Please cite this article as: Arriaga, S., de Jonge, N., Nielsen, M.L., Andersen, H.R., Borregaard, V., Jewel, K., Ternes, T., Nielsen, J.L., Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants, Water Research (2016), doi: 10.1016/ j.watres.2016.10.046.
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Our findings suggest the possible utilization of waste water from tortilla industry for the pro duction of rotifers, which can be utilized in aquaculture as starter food for rearing fish and crab larvae. Since the nutritional quality of waste water from the tortilla industry does not vary significantly (Pedroza 1985), these results may be applicable for nejayote water col1ected from other sÍtes. The present study can also be a start-point for other studies such as those on nutritional aspects of rotifers produced using the
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A 2 l active volume UASB reactor was used, located in a thermostat-controlled chamber at 20°C. Four lateral ports al- lowed samples to be taken of the digester content. A solid/liquid/ gas separator was present in the upper zone of the reactor. The biogas was monitored with a continuous lab-scale gas flow meter (Veiga et al., 1990). The UASB was fed directly with the raw domestic waste water. In a second part of this study, the UASB reactor was operated in combination with a CMSD. The CMSD was fed with the mixed liquor drawn from the UASB reactor (where part of non-biodegraded influent solids accumulated),and an equal volume of the CMSD content was returned to the lower port of the UASB. The 1.6 l active volume CMSD, was mechani- cally stirred and located in a thermostat-controlled bath at 35°C. This temperature was chosen in order to increase the biodegrada- tion rate of the accumulated organic matter. The daily methane production from the CMSD was monitored with a liquid displace- ment system containing an alkaline solution. The VS content for the CMSD influent and effluent was also determined. The reactor configurations are shown in Fig. 1.
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Simple technology solve water pollution is to utilize the wetlands. Bamboo wetland system is a wetland planted with bamboo. The main components of domestic waste water containing detergent. Detergents cause of eutrophication, and carcinogenic. The research objective was to analyze the influence of pollutant loads and the retention time of the water quality, analyzes the factors bamboo wetland system operating conditions as wastewater treatment, and formulates the development of a model to optimize the management of domestic waste water. This study was conducted in laboratory scale, the first stage using a completely randomized design with two factors, the initial concentration of detergent and retention time. The second phase to determine the factors that affect operating conditions using the Taguchi method. Observation of water quality with the parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and detergents as Methyle Blue Active Substances (MBAS). Results of the study treatment pollutant load of 12 g detergent / liter of water and the retention time of 30 days, showing the interaction and primary treatment significantly affected water quality. COD reduction efficiency of 80.11%. Factors that influence the operational conditions factor initial conditions detergent, retention time, aerobic conditions, and the type of red-yellow podzolic soil. Development of bamboo wetland system model, designed as a shallow pool, in the embankment or the banks planted with bamboo. Bamboo wetland system can be applied as a domestic waste water treatment park, as well as useful for preventing abrasion on the edge of the river and reduce seawater intrusion.
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SEGUNDA: El empoderamiento del manual de funciones por parte del personal de la empresa BEYDESA, en relación a recursos humanos sobre planificar, conducir y controlar la eficacia de los programas de formación del personal, orientación laboral a los trabajadores, ejecución de programas de bienestar social dirigidos al personal de la Empresa, formulación de reglas disciplinarias conforme a las normas legales, firma de la planilla de remuneraciones y jornales, cálculos para el pago y depósito de CTS, liquidaciones del personal, los descuentos efectuados en planillas , en su mayoría se ubica en el nivel de regular, afectando significativamente en los objetivos del Proyecto “Waste Water Collection System”, en la identificación del enfoque general para la ejecución de la obra, división del trabajo según especialidades, requerimiento de seguridad y medio ambiente, requerimiento, planteamiento del organigrama, facilidades de obra, ordenamiento de lista. precisar el método de trabajo, identificar el cronograma contractual.
