What the scientific literature calls continuing professional education (CPE), ‘where trainings often build on knowledge initially developed through higher education’ (Stummann, 2014, p. 323), and the continuing vocational education and training (CVET) for unemployed (also called occupational training) are integrated at the legislative level in one education and training system in Catalonia, although they each have different funding channels. The focus of this study is on the CVET for unemployed, which is a part of the Adult Learning and Education (and implicitly, within the lifelong learning) concerned with the education or training of individuals after they complete their compulsory education or enter the working life (Cedefop, 2014). The gover nment-run CVET programme for unemployed in Catalonia analysed here seeks to increase the employability of the unemployed by offering free training courses in skills demanded in the Catalan labor market. In contrast to CPE, little research has been done on CVET for unemployed, on innovation, or how can innovation be introduced in different education and training systems, especially in the case of CVET which, as in the present case, is not part of the formal educational system, but instead it is developed under the Labor authority of the Catalan Government. Thus, the objective of this article is to contribute to the field of knowledge regarding innovation in the lifelong learning through the study of the CVET government-run programme for unemployed in Catalonia, bearing in mind that our findings can be transferred to other initiatives or activities in lifelong learning.
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of cost-effectiveness should be a priority in future im- pact evaluations and systematic reviews. Second, the available evidence does not allow recommendations to be made for, or against, investments in a particular model of TVET. Although claims have been made in the literature and media for the success or effectiveness of a particular format of TVET widely implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean, the evidence from this systematic review suggests that such claims are premature. In the absence of evidence in support of any one model or approach to vo- cational skills development, it seems reasonable in the meantime for policymakers and other stakeholders to select the least costly, most culturally acceptable, and/or most easily implemented programmes, while at the same time becoming good consumers of evidence and working towards the strengthening of the evidence base on TVET. This review has demonstrated that not only is there is a clear need for additional primary re- search in this area, but that more of the same will not suffice. The methodological shortcomings of the current evidence base, and specific knowledge gaps, suggest a number of future research priorities. These are summarised in Table 4.
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For this study, we are using a mixed methodology, as some authors affirm, also called multi- method: qualitative and quantitative. In this educational innovation, we are implementing the following tools: Learning Management System with Moodle, a free virtual platform hosted in an external server; and Google Apps, a set of applications that allow communication, collaboration and state-of-the-art infrastructures. All these resources are currently free-of-charge and within the reach of any educational institution.
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In accordance with the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation “On the concept of modernization of Russian education for the period up to 2010” in the last two forms of secondary school from 2006/2007 academic year specialized training of high school students is provided. The system of specialized training (profile training) should be focused on the individualization of training and socialization of students, including taking into account the real needs of the labor market. The transition to profile education is aimed at providing deep and specialized general education training for students in selected areas of knowledge, establishing equal access to full-fledged education for different categories of students in accordance with their individual abilities and needs, ensuring continuity between general and vocational education. In high school the teaching of Economics focuses on the deepening of knowledge on the basics of economic theory and its applied aspects, the study of types and forms of business, professional orientation and mastery of basic professional skills. Subject areas “Technology” and “Social Studies” provide an additional opportunity to acquire economic knowledge for students in 10-11 grades, allowing disclosing fully the relationship of Economics with history, law, politics, consolidating theoretical knowledge in practice. At the same time, the content of economic education in the school should be made as an integral system, providing continuous improvement, flexibility of education forms, creative approach, focused on the development of socio-economic methods of transformation of reality. Currently developed author’s programs on economic education of schoolchildren are largely integrated with such subjects as ecology, history, geography, etc., covering their economic component. The increased demand for economic knowledge has led to new forms of economic education. Such forms, first of all, include teaching the basics of economic theory and applied Economics in institutions of additional education, in full-time and part-time economic and mathematical schools, schools of “Young Entrepreneur”, “Young Manager”, etc., the use of distance learning, the organization of training courses in economic universities. However, the analysis of school economic education conducted in the study allows us to conclude that a special course is needed that identifies the main parameters of a certain norm of economic education, taking into account the real possibilities of students, the state of the socio-cultural environment, a course that gives a holistic view of the economic system, production, exchange, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
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Turkey. As noted above, despite the Westernization processes of the entire social and political Turkish life in the twentieth century, religion has still had a significant impact on the system of vocational education and training. It is a well-known fact that some guilds of artisans came from medieval brotherhoods, who elected leaders and gave their earnings to provide the brotherhood with food and clothing. If we talk about the attitude to work and craftsmanship in Islam, then the category ‘labor’ is considered fundamental. Having learned to distinguish good from evil through labor, a person can find their way to self-improvement. Thus, labor is central to the teachings of Islam. According to Islam, upbringing in labor is, first, ‘upbringing and instilling a love of labor’, while labor is the development of inclinations, the upbringing of character, morality, and beliefs. All pedagogical tasks and goals come down to one thing, that is work. The Qur’an says ‘it is necessary to combine both types of labor, to develop both (raas) head and (ayadin) hands’ (Soong-Yong, 2004). Religious influence can also be seen in labor division, when certain crafts were exclusively a male prerogative, and a woman could work, observing certain laws of organizing the workspace. Subsequently, thanks to Ataturk’s reforms, women, according to a special article in the Turkish Civil Code devoted to women’s rights, received the right to education, the right to work in public institutions, to participate in local elections, and since 1934 in Mejlis elections. At the same time, the traditions of dividing the professions into male and female are still very strong and determine the current state of Turkish labor market.
