Corpus linguistics is considered to be an approach to the study of language (Gries 2009), rather than a branch of linguistics, which focuses on the analysis of real samples of language use. Corpus linguistics was born with John Sinclair and the Cobuild project at the University of Birmingham (UK). From its emergence in the 1960s, the popularity of this approach has grown to the extent that it has an impact in language teaching. As a matter of fact, the influence of corpus research can be shyly felt in syllabus design, teaching materials (dictionaries and books) and classroom activities (Barlow 2002; Krieger 2003). With regard to classroom tasks, a very small number of teachers (mainly university teachers) opt for the use of corpora in their classrooms and most EFL students claim not to be acquainted with these tools. Thus, the explicit use of corpora is not as widespread for the presentation and practice of the vocabulary of a foreign language as other types of classroom tasks, such as, fill in the gaps exercises and matching tasks despite of its advantages. After examining some of the most well-known corpus tools which can be used for vocabularyteachingand referring to how teachers may take advantage of these language databases in EFL settings (Oghigian & Chujo 2010), this paper presents four corpus-based tasks which show different ways of exploiting corpora for vocabularyteachingandlearning. The ultimate goal of this paper is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of corpus work in the acquisition andlearning of English vocabulary as well as in the development of some of the key competences mentioned in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
The purpose of this literature review is to examine previous studies that address intentional vocabularylearning by implementing direct instruction of vocabularylearning strategies. Nyikos (2007) states that skilled teachers enable learners to use a wider range of appropriate strategies to facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval and the use of new words to convey meaning. In the field of learning strategies, for some authors explicit vocabularylearning vs. implicit vocabularylearning is not a dichotomy but rather a continuum (Hunt and Belgar, 2005; Lee and Tan, 2012); Schmitt (2008) stated that any well-structured vocabulary program needs to have a proper mix of explicit teachingand activities from which incidental learning can occur. For the articles reviewed, effective direct vocabularyteaching reached positive effects. This literature review aims to describe the results of the studies that support the relevance of teaching strategies explicitly, determine key aspects and variables faced before implementing teachingvocabularylearning strategies in the classroom.
In the Mexican context, most of the time English language instruction focuses on teaching grammar structures. So, there is a tendency to overlook vocabularyteaching. Thorbury (2002, cited by Subhash, n/d) says that spending too much time on learning grammar will not improve language learning very much. He says that most improvement will result from learning more words in the target language. In addition, Nation (2001) claims that more attention should be paid to vocabulary instruction because without vocabulary people cannot learn a language, since they lack the words and expressions to understand meaning in oral and written form. Apart from that, Thorbury (2002, cited by Subhash, n/d) states that some students find difficult the learning of words in a foreign or second language. He says that one of the main reasons is because learners tend to forget the new words. There are several alternatives that can help students master the learning of vocabulary. Regarding this, Zhang (2011) states that vocabularylearning strategies (VLSs) can definitively facilitate the acquisition of new words, having a positive effect on second and foreign language learning. So, he suggests that teachers train their students how to use strategies that help them remember new words.
According to my triangulation technique, my students, colleague and I agreed on the advantages that Facebook provides. Several participants said that Facebook was a way to practise English. They also said that they could interact more with their classmates. Although I did not see much interaction in my group, my colleague’s students were interacting and discussing among themselves which made practising English more real. It also helped students to be friendlier inside the class as some students who did not talk to each other started to talk after interacting in Facebook. Facebook also helped some students to decrease their shyness as the ones who were not very participative in class, at least participated in the secret group. Facebook also proved to be a tool to put into practice what was studied in class. In several of my journal entries, I emphasized the fact that students were using some of the language studied in my class and Santiago also said that he had observed this as well in his students. Santiago said: “I feel happy when I see them using new structures andvocabulary studied in class” Finally, Facebook may be very advantageous for students who are keen on English, those students who are exceptional at English and had expressed that they love this language, were extremely participative from the first moment that they took part in this activity.