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To characterize the composition and product quantities of the Mediterranean diet, two seasonal week menus were defined (i.e. winter and summer) using the food guidelines elaborated by the Mediterranean Diet Foundation (Fundación Dieta Mediterránea, 2015). The American recommended diet (USDAr) was configured following the guidelines of the Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA, 2015) and the study of Haven et al., (2015). When calculating the WF of these diets, we have only considered the amount of water consumed in the production of each food item, but without considering additional water requirements for cooking purposes (e.g. boiling, washing, etc.). This assumption was made due to the lack of detailed data regarding the amount of household water used for cooking purposes and the fact that the largest fraction of the WF of food products lies at the field level i.e. agricultural production (Chico et al., 2010).
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To summarize, the modern environmental policy encourages to establish measurements to obtain a bigger efficiency of natural resources because the available amount of them is finite. Therefore is necessary a suitable management of them as well as of the waste ones, by means of obtaining production and consumption models that are more sustainable, breaking the current link existing between the use of resources and waste production with growing economical rate and also in order to reach that the consumption of resources, both renewable and non - renewable do not exceed the capability of absorption by the environment.
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This last point, is also made by other two householders in Site 2. There is a sense of unfairness because tourists have the economic means to visit the most beautiful areas of the country, whereas common citizens must cope with environmental degradation, without seeing a real interest from the government to improve all geographic areas of the country. As a woman householder mentions, “tourists go to the better places; they don’t see our waste problems…where I live you cannot even find a trash can.” Also, she explains that important local resources have not been used for the communities themselves. Those areas with abundance of natural resources have been used with the aim of getting an external image abroad. For her, local populations do not see the direct effects of this national policy.
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disposal—is a major global challenge in the 21st century. Cities are responsible for managing municipal waste. Solid waste management is, arguably, the single most important function of cities: waste that is not collected on a timely basis creates a public health hazard, and organic waste, collection vehicles, and most waste dis- posal methods, with the notable exception of recycling, contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. But the management of waste depends in large part on the global markets for recycled materials. The financial crisis that started in September 2008 exposed the interdependence of global markets and local supply of recycled materials. With the sudden drop in global demand for manu- factured goods, the global demand for re- cycled materials—used as raw materials and packing materials—also dropped sud- denly. Unsold recycled materials started to accumulate in ships, ports, warehouses, city streets and neighborhoods around the world as early as October 2008.
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With regard to the external relations of construction companies, two kinds of relationships can be considered: contractors–subcontractors and contractors–contractors. In the first case, business opportunities and competitiveness between companies can lead them to compare their own techniques with those of its competitors, establishing a benchmark to compare the performance of different options in the management of waste , including the use of recycled products. In this case, the goal of implementing economic policy instruments will be to create incentives and comparative advantage over other companies through costs (e.g., subsidies for the purchase of machinery or incorporation of new techniques for recycling) or via income (e.g. incorporate recycled materials as a condition in the award of public projects). Another option is the creation of eco-industrial parks, a community of businesses located together on a common property using each other‘s wastes as materials for production (Line 8). In the second case, responsibility is dissipated among various agents. The contractor will have the final responsibility (EPR) in order to avoid the enormous costs of assigning responsibilities to each agent. The government should establish a list of authorized subcontractors with a fair price. The implementation of administrative charges for non-compliance  forces construction companies to keep track of the generation of waste across the project, including subcontractors‘ activities (Line 9).
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Choa Chu Kang Waterworks received raw water from three reservoirs – namely, Tengeh, Kranji and Pandan reservoirs, which were developed from previous tidal estuaries. Estuarial reservoir waters generally had higher organic and mineral content compared with waters from inland reservoirs or rivers. After the initial stage of site investigations, the source of the discoloured water was concluded to be Tengeh reservoir. The water in Tengeh reservoir appeared clearer than other raw water sources, and pumps were showing signs of corrosion. Investigations found that large quantities of peaty organic soils (2 million cubic metres) had been dredged from the bottom of the reservoir and used as reclaimed materials for the northern and southern banks of the reservoir. Exposure to air caused the sulfur contained in these materials to turn into soluble sulfates through a bacteriological process. The sulfates were then brought into the reservoir by the natural inflow of the water from the tributaries of the banks, resulting in low-pH (pH 3.5–4.1) water at Tengeh reservoir. Results of sampling of surrounding soil showed that the bank was a highly acidic area that caused the raw water in Tengeh reservoir to be acidic and to contain high chloride, sulfates, aluminium, iron and manganese. A substantial amount of manganese (≥0.1 mg/L) was also brought into the impoundment on rainy days. The acidity of the water in Tengeh caused the manganese to remain in dissolved form until it was oxidized by ozonation and became the black sediments.