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The paper addresses the quality of the continuing training and vocational education for the construction inspector job and the harmonized European recognition of this qualification. It is the result of a survey realized in 5 EU countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal and Romania) within the project entitled “Analysis and Comparative Study on construction inspection job performance regulations. European comparative study - KNOWLEDGE”. Computer-aided (e-mail) and face to face interviews were used for acquiring the Questionnaire and In-depth interviews based survey. The average interview length per respondent varied between 30 and 60 minutes. Table 1 presents the number of respondents per country and survey type. The questionnaire respondents were persons working as construction inspectors, aged 25 and over, speaking the respective national language. Teachers-trainers working in vocational learning and construction managers expressed (through in-depth interviews) their opinion regarding the construction inspectors’ authorization process and their specific training needs.
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Structural composition of the training of future teachers of mathematics for professional activity on the considered labor functions is represented by three interrelated modules, the contents of which include academic disciplines, educational and industrial practices and research work. Academic disciplines (“Theory and Methods of Teaching Mathematics in the Vocational Education System”; “Pedagogical Design in the Field of Professional Activity”; “Educational Activity of a Teacher”, etc.) constitute the first (theoretical) module of the training under consideration. They are aimed at mastering the future teacher-mathematician of the skills of designing and organizing the process of professionally oriented education and training in mathematics in a specially organized learning environment. Practical training (the second (practical) training module) is aimed at obtaining by the trainee experience in design and pedagogical activity in a real educational organization. The third module (research work) assumes that the undergraduate conducts independent pedagogical research corresponding to the functions being formed (including, within the framework of the final qualifying work).
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At a general level, the adoption of the flipped classroom provides an opportunity for renewal of the educational approach being utilised in EU VET education, away from the traditional ‘Sage on the Stage’ identified by Alison King over twenty years ago. This is important on two levels, as it ensures against any stagnancy in the VET pedagogical approaches being implemented and provides a new and flexible means of delivery for “new types” of learners, such as adult learners, independent learners, etc. These elements are evident in the Bruges Communiqué on enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training for the period 2011-2020 (2010) where it is noted that there is a strong requirement “...to respond to the changing requirements of the labour market. Integrating changing labour market needs into VET provision in the long term…we must regularly review occupational and education/training standards which define what is to be expected from the holder of a certificate or diploma.” The Bruges Communiqué also notes that “adults – and in particular, older workers – will increasingly be called upon to update and broaden their skills and competences through continuing VET. This increased need for lifelong learning means we should have more flexible modes of delivery, tailored training offers and well-established systems of validation”. The utilisation of the flipped classroom provides a dynamic and alternative pedagogical approach and a highly flexible mode of delivery with established systems of validation.
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A question he poses in his work Hermeneutics of the subject seems to me especially worded for counsellors: ”what transformations are necessary within the subject’s own self so as to have access to truth?”. To have access to truth, to know oneself in depth and to transform himself/herself, the human being requires the presence of someone else that bears him company, that plays the role of mentor, of a valid interlocutor to tread this labyrinthine path. This is the role which we, as counsellors, may find ourselves in, in the socratic way of truth’s midwives in the face of the subject’s subjectivity, in order to achieve the birth and development of the project that has been elaborated by the subject. In order to construct himself as a subject, to transform ignorance and lack of knowledge about one’s self into knowledge, liberation and self-dominion the presence and intervention of someone else is needed. The relationship that there exists with one’s self is enriched by this relation with the other, and this makes it possible to increase self-knowledge and transformation.