Most of the early studies on learning English as a foreign language were done on the field of reading skills development; however not enough of these studies, to my knowledge, have explored factors about vocabularylearning through short stories reading in this particular context, Colombia or similar contexts. Thus, there is a need for an action research study to fill this gap in the research literature. Porras (2010), found that children showed high motivation when the stories were told or read and the use of written stories based on their interests and likes increased their participation in the different activities as well as their comprehension of the stories and acquisition of the new vocabulary. She concluded that stories made children’s learning the foreign language more interesting, amusing, and memorable. She also stated that students have an amazing ability to absorb language when activities are familiar and enjoyable to them. In brief, teaching a foreign language using stories as a basis creates a learning environment that is both familiar and fun.
As far as input is concerned, learners will be exposed to both written and spoken texts arising from a variety of sources: classroom-based talk, teacher-created materials as well as authentic materials. Most of the spoken input will be based on teacher talk consisting of classroom interventions when the provision of some guidelines and explanations for the development of tasks is thought necessary, but more particularly, on teacher-learner and learner-learner interactions when it comes to brainstorming activities, information-sharing activities, brief presentations, and short debates. Authentic input will be supplied by a 5-minute video displaying an example of not only real-world usage of the TL but also of different practices related to the target topic as seen from the perspective of some members of the target language community. Yet, despite the great value of authentic resources, complementary materials created by the teacher may also be supportive of task development in so far as they respond to the underlying goals of the lesson. In this case, learners will be asked to fill in a chart purposely designed to facilitate learners’ task of information sharing and comparison on the one hand, and to develop learners’ time-telling skills, to elicit the use of present simple when talking about routines and to revise on school-related vocabulary on the other (See Appendices).
CILT integrates listening, speaking, pronunciation, grammar, reading and writing into a single lesson to increase the ability of students to communicate using English naturally. It has been seen by the professor that in everyday communication most language skills are not separated, therefore it is not helpful for the students to learn the skills separately. This concept is supported by Su (2007) who sees integrating skills as an integral part of language teaching. No-one only listens, speaks, reads or writes while participating in active communication and social interactions. There is always a combination of various skills in natural interactions. Thus, students must be able to learn how to perform these skills in an integrated manner as the goal of the course is for students to increase their English language proficiency and communicate authentically while students still have almost no opportunities for interactions with native speakers. This is the reason why the professor has chosen to complete this research and why CILT is a necessary teaching strategy for the 33 intermediate students in this college level course at UNAE. This also allows the teacher to use various innovative activities in the class to aid in the English language learning processes.
Inauthentic materials are those created with the purpose of teaching. That kind of materials has some characteristics that help students develop a better learning process because they are, according to Montijano (2014), “The best materials that students may enjoy: personalized, as they cater for different learning styles, and relevant because they respond to the learners’ needs as no other material can do” (p. 281). For the aforementioned reasons, in the vocabulary workshops, I used authentic materials as input to create closeness with the learners. As mentioned by Lewis (2008), “Not many years ago language teaching materials could be astonishingly artificial, arid and remote from the students’ experience” (p. 28). The author further asserted that “if the learner does not enter into a relationship with the input, it is unlikely that it will contribute to intake” (p. 28). Thence, I carefully developed non-authentic workshops including topics related to everyday students’ experiences and activities and informed them with the lexical approach in an attempt to guarantee the pedagogical purpose of helping sixth graders learn collocations.
The data obtained from the interviews can be discussed together with the quantitative data obtained from the tests and the qualitative data gathered from classroom observations. It cannot be denied that the students enjoyed playing games since they themselves admitted that they had had fun and the observations of the researcher also showed that they were all participating, enjoying themselves and it was a fun experience. The researcher paid special attention to those students who had more difficulties and those who although able, as explained at the beginning of this paper, did not seem very interested. The students who had more difficulties were helped by the other members of the group and became active participants during the games. The other students, who were not usually motivated, seemed to be involved and interested while playing the games. Various students commented positively on the amount of images encountered in the games. These were included as many authors have claimed the benefits of visual stimuli (Tonzar et al., 2009).
