequences were aligned with Clustal Omega software (Sievers et al., 2011) and degenerate primer pairs were designed on the basis of conserved coding regions using SC Primer software (Jabado et al., 2006). Primers were designed with the following specifications: amplicon size = 250-1000 bp, optimum primer length = 18 to 22 nt, primer Tm = 58-62°C, Tm difference ≤ 3°C, primer GC% = 45- 55%, with all other parameters set at default (see Table S1 in Additional File 2).
Thus, the contribution of Spondias purpurea fruit to the diet, in terms of antioxidant capacity, is higher than for other fruits, especially when consumers eat not only the pulp but also the peel of Mexican plum. Humans have antioxidant enzyme systems that evolved over thousands of years and are depen- dent on a number of vitamins and minerals from our diet. Also, some nutrients such as vitamin E, vitaminC, β-carotene, and other bioactive compounds, notably lycopene and polyphe- nols, possess antioxidant activity without necessarily being as- sociated to any enzyme . There exist a large number of such compounds in our diet, mainly polyphenols, which are the most abundant antioxidants. Their intake can be as high as 1 g per person and per day, making their consumption several times higher than that of any other antioxidant .
In terms of betalains, the mixed beverage presented a lower concentration than the theoretical value in most of the drinks. Possible degradation reactions could occur during the manufacture of the mixed drink that caused the observed loss. Herbach et al. (2006) described that the detrimental effects on betalain integrity are mainly caused by temperature, oxygen, and light. The highest concentrations of betalains were quantified in the mixed beverage made with the control and treated prickly pear stored at 24 h (Figure 5.17A). However, there were no significant differences between the mixed beverages made with the control and treated prickly pears stored at 0 h and 12 h. As well as betalains, the vitaminC in the mixed beverages exhibited lower content than the theoretical values, this may be due to the oxygen and light exposure during the production of the mixed beverage (Oyetade et al., 2012). The higher content of vitaminC was quantified in the mixed beverage made with processed prickly pear and stored at 24 h (Figure 5.17B). The beverages produced with the sonicated red prickly pears that were stored for 12 h showed a significant increase of phenolic compounds compared to the control. Nevertheless, the optimized beverages made with the red prickly pears that were stored for 0 and 24 h did not present significant changes in their phenolic concentration.
Accessions of native fruits from ‘Arazá’ (Psidium cattleianum), ‘Guaviyú’ (Myrcianthes pungens) and ‘Guayabo del país’ (Acca sellowiana) were evaluated as part of a se- lection program to obtain commercial cultivars, with the aim to offer the growers new possibilities of local fruit crops and provide the consumers with food alter- natives with recognized nutritional and nutraceutical properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical quality, the total phenolic content, vitaminC and total anthocyanins, and the relationship with the total antioxidant activity by DPPH and ORAC for different fruit genotypes. The methodologies for the determination of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were validated on a microvolume scale, following the principles of “green chemistry”. The content of bioactive compounds differed significantly depending on the species and accession (p ≤ 0,05). The results obtained confirmed the nutritional properties and potential antioxidant capacity of the native fruits. The effect of agronomic and environmen- tal variables on selected genotypes should be investigated to adjust commercial production technology in order to exploit the nutraceutical characteristics found. Keywords: native fruits, vitaminC, phenolic compounds, DPPH, ORAC.
In the nonfloodable regions, harvesting is carried out manually, once or twice per week, according to the stage of pro- duction (Rodrigues et al., 2001). In natural populations, harvesting is also carried out manually, but canoes are used to move easily during the harvesting process, because at harvest time plants are submerged and it is possible to harvest only those that are above the water surface (Villachica, 1996; Alves et al., 2002). As the camu-camu fruits are noncli- macteric (Neves et al., 2015; Gonza´les et al., 2013), they are harvested in the three stages of ripening (i.e., green- unripe, half-ripe, and full-ripe fruit) approximately 70 100 days after anthesis (Peters and Vasquez, 1987; Ima´n et al., 2011). The fruits are marketed in the three stages of maturation alone or in combination, but ripe fruits in good condi- tion usually have greater demand and higher costs. The green-unripe fruits, at their maximum size, are also harvested to be used for vitaminC obtention (Rodrigues et al., 2001).
Dietary patterns established in childhood may significantly influence the probability of acquiring several chronic health conditions that can reduce welfare and hasten mortality (National Research Council, 1989). Hence, children have been identified as an important target group for national public health initiatives aimed at health promotion and disease prevention. It is easier to establish healthful habits during childhood than to attempt to change eating habits later in life. Thus, childhood offers an opportunity for nutrition education to influence the establishment of healthful lifelong eating patterns. In developing nutrition education programs for children, health professionals benefit from information about the diet quality of diverse groups of children. Knowledge of children's dietary patterns allows for the targeting of nutrition information to groups where nutrition intervention is needed to improve risk factor profiles. (Johnson et al., 2004) Micronutrients such as vitamin A, iron and various minerals and trace elements are not produced by the body and are required in only small quantities. Yet, micronutrient deficiencies can cause learning disabilities, impair work capacity, and have been associated with heightened morbidity and mortality- particularly among pre-school children and pregnant women. (World Bank, 1994)
Approximately 50 mg of either adipose tissue or Validation results are summarised in Table 1. Both mechanically grounded powder of mammary gland standards and samples show a good linearity, with were exactly weighed and homogenized in a Potter correlation coefficients over 0.99 in the studied with 10 ml of ethanol–water (1:1) per mg of tissue. ranges. In adipose tissue a small bias in sample A 50-ml volume of the vitamin K working solution 1 linearity can be observed, and may be explained by was added to 200 ml of tissue homogenate. Vitamins the high values of the correlation coefficient (r. were extracted twice with 1 ml n-hexane by probe 0.999) that make a very narrow limit of confidence sonication and centrifuged at 2000 g for 5 min, at around the intercept.
the clinical practice rarely has been recorded; very few investigations have studied the effects of storage methods and time-related bioactivity of these biomaterials. But due to its clinical relevance, there is increasing awareness and interest in this issue (Suzuki et al., 2009; Ferraris et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2012; Guillot et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2013; Ueno et al., 2012). For instance, it has been proved that the biological potential of an old Ti implant is lower than a new one as it is exposed to air adsorbing unavoidably contaminations, changing the surface composition (Lu et al., 2012). Thus, UV treatment of Ti surfaces is an example of strategy overcoming time-related degrading bioactivity (Suzuki et al., 2009). Also changes in the temperature, moisture and other storage conditions influence the final bioactivity of the biomaterial (Ferraris et al., 2012; Guillot et al., 2013; Tian et al., 2002; Scharnweber et al., 2010). Biological molecules usually present low stability under environmental conditions since they tend to denature in activity due to humidity and heat (Ferraris et al., 2012). Indeed, several investigations confirm the effect of storage temperatures on the stability of different drugs (Tian et al., 2002; Mohl and Winter, 2006; Dong et al., 2006). Vitamin D stability depends on temperature but also on other specific conditions, such as oxygen, light and moisture which cause its degradation (Kaushik et al., 2014; Haham et al., 2012). Accordingly, we protected the modified coatings from light, oxygen and moisture and further evaluated how temperature affected the coating composition. In this research, we proved that our coating was stable up to 12 weeks when stored in a refrigerator (4ºC), under nitrogen packaging and in absence of light. Moreover, in vitro studies demonstrated its bioactivity after 12-week storage at the mentioned conditions, in the same way that the previous study performed with UV-irradiated 7-DHC coated implants (Satué, Petzold, et al., 2013).
: We performed an observational, descriptive study with an analytical component in 209 patients in whom we measured serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25 [OH] D) and evaluated their cardiovascular risk factors according to the criteria of the amended Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Each group was compared using Student's t-test. A value of p <0.05 for two-tailed tests was considered significant. The average value of 25 (OH) D was 34,9ng / mL. The mean levels of 25 (OH) D was lower in the subgroup of patients with cardiovascular risk factors, namely: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose, low HDL- cholesterol levels and high triglycerides, however this difference was not statistically significant.
C como lenguaje tiene un conjunto de palabras reservadas, como por ejemplo: if, for, while, int, float, … C++ es una ampliación, por lo tanto tiene que agregar nuevas palabras reservadas. Éstas palabras reservadas están en un ‘namespace’ (espacio de nombres). En específico cout y cin están el namespace std (standard).
Blood samples were obtained under fasting consitions by venipuncture in an antecubital vein and collected in plain tubes. After clotting, tubes were centrifuged and sera were kept at -80 ºC until assayed. We measured serum 25(OH)D using the ARCHITECT 25-OH vitamin D chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany) . Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was assayed with a chemiluminescent assay (PTH LIAISON N-TACT; DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy). Serum calcium (Ca 2+ ) and phosphorus (P) levels were measured using a BM-Hitachi 747-200 autoanalyzer (Hitachi-Roche, Tokyo, Japan). Comparisons of biochemical parameters between the three subject groups were performed using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests, as appropriate. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were also dichotomized into 25(OH)D < 20 or 20 ng/mL, respectively, because this value has been previously shown to be a reliable cutoff for identifying subjects with greater disease risk . Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between serum 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL and EL and precocious AMI after adjustment for sex and CVD risk factors. error was set at 0.05 (two-tailed).
