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Literature review on linear regression equations for relating water activity to moisture content in floral honeys : development of a weighted average equation

Literature review on linear regression equations for relating water activity to moisture content in floral honeys : development of a weighted average equation

provide a weighted average regression equation. For this purpose, a meta analysis of the literature linear equations was made which takes into account the number of data points as well as the precision involved in the different literature studies. The weighted average linear regression equation is a general linear relationship to calculate the honey water activity on the basis of the honey moisture content It was

12 Lee mas

Factoring governance risk into investors´expected rates of return by means of a weighted average governance index

Factoring governance risk into investors´expected rates of return by means of a weighted average governance index

Although global investors have been paying more heed than ever to Corporate Governance for the last decade, the evolving premium risk stemming from variegated governance issues has not been factored yet into the expected return of any investor’s portfolio. From a theoretical standpoint, this paper sets forth firstly a weighted-average index built up by choosing distinctive and relevant governance variables that go beyond provisions usually embedded in the founding charter. Afterwards, a measure of governance risk premium will be derived out of the index rate of change. Lastly, it will be introduced a multiplicative model of expected returns with a risk adjustment factor over the risk-free asset comprising systematic, nonsystematic, country and governance risk premiums.
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24 Lee mas

On weighted average interpolation with cardinal splines

On weighted average interpolation with cardinal splines

where the average function h, with support in [—1/2, 1/2], reflects the characteristic of the acquisition device. Note that [—1/2, 1/2] is the máximum possible support of h without overlap between the samples. The average interpolation problem / * h(n) = y„ has been studied for band-limited functions and for shift invariant spaces in [1-8, 11, 12] and [13].

10 Lee mas

Synthetic portfolio for event studies: Estimating the effects of volatility call auctions

Synthetic portfolio for event studies: Estimating the effects of volatility call auctions

The important diference is that the abnormal returns in the traditional event studies are based on the difference between the observed returns of the asset and the simple time average of the returns of the same asset over the event window. In the case of the syn- tethic portfolio the abnormal returns are based on the difference between the observed returns of the asset and a weighted average of the returns of all other asset available that were not affected by the event of interest. After we obtain the abnormal retunrs we can estimate the cumulative abnormal returns CAR 1 (T 0 , T ) = P T t=T 0 +1 AR 1,t . In order
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31 Lee mas

Estudio de la tasa de remuneración del Sistema de Transmisión Nacional de Energía Eléctrica en Colombia

Estudio de la tasa de remuneración del Sistema de Transmisión Nacional de Energía Eléctrica en Colombia

La metodología seleccionada por la CREG para el cálculo de la Tasa de Remuneración de la actividad de transmisión de energía eléctrica, es el Costo Promedio Ponderado de Capital (CPPC o WACC- por sus iniciales en inglés: Weighted Average Cost of Capital), mediante la cual “…se propone reconocer, para la actividad de trasmisión, una Tasa de Remuneración promedio sobre el capital invertido de acuerdo con el riesgo de esta actividad y no una rentabilidad fija para cada empresa particular, la cual depende del desempeño de la empresa, la estructura de capital, los distintos esquemas tributarios y el tratamiento contable aplicable” 5 .
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133 Lee mas

Network business: transmission, distribution and smart grids

Network business: transmission, distribution and smart grids

The evaluation of the students’ learning will comprise two grades: one corresponding to the transmission lectures, and the other one corresponding to distribution and smart grids. If both grades are larger than, or equal to, 4 out of 10, the final grade shall be calculated as the weighted average of both grades, giving a weight of 45% to transmission and 55% to distribution and smart grids. Otherwise, the final grade shall be computed as the minimum between 4 out of 10 and this weighted average. In order to pass the course, students must obtain a final grade of at least 5 out of 10.
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11 Lee mas

A reexamination of the relationship between volatility, liquidity and trading activity

A reexamination of the relationship between volatility, liquidity and trading activity

In order to study the relation between risk and liquidity, the influence of trading activity is controlled by standardising the volatility measure with trading activity variable to yield volatility per unit of trading activity. The daily trading volume index is first calculated as the weighted average of individual company trading volume using each company's daily market capitalisation as the respective weights. The volatility as measured by the standard deviation of daily return index (STDEV) is then divided by the daily trading volume index. The market liquidity variable as measured by the proportional bid-ask spread (PBAS) is then regressed on the VO- or NT- adjusted market volatility variable (ADJ-STDEV). The sample consists of the 733 companies listed in the LSE from 22 December, 1993 through 31 July, 2003 for a total of 2142 trading days.
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13 Lee mas

Consistency in valuation:
A practical guide

Consistency in valuation: A practical guide

Practitioners and teachers easily break some consistency rules when conducting or teaching valuation of assets. In this short and simple note we present a practical guide to call attention to the most frequently broken consistency rules. Firstly, they have to do with the consistency in the matching of the cash flows, this is, the free cash flow (FCF), the cash flow to debt (CFD), the cash flow to equity (CFE), the capital cash flow (CCF) and the tax savings or tax shield (TS). Secondly, they have to do with the proper expression for the cost of levered equity, Ke and different formulations for the weighted average cost of capital, WACC, for finite cash flows. Thirdly, although not covered in this article, they have to do with the consistency between the terminal value and growth for the FCF and the terminal value and growth for the CFE.
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23 Lee mas

Methods for Evaluating Social Vulnerability to Drought

Methods for Evaluating Social Vulnerability to Drought

The total vulnerability Índex has been quantified as the weighted average of each of the four components. The four components of the Índex and the total computation are shown on Table 2[r]

5 Lee mas

Incentives for renewable energy

Incentives for renewable energy

generation firm for generating electricity from renewable sources in node i; weighted average by the probability of each scenario h of the Producer Surplus in node i; node price, in node[r]

191 Lee mas

Big Data

Big Data

As in the regular assessment period, in order to pass the course, the weighted average mark must be greater or equal to 5 out of 10 points, the mark of the final exam must be greater or equal to 4 out of 10 points, and the mark of the laboratory must be at least 5 out of 10 points. Otherwise, the final grade will be the lower of the three marks.

8 Lee mas

Minera Gabriela Mistral : ¿una buena opción de inversión para Chile? : análisis ex ante y ex post

Minera Gabriela Mistral : ¿una buena opción de inversión para Chile? : análisis ex ante y ex post

Dadas las condiciones anteriores, esta tesis evalúa si la opción de inversión en Minera Gabriela Mistral fue una buena decisión considerando la metodología de las opciones reales en la línea de la programación dinámica (Dixit y Pindyck, 1994), la cual se basa en que el valor de un activo es calculado a través de backward induction y una tasa exógena. En este sentido, Dixit y Pindyck (1994), postulan que la tasa de descuento a ser utilizada puede estar alineada de acuerdo al criterio del inversionista, ya que ésta refleja el costo de oportunidad del capital para las inversiones de riesgo similar. En línea con lo anterior, esta tesis considera la respectiva evaluación mediante una tasa exógena correspondiente al Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) con que Codelco evalúa sus proyectos de inversión, 8 y a su vez se extiende el análisis mediante una segunda tasa exógena asociada al posicionamiento de Minera Gabriela Mistral en la curva de costos de la industria.
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139 Lee mas

Trend Assessment for a CO2 and CH4 Data Series in Northern Spain

Trend Assessment for a CO2 and CH4 Data Series in Northern Spain

pollution analysis. Cleveland [7] suggested local regression methods to obtain visual information from scatterplots [8]. Kernel smoothing functions are an extension of the locally weighted average method which has been widely used in atmospheric temporal series [9]. Moreover, kernel regression methods have successfully been used in different air pollution data. According to de Haan [10], Lorimer was the first author to use the kernel method for atmospheric dispersion modelling of inert airborne contaminants [11]. Since then, many authors have employed this mathematical technique to atmospheric time series [9,12].
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9 Lee mas

Accurate Stereo Visual Odometry with Gamma Distributions

Accurate Stereo Visual Odometry with Gamma Distributions

To prove this, we also analyze the distribution of the residual magnitude, shown in Figure 1(b), where all the training sequences in the KITTI dataset have been employed to build the histogram. It can be observed that a Gamma distribution accurately describes the behavior of the magnitude, as it presents a certain bias and also a heavy tail. The goodness of the three fits (i.e. Gaussian and t-distribution for the projection residual and Gamma for the residual magnitude) are evaluated through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test [15], which measures the maximal difference between an empirical and a real distribution function. Thus, for each sequence, a subset of 10 3 keypoints has been randomly selected from all the found features so that half of them are employed to derive the distribution model, while the rest is used to perform the test. Note that using separate datasets is mandatory in order to obtain valid and distribution-free K-S test results [16], hence allowing the comparison of different distributions. This experiment has been repeated 10 3 times for each sequence, obtaining the average values shown in Table I. In all sequences, the values below the test’s critical value have been highlighted (which is 0.0608 for a significance value of α = 0.05).
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6 Lee mas

Análisis de punto de cambio dentro del control estadístico de procesