The current educational context calls for an alternative to conventional teaching based on an active and reflective student-centred learning (1). With this purpose a group of professors of the University of Alcala, in different knowledge areas such a Sciences, Pharmacy, Engineering and Music Education, carried out an experience called “Weeklyreflectionpapers” (WRP) since 2007. Each lecturer adapted the methodology to the peculiarities of the subject, students and spaces where the matter was taught. The results of this experience were presented at several conferences in Educational Innovation (2, 3). In order to improve certain abilities and skills of the students to integrate and apply the acquired knowledge in a critical and reflective way (4,5), the group of lectures implemented some changes in the methodology, which constitute the aim of the present work. This communication describes firstly the methodology previously employed by our group together with the study of the obtained results and, afterwards, presents the new methodology and the partial results obtained so far.
A group of lecturers from diverse areas of knowledge of the University of Alcalá have implemented an experience of teaching innovation based on “reflective diaries”. The students hand in to the lecturer every week their “WeeklyReflectionPapers” (WRP), in which they schematically express the most important ideas related with the topic presented during the classes of the previous week. They must include their reflections about the aspects they found especially interesting. After having applied this tool for some academic years we introduced a modification called “Guided WeeklyReflectionPapers” (GWRP), where the professors suggest a series of questions on which the students must apply the most significant concepts studied each week. This modification enhances student’s motivation, encourages them to achieve more significant and reflective knowledge and generates interest in emergent topics.
Due to the characteristics mentioned above we have to adapt the guided weeklyreflectionpapers to this level. One of the goals we intend to get is that students reflect about what they are learning and how they are learning it. We ask the university students to make a formal scheme of the main concepts learnt on the topic whereas in the secondary school level we prefer the students don’t to make such a formal work. The expected way to do the work should be reflect, in a written way, merely which concepts have been more impacting or interesting for them as much as the difficulties they have found in the understanding of this impacting concepts.
2.2.4 Human Histology (written by Marta González- Santander. Dept. Medical Specialities) The Histology is a science which deals with the study of the structure and function of biological tissues, integrated within the human body as cell populations. It's a basic discipline that relates the cellular with the macroscopic level. More in depth, it is the scientific field that provides the necessary information for the descriptive knowledge of human body architecture and puts it at the service of pathological processes and the clinic practice. This subject is sustained in the progress of the scientific knowledge carried out within other disciplines like embryology, genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, etc... In addition, currently, it forms the basis behind a new discipline called Tissue engineering. If we know how we are specifically built, we can design artificial biological tissues for medical use with a therapeutic and rehabilitative projection in response to the current demand of the society of the 21st century. It is necessary to know deeply the structure of healthy tissues (including not only the variants of the state of health but of renewal, regeneration, repair, degeneration and ageing phenomena) in order to apply this knowledge when studying the pathological processes. Human histology is a subject of the first year of the new Bologna Degree in Medicine along the second semester, once the students have obtained the necessary knowledge in the discipline of Biology developed previously. In this context the "GWRP" tool in my subject, is intended to achieve the objectives outlined above in the general methodology, through following implementation strategy: My students have to write a brief, clear and complete summary at the end of the unit topic taught. The student must include the most relevant concepts and establish a relation among them. They can perform it as traditional scheme or they can develop a conceptual map. Besides, I propose them several points for reflection: comparative structural diagrams, conceptual or interaction questions, or short questions about clinical applications. Finally a personal reflection and a self-assessment on their work will be required.
Knowledge has to be developed firmly based on reflections and thoughts as much as evidence. Being conscious of this principle, our innovation teaching group from the University of Alcalá has developed a reflective pedagogical approach called Guided WeeklyReflectionPapers (GWRP) and implemented it since 2007. In this approach students hand in to the lecturer their “weekly work”, in which they schematically express the most important ideas related with the topic presented during the classes, and their reflections and comments on those aspects which they found especially difficult or interesting. Moreover students have to apply the concepts developed during the week to solve some questions or problems proposed by the lecturers to find solutions to real life situations and to explore beyond the walls of the classroom to discover where in the world around them they can find application of the material presented by the lectures.