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Gastroenterology education has changed in recent years and the quality criteria are now the aim of it. Adult education is not intuited, it is to be learned. In our days post graduated education needs longer periods of training, because of the everyday development of new techniques and also because the e-learning /e-teaching has appeared in the arena. Key words: Education, medical; Education, graduate; Gastroenterology (source: MeSH NLM).
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adults, however, there are issues about who should pay for such services. In most countries, governments have been reluctant to commit themselves to making career development services freely available to all individuals, on the grounds that this would involve writing an open cheque. Where services have been made available, they have tended to be targeted on particular groups — notably the unemployed — or to be given minimal publicity in order to restrict demand. If however policy-makers decide that it is in the public interest for individuals to use career development services, they will want to find means of expanding such services without substantial budget increases. This opens up the question of whether such services should be paid for, at least in part, by individuals and/or employers. ln France, all employees are entitled to a "skills review" funded by their employer: the take-up has however been low, because employees fear that seeking such a review may be interpreted by their employer as a sign of potential disloyalty. ln the UK and USA, it seems that individuals are prepared to pay for career counselling, but in general only at levels which cover marginal costs rather than full costs: this does not enable a market to develop in which demand leads to expansion of supply. The advent in the UK of "individual learning accounts", as a mechanism for co- investment in learning (including guidance) between individuals, employers and the state, could provide a way of breaking out of this marginal-costs barrier to expansion, enabling the guidance to be paid for on a full-cost basis by getting employers and the state to supplement what individuals are prepared to pay (Watts, 1999).
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This study aims to understand the quality and areas of training in the existing special education teacher education programme in France and Norway by examining how special education teachers are prepared in carrying out four components of administrative, teaching, student evaluation and inclusive tasks in everyday classroom. The theoretical framework used in this research is international comparative analysis via questionnaire, institutional analysis (training programme), discourse analysis(interview) and classroom observation based on Crossley and Vulliamy's ʻcase for the caseʼ(1984) method. The efficiency of the training programme is evaluated by (i) studying satisfaction of the teachers after training, whether knowledge and hands-on teaching tasks provided were successful to prepare them for real classroom teaching to children with special needs, (ii) relevant views of teachers about the training programme and (iii) observation of teachers teaching as per the training model. Subjects in this study include special education student teachers, teacher trainers, primary and secondary school teachers and academic psychologist.
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The state considered the ways of youth em- ployment and investigated the ways of solving the problem of society several times. one of them is the Program “Employment - 2020”. as part of the implementation of this state program, it was decided to open the employ- ment centers throughout the republic, where it is studied the organization and implemen- tation of planned activities for profiling, that is, the distribution of unemployed people, depending on the profile of their professional activities, level of education and other social features, with a view to providing them with effective assistance in their employment, ta- king into account the prevailing situation in the labor market. To that moment, it was known that the proportion of young people among the capable one made up a large part, for example, about 50% of young people in the age category from 20 to 29 years old did not have a stable job [1, p. 8]. The study of this category of young people is relevant, as they determine the political, economic and social structure of the state.
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I’ll show you with a concrete example from reality that Critical Link’s role is crucial. I was allowed to present a paper on PSIT and the need for policy on PSIT in Europe, at EU level. That was in June 2013. There, in Toronto, I’ve also been able to check interest. Most of the people attending my paper session were European professionals. And I also got to speak with a representative from the European Commission itself. All this helped me initiate the European PSIT Network in October 2013, with 30 members in October and slightly over 50 now (February 2014). This Network is talking to the EU now. And apparently, members of the European Parliament and Commission are willing to listen to what the Network has to say.
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The present work aims to analyze the linguistic phenomenon of the echolalia in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), addressing the rights and challenges, as well as the mechanisms of inclusion in the educational space. This is an asystematic review of literature that leads to the reflection and problematization of the inclusion policies of people with ASD. Children with ASD usually present difficulties in the functional use of language, independent of the conceptual approach, representing one of the fundamental aspects of the pathology. It is necessary to implement specific education and training of teachers and professionals in the field of education, and the tendency of students with ASD to semantic difficulties and in more serious cases, in the pragmatics of language.
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The weekly diary requires the subject to monitor his emotional state every day, and at various times of the day (indicatively, in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening), noting the mood they are feeling at that precise moment (eg anger, sadness, resignation, joy, euphoria, happiness, apathy etc.). I doing that, and according to the Russell circumplex model of emotions (1980) they have to reﬂect on the level of energy and the level of pleasantness of their emotional state, self-assigning a score from 0 (low energy and low pleasantness) to 10 (high energy and high pleasantness) to their own state. This method inevitably leads to greater understanding and awareness of one's prevailing emotional tone. Furthermore, although not explicitly requiring it, the use of the diary also stimulates reﬂection on the most frequent causes and on antecedents, internal or external to us, of the onset of speciﬁc moods, but also of all the consequences that an emotion generates.