No es de extrañar que de forma similar a los estudios VITAMIN, Ankle Brachial Index Colaboration, CAREFUL y otros, la mayor asociación para EAP se encuentre con las variables de cardiopatía, insuficiencia renal, dislipide- mia, tabaquismo y obesidad, así como las causas de ingre- so de enfermedad vascular cerebral, síndrome isquémico coronario agudo y descontrol metabólico, patologías que comparten un mismo sustento fisiopatológico generador de aterotrombosis, es decir, un estado inflamatorio endotelial crónico inducido por incremento en la ingesta de macro- nutrientes, obesidad, tabaquismo y tensión psicológica. 1-5,23
Background: The cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABP-II), together with nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retinoic acid recep- tor (RAR), is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes that control lipid metabolism via the retinoid signaling pathway and, as such, may be associated with disorders of lipid metabolism. Interestingly, the gene for CRABP-II is located on chromosome 1q21–23, which is a region that has been linked with disorders such as familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and partial lipodys- trophy, all of which are characterized by dyslipidemia. Methods: We investigated the hypothesis that the CRABP2 gene is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using the promoter –394T)C polymor- phism of the CRABP2 gene, we performed association studies in three different cohorts: 299 healthy males, 182 HIV-infected patients and 151 patients with famil- ial hypercholesterolemia (FH). All cholesterol meas- urements were performed in the absence of any lipid-lowering agents. ANOVA was performed on data adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of protease inhibitors.
rats were used. Since it is a fact that the teratogenic effects of diabetes vary among different strains of rats , inter- species differences in the doses of vitamin E needed to obtain maximal benefits for the reversion of malforma- tions and reabsorptions caused by diabetes could be expected. In the present study 500-mg doses of vitamin E not only did not improve the malformation rate, but sig- nificantly increased the rate of embryo reabsorptions, sug- gesting that in the pregnant rat having diabetes high doses of vitamin E may be harmful. This effect has not been demonstrated before, because the vitamin E doses tested previously [6, 7] were always below the 500 mg used in the present study. Nevertheless, Siman and Eriksson  al- ready found a slight tendency toward an increasing rate of reabsorptions when high doses of vitamin E were admin- istered to nondiabetic rats.
of inadequacy of 29.9% at the national level. By region the Center and South (less developed) had a clearly lower risk of inadequacy than the North and Mexico City regions (22.4 and 24.3 vs. 41.6 and 40.5% respec- tively). This is due mainly to the fiber content of tortillas, beans and other cereals, since fruit and vegetable intake is low, as suggested from the low micronutrient adequacies and consumption (in particular vitamins A, C and folate). Folate and iron consumption were higher in rural areas, lowest socioeconomic index tertile and the South region of the country. This could be explained by the contribution of beans to the diet, an iron and folate-rich food. How- ever, even though beans contain folate and iron, their phytic acid content decreases the absorption and bio- availability, and the cooking process affects folate dramatically. Fortified foods such as corn and wheat flour, the national vitamin A supplementation program and the National Health, Nutrition and Education pro- grams could be contributing to improve the micronu- trient intake in marginal areas. 45 The impact of these
Ji H-F, et al realizaron un metanálisis con el objetivo evaluar el efecto de la vitamina E sobre la disminución de las aminotransferasas en pacientes con NAFLD, NASH y hepatitis C crónica (CHC). En los cuatro estudios que incluyeron pacientes con NASH y suplementación de vita- mina E, entre ellos el TONIC y el PIVENS, se encontró que la vitamina E podría optimizar los niveles de ALT y AST en estos pacientes. Sin embargo, se debe tener en cuenta que este metanálisis tuvo como limitantes la imposibilidad de excluir los efectos de las intervenciones en el estilo de vida, el ejercicio y el uso de otros potenciales antioxidantes, así como factores de riesgo para enfermedad hepática crónica como el consumo de alcohol y el uso drogas; sumado a esto se debe tener en cuenta la heterogeneidad de los estudios, que limita su análisis en conjunto, así como la menor espe- cifi cidad que tienen las aminotransferasas en comparación