El ICIJ llevó a cabo investigaciones relevantes en los últimos años, aunque para la opinión pública mundial no alcanzaron el nivel de publicidad de los Panama Papers. Una de las investigaciones más recientes, también codirigida por Walker Guevara, fue la denominada “Offshore Leaks”, que marcó un hito en la historia del periodismo global. El trabajo demandó dos años de investigación e involucró a más de 115 periodistas de alrededor de 60 países. El material implicó 2.5 millones de archivos secretos, como el nombre lo indica, sobre empresas offshore 5 en paraísos fiscales, un directo antecedente
Moral conventions are formed gradually out of hard-won experience. They are collective considered judgments, the outcome of reflection and mutual deliberation over time—and sometimes across cultures—which confer on them a certain presumptive authority. This presumption places a burden on anyone who proposes to violate them. Michael Walzer describes a set of conventions with this status, known collectively as the rules of war. These conventions honor a certain idea of human dignity, acknowledged even in the midst of some of the most horrible things done by one human being to another. Walzer does not derive these conventions from abstract philosophical principles, but discerns them through close study of actual controversies, specific war-time cases—events that evince human compassion as well as hostility, solidarity as well as depravity. 10 The rules of war are an apt example of what I have in mind because, while pervasive and entrenched, they are not undisputed. Deliberation continues. Today, reflective people wonder, especially, whether the existing conventions are adequate to the new reality of non-state terrorism (or asymmetric warfare, as it is called).
Un darrer punt interessant a exposar, és el fet que tan el paper estucat de qualitat PQ, com el paper de revista PR, precisen una major energia per desfibrar la pasta quan se sotmeten a una velocitat d’agitació inferior. Mentre que això no passa amb el paper fotocòpia PF, el qual es desfibra amb un consum energètic superior quan se’l sotmet a una major agitació. Aquest comportament pot ser degut a la petita diferència de temps existent entre el desfibrat a 19 rev/s i 26 rev/s del paper fotocòpia PF. També és de suposar que per a cada tipus de paper existeix una velocitat de rotor que dóna un consum mínim d’energia. Fent l’estudi únicament a dues velocitats diferents no podem conèixer quina és la velocitat òptima, però si podem suposar en vista del comportament observat que per PQ i PR aquesta velocitat és superior a 19rev/s, mentre que per PF és inferior a 26 rev/s ja que per PF el consum energètic és inferior a 19 que a 26 rev/s en comparació a les grans diferències observades pels altres dos papers (taula IV.3.1).
Weekly patterns of dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and fish eggs and larvae: The weekly measurement of water quality at four sites near San Blas Point’s coral reefs did not reveal a marked seasonal pattern of fluctuations in most of the variables, yet some changes are obvious, such as interannual differences (Fig. 3). The concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients was very low during the entire period of study (Figs. 3a and 3b). For example, the mean concentrations of phosphate and nitrate between 1993-95 were 0.03±0.01 µ M, and 0.27±0.01 µ M, respectively. However, some increase in the concentration of dissolved nutrients, particularly in nitrate, was observed during 1995 (Fig. 3b). The concentration of chlorophyll a is the only of these variables which might suggest some seasonality at San Blas Point, the highest concentration being during the second half of each year (Fig. 3c). Chlorophyll a mean concentration for the two years period was 0.36 mg m -3 , twice the mean
Through reflection about the situation of today’s so- ciety and the spiral in which we are placed of fast-pa- ced rhythm, we see how in our day to day it costs us to attend to all the stimuli that we receive and often this becomes a lack of Empathy for the difficulties of other people or the problems of the world; fruit of a lack of pause, reflection and conscious perception of our surroundings. We have lost the feeling of both physical and spiritual connectivity and we have re- placed it with digital connectivity. As a result of this reality, iom is born.
Aportando otra muestra de las vicisitudes por las que atraviesan en la actualidad los autores para lograr la publicación de sus trabajos, en (Singer, 2007) el autor reconoce que tales problemas lo han desalentado para continuar publicando y declara haber encontrado varias alternativas, al menos para autores que no deben publicar más en journals para obtener promoción académica. La principal de ellas consiste en publicar en el servidor arXiv o en cualquier otro lugar en la web. Sin embargo, esta novedosa modalidad ya enfrenta su primer desafío: el plagio. En (Feder, 2007) se explica de qué modo los papers sometidos a arXiv serán comparados con los 400.000 existentes –y en aumento- mediante un procesador automático que detecta el solapamiento de textos. Los autores serán notificados con mensajes del tipo “su artículo posee un x % de solapamiento con el artículo Y”, destacándose que “las personas deberían saber que no está bien robar. Tampoco está bien publicar su propia basura una y otra vez ... El hecho sorprendente es que la gente somete a la misma base de datos donde encontraron (lo que copiaron)”.
Subsistence populations have an average consumption of 142.4 g per day , four times higher than the average consumption of 245 g per week for the local population. Estimation of weekly intake of subsistence populations for lead and mercury (57 and 9.9 µg/kg/bw/week, respectively) exceeded the PTWI recommended by the WHO. The PTWI of 5 µg/kg bw per week for total mercury , was not exceeded regardless of the season (Table 3). As has been reported, the estimated percentage of methyl mercury in fish fillet corresponds to 80% of total mercury . Thus, the PTWI for methyl mercury in bluegill from San Marcos water reservoir in the spring season is 1.94 µg/kg bw per week, which exceed the PTWI of 1.6 µg/kg bw per week for methyl mercury suggested by the WHO .