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U.S. FIRST was co-founded in 1989 by Dean Kamen, one of America’s most prolific inventors, to expose students to the excitement of engineering. FIRST offers four programs, beginning with students in early elementary school, and culminating in its FIRST Robotics Competition for high school students. In the robotics competition, teams of students work with adult mentors to assemble robots, and then take the finished robot to competitions where they compete against rival teams. Kamen launched the competition in a gym in Manchester, N.H. in 1992. Just 28 teams showed up. In 2011, 55,000 high school students are expected to take part. The growth has been fueled by over 3,000 corporate sponsors—including some of America’s best-known companies—and 70,000 adult volunteers. It’s clearly having an impact in hooking students on engineering. Surveys suggest FIRST participants are three times more likely than non-participants to major in engineering in college. 41 THE WISCONSIN YOUTH APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM began in the early 90s, and has since matured into the nation’s largest apprenticeship opportunity for high school students. Under the two-year program, high school juniors and seniors complete up to 900 hours of work-based learning and related courses. Many also earn college credits. Apprenticeships are now offered in fields ranging from healthcare and manufacturing to IT, hospitality and agriculture. Apprenticeships are available in nearly half of Wisconsin’s school districts, and the program serves about 2,000 students at a time. Over 75 percent of youth apprenticeship graduates enroll in a technical college or university, and over 60 percent complete their degrees, which is far higher than the national average. What’s more, over 85 percent of graduates are employed after leaving
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a) The fact that in-company student training is a compulsory component of VT curricula has generated an interesting and dynamic route of connection between VT centres and companies. Work placement tutors have an opportunity to be in contact with company tutors and to directly evaluate the degree to which studies are adapted to company needs. Almost 86% of companies make use of in-company student training, which becomes an efficient company preselection mechanism (Basterretxea et al., 2002, González, Cueto & Mato, 2005), whilst constituting a relevant information source for VT centres and a powerful tool for student training (Rodríguez, 2005). In addition, company evaluation of in-company training programmes is very high (7.69 over 10), providing a clear picture of the great utility this activity yields them.
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Introduction: The e-learning training courses for Physical Education teachers should be designed to produce significant learning (Calderón & Martínez, 2014). In this study, the e-learning contents designed are the Olympic Boxing and Taekwondo, which due to different prejudices are not selected in the classrooms (Camerino, Gutiérrez & Prieto, 2011, Ruiz-Sanchis & Ros, 2013). The website escuelaolimpica.com (Ruiz-Sanchis & Martín, 2015) was designed in order that Physical Education teachers of Secondary School can train in fundamentals of combat sports (Olympic boxing and taekwondo). Objective: To assess the effect of the time spent on the web on the reduction of prejudices in a didactic intervention of 10 teachers, carried out in the municipality of Aracati (Brazil) where these contents were developed with students of 12-16 years. Results and discussion: The continuous e-learning training tool showed a correct adaptation to the needs of the teaching staff, facilitating access and understanding of the contents for the introduction of the modalities. The analysis of Spearman's bivariate correlation, made from the results of a test ad hoc, and the time spent on the application, reveals that teachers' beliefs about danger have been reduced and the belief that the practice of these sports promote respect increase. Teachers consider that boxing is useful for developing intellectual skills, and what is more, the perception of masculinity decreases in both sports. Conclusions: The online training course introduces changes in models based on technical patterns in Physical Education and reduces existing prejudices towards combat sports.
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More speculatively, it seems possible that as societies move into a postindustrial stage, with more emphasis on knowledge occupations (Drucker, 1969) and more flexible educational and occupational structures (Handy, 1989), the role of guidance may become more salient and more pervasive than it has been in the past. ln industrial societies, labour has tended to be concentrated in large organisations, individuals have tended to stay in such organisations for long periods of time, and any career progression they may have experienced has tended to be managed by the organisation; much the same has been true of the system of education, which has preceded employment rather than being interwoven with it; guidance has tended to be concentrated at the interface between the two systems, supporting individuals in their passage between them. In post-industrial societies, all these generalisations are likely to be less valid. The case for lifelong access to guidance in support of continuous career development, in mediating the "psychological contract" between individuals and organisations (Argyris, 1960; Herriot, 1992) on an iterative basis, and in supporting the construction of self as a "reflexive project" (Giddens, 1991), accordingly becomes stronger and more pressing (Watts, 1994; 1996a; Collin and Watts, 1996).
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