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Biological waste gas treatment systems are sensitive to transient feed conditions and process shut-downs (Al Rayes et al., 2001; Cox and Deshusses, 2002). Periods of low concentrations or process shutdowns can harmfully affect the biology in such a way that the reactor needs a long time (several days to a week) to fully recover its normal activity (Martin and Loehr, 1996). High peak concentrations can be toxic to the bacteria in the reactor and exceed its treatment capacity. In both cases, waste gas leaves the reactor untreated and contaminates thereby the environment (Weber and Hartmans, 1995). This effect is even pronounced treating poorly water soluble compounds. These VOC feature high air-water partition coefficients, which cause low water concentrations and hamper the removal from waste gas (Brindle and Stephenson, 1996).
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International Publishing, pp. 391–402. Freeman A. M., Herriges J. A., Kling C. L. (2014). The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values, Theory and Methods, New York, USA: RFF Press, pp. 325. Golik V.I., Khasheva Z.M., Shulgatyi L.P., (2015). Economical Efficiency of Utilization of Allied Mining Enterprises Waste, Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 10, issue 6, pp. 750- 754.
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Medical waste presents a special problem in the islands, most of all in the materials contaminated by disease and the “sharps”—needles, scalpels, etc.— used in treatment. The region surround- ing the four project villages is served by a single clinic on the island of Carti Suitupu, supported by a smaller facil- ity on another island a few miles away. During the week, medical waste is col- lected at the Suitupu clinic in plastic bags, color-coded for hazardous and non-hazardous waste and sharps are collected in special dedicated contain- ers. Unfortunately, both bags and sharps containers sometimes run out, forcing dangerous improvisations by medical personnel. Once each week, minimally trained young janitors take the bags by boat to the mainland dumpsite a few minutes away in a mangrove thicket, where they toss the bags on shore, douse them with gasoline and set them alight. The fires, which contaminate the air, water, and soil, often fail to consume the waste, especially the sharps. Though well aware of the problem, the clinic’s doctors and nurses have until now had few solu- tions within reach.
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approximately 100 mL (adding water if necessary). The digestate of the wastewater plant of Valladolid was used as inoculum. The bottles were passed through helium and incubated at 35 °C until the biogas production remained constant. The biogas production is periodically determined by measuring the increment in pressure through a PN 5007 manometer (IFM, Germany), after each measurement the bottles are left at atmospheric pressure. To determine the biogas composition, head space volumes are sampled by gas chromatography using Varian CP-177 3800 GC-TCD equipped with CP-Molsieve 5A and CP-Pora BOND Q columns using helium as gas. A blank is made using only inoculum to quantify the amount of methane produced by endogenous respiration.
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A monitoring system should use a limited set of indicators (such as behavioural indication) that are easily and frequently measured to identify problems and correct them in a timely way. For example, water shortages at handwashing points may be monitored by staff according to an organized schedule, and signalled immediately to caretakers or maintenance staff, where these exist, for action. A periodic review of environmental health facilities should also be carried out in a way that illustrates the links between the various activities. As in assessments, reviews should seek to identify causes for problems and then propose realistic solutions.