In the teachingvocabulary process should be implemented some strategies in order to present it in an effective way. Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2010, p.559) define strategy as “procedures used in learning, thinking, etc., which serve as a way of reaching a goal. In language learning, learning strategies ... and communication strategies ...are those conscious or unconscious processes which language learners make use of in learningand using a language.” Antonacci and O’Callaghan (2012) suggest some strategies for the introduction of vocabulary such as “Word Mapping strategy to promote the students’ deeper understanding of words through depicting varying relationships between and among words. Word maps are visual displays of word meanings organized to depict relationships with other words” (p.94) and “Interactive Word Wall strategy that promotes a vocabulary-rich classroom environment where walls are alive with words... The classroom walls are adorned with new and interesting words that the students learn through interacting with their texts, the teacher, and one another” (p.105).
Systematization gave this study a more judicious way to check the processes of acquisition of vocabulary, concepts and getting to know the language working in real-life situations projected to answer the research questions set. Endeavoring efforts to know the effect the elaboration of a TBL syllabus could have on adult learners as it has been a different population compared to the ones faced during the studying andteaching process at the university. To elicit information regarding the implementation of this new plan we focused on the outcomes created by students after the development of a task as at the end of each one, they expressed their concepts andlearning in terms of their significance; These views were linked to the analysis of variables described in the theoretical framework section, as key elements of understanding of the dynamics in the classroom with a holistic and reflective view of the teacher's work.
To develop intercultural competence by speaking, the language teacher can propose face to face interviews or asking questions to native speakers. Usó-Juan and Martínez-Flor (2008) propose these activities for learners from different languages aiming an active participation and a collaborative learning. However, in Colombian settings interviews to native speakers is a limited practice given the fact that on public institutions there are not native people and on the private educational sector there are few. Then, in this case it would be important teachers’ creativity to give the learners as real contact as possible with the culture and the language. on the other side, role-plays can be easily developed and enjoyable for learners, thus they will be acquiring cultural aspects to interaction. Shumin (2002) cited on Usó- Juan and Martínez-Flor (2008), for developing speaking skill suggests watching to non-verbal videos to have learners describing what they see and interpret the body language that people use.
For example, comprehension is one of the two main processes of reading and relies on a specific set of cognitive skills such as attention, memory, thinking and self-regulation. The self-questioning strategy can help students to perform this complex task and understand what they read. The use of cognitive strategies, i.e., verbal and visual clues given by the trainee teacher and the highlighted text, can increase the efficiency with which the student approaches the learning task. Remembering, classifying, constructing questions are additional strategies that can be added by student to the map. In the classroom, the trainee teacher can communicate to the learner the answers to the ‘why’ questions related to each strategy. This requires a very good understanding of the task to be completed, as well the knowledge of each strategy that can be used to approach the task. This is a very good way to teach students metacognition. A trainee teacher, who teaches cognitive strategies well, will connect learner and task and when he/she teaches metacognitive strategies, will connect the leaner with thinking about thinking.
Small-group register. When videotaped lessons included small-group work, we recorded three group interactions per session (one video and two audio). We analysed the group discussions in order to control the effect of these discussions on learning. Although whole class and group interactions are complexly intertwined and it is not possible to clearly attribute learning to one of them separately, we looked for controlling the variance due to small group talk over whole class teaching. We developed a coding scheme to analyse small- group work argumentation based on the codes defined and exemplified in Table 2. Two trained judges coded 50% of the transcripts. Differences were discussed and resolved. The Cohen’s Kappa scores for all utterances were acceptable: four codes were perfect, K = 1, two were excellent, K = 0.81 and K = 0.91, four were good, K = 0.66, and one was only acceptable, K = 0.50. Once coders had reached agreement, one of them coded the remaining material. We calculated the total score for each observation corresponding to the frequency of argumentative utterances observed.