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최종 처리수 검사에 중점을 둔 기존의 먹는물 수질 모니터링은 재정 투자 및 인적 자원 의 관점에서 자원 집약적이다. 상수원과 먹는물에서 건강상 사소한 문제일 수도 있는 화 학오염물질의 리스트를 확대하여 최종 처리수 모니터링과 정수처리 시설물에 대한 갱신 을 지나치게 강조하게 되면 한정된 자원을 지속적이고 적정하게 사용할 수 없게 된다. WHO 먹는물 수질 가이드라인(Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality) 제4판의 4장에 물안전계획(Water safety plan)은 “수돗물 공급의 안전성을 일관되게 보장하는 가장 효 과적인 방법으로 취수부터 수요가까지 상수도의 모든 단계에 걸쳐 포괄적으로 위해성을 평가하고 관리하는 것이다.”라고 기술하고 있다(WHO, 2011). 물안전계획의 주요 원리는 원수로부터 전체 물순환에 걸쳐 위해성 평가와 위해성 관리에 중점을 둔다는 것이다. 먹 는물에서 의약물질에 대해 전체 라이프 사이클(life cycle) 접근방식을 채택한 것으로 이 들의 생산, 소비, 처분 시에 환경 중으로 유입되지 않도록 하는 것이 위해성 관리에 있어 실질적이고 효과적 방안이라고 할 수 있다 .
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Data from the RTU mounted remote center to avoid any failure of the PLC pumping stations and water reservoirs are transmitted to the dispatch unit. SE SCADA system developed specifically to control the water pressure. The SCADA system dispatch unit draws diagrams, charts and reports related to the operator the exact system data such as pressure and water level and level of chlorine. The system stores the data in a particular database for later use and recovery analysis.
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Finally, the EU Environment Strategy for the Mediterranean ([COM(2006) 475 final]] contains the essential features of a coordinated strategy for the Mediterranean basin to protect the marine environment and the coastline of this region and to reduce pollution by 2020. The Strategy has some strong synergies with the ENI CBC Med Programme concerning Thematic Objective 4 “ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION”. The EU Environment Strategy for the Mediterranean aims to (1) reduce pollution levels across the region, (2) promote sustainable use of the sea and its coastline, (3) encourage neighbouring countries to cooperate on environmental issues, (4) assist partner countries in developing effective institutions and policies to protect the environment and (5) involve NGOs and the public in environmental decisions affecting them. The protection and recovery of the Mediterranean Sea is the strongest pillar of the Strategy represented by the Horizon 2020 Initiative which aims to tackle the sources that are said to account for 80% of the pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strategy contributes to the ultimate objective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Barcelona Convention and its protocols, i.e., to achieve Good Environmental Status by 2020-2025, by focusing on three sectors: wastewater, urban waste and industrial pollution. This strategy is the EU most determined effort to ensure synergies with existing initiatives and among all Mediterranean stakeholders, including financial institutions, international organisations, CSOs, academia and policy makers. The Horizon 2020 Strategy has been incorporated into the mandate of the UfM.
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4.7.2 Epidemiological studies to identify putative risk factors A starting point for developing new intervention strategies is the identi ﬁ cation of host, management and environmental factors associated with an elevated risk of animal infection, otherwise known as risk factors. Risk factors are correlational and not necessarily causal, because correlation does not imply causation. For example, as mentioned previously, farms where livestock are infected with a speci ﬁ c pathogen may have the same pathogen present in livestock drinking-water. However, this does not imply that treating the drinking-water will reduce the prevalence in livestock: it could be that the water is contaminated by livestock but that this is not important in maintaining the agent. Nonetheless, risk factor studies can be powerful tools for generating hypotheses that can be tested more rigorously using follow-up study designs such as randomized clinical trials. Examples of this epidemiological approach would include cross-sectional or longitudinal studies on management risk factors for infection of Cryptosporidium spp. in beef calves in the USA (Atwill et al. 1999), US and Mexican dairy calves (Maldonado et al. 1998, Garber et al. 1994), and Swedish dairy cattle (Silverlås et al. 2009), G. duodenalis infection in U.S. feedlot steers (Hoar et al. 2009), E. coli O157:H7 infection in Canadian cattle (Callaway et al. 2003, Dargatz et al. 1997, LeJeune & Wetzel 2007), Salmonella infection in European swine (Fosse et al. 2009), and Campylobacter colonization in broilers in the United Kingdom (Ellis-Iversen et al. 2009). Common recommendations from many of these studies are improved biosecurity of housing facilities, clean water supplies, improved manure management practices, physical separation of non-infected and infected groups, and calving pen hygiene, along with segregation of different age classes of animals (e.g. pre-weaned from post-weaned).
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