This paper presents a didactic proposal that allows the use of films as a resource for the teaching of science. In this case, an appropriate film has been chosen for high school students to work on geology-related content. The experience uses the movie "Mars" to cover the contents of the solar system, the planet Earth and the conditions necessary to be a habitable planet but through the study of another planet.
We propose, in this work, the study of vocabulary starting from the toponymy. As in compulsory education it is prescriptive to treat contents belonging to the community to which the student belongs, using the place-names to fix and increase the vocabulary of the students is fully justified, since, in the creation of their names, the toponymy is nourished not only of the words belonging to the common lexicon of Spanish, but also of those that are typical of the linguistic modality in which these place names have been formed.
On the other side, language teachers mentioned that according to the students’ profile based on their major, it is necessary to adapt useful methodologies in the process of teachingandlearning English as a foreign language. It is understandable that every single human being is different because s/he is unique, but also it is relevant to perceive that some groups have certain similarities maybe because they belong to an academic program with specific skills. For instance, Law students have the ability to read and understand extensive texts, Architecture students are good at drawing, and Engineering students need to understand Mathematics and Calculus well, among others. It means that multiple intelligences play an important role in this context because it does not mean that everybody has to be good at math, at drawing, at speaking another language. Languages teachers generated students’ stereotypes bearing in mind their professional profile. According to the previous statements, teachers feel the necessity to bring appropriate activities to the students in their English classes, trying to find the way students like learning English in simple workshops that call students’ attention. Hence, some of the interviewees revealed:
Fig. 2 shows the material that is required as a base for the disciplines on reconfigurable systems (see the left-hand part of Fig. 2) and the knowledge that has to be acquired after completing the two courses (see the right-hand part of Fig. 2). Consequently, the material that is given in the theoretical classes covers the set of topics listed on the right-hand part of Fig. 2. The first course (see the right-hand part of Fig. 1) is given over a 14 week period with 3 hours of theoretical and 2 hours of practical classes per week. The second course (see the left-hand part of Fig. 1) is also given over 14 weeks with 2 hours of theoretical and 2 hours of practical classes per week. Laboratory work is based on a variety of prototyping boards (namely, RC10, RC100, RC200 , TE-XC2Se , DETIUA-S3 ) and one of these (DETIUA-S3)  has been developed at the department. After finishing the courses, the students acquire experience in the design of small and medium size reconfigurable systems based on recent commercial FPGAs that are currently recommended for future applications. The majority of the students present a quite complicated mini-project that is used for final evaluation; this will be discussed in more detail in section 4. During laboratory work, the following types of FPGA- based circuits have to be designed (see also  for additional details):
This paper presented a group of elements to improve teachingandlearning in ICT education, which is extensively detailed in . Some modern educational models were applied. A thematic approach was used to select the contents to be taught, increasing the students' motivation. Meaningful learningand concept maps were used as a method and a tool, respectively, to organize knowledge hierarchically, facilitating the learning of the technological content. The spiral curriculum approach was applied to consolidate the understanding of fundamental concepts of the domain being studied. A set of guidelines to select and organize content in technological courses were proposed. An ICT application using our proposal was also presented and discussed.
According to Giovanni (2010), bilingual education programs can help minority groups gain access to employment and better job development opportunities. This was affirmed by Truong Van Mon, as cited in Hoang (2013), in that “[l]anguage is important because it influences everything”. The above is definitely appropriate and true for minority groups that wish to integrate into the mainstream society (Coelho, 1998), through which the minority groups are required to acquire the national language of the country in order to make it easier for them to find jobs, secure loans (Hoang, 2013), as well as to ensure upward mobility economically (Valdez, 2001). Thomas and Collier (2002) also affirmed that when a dual language bilingual teachingandlearning methodology is used, the minority students experience greater long-term education gains than those immersed in English as a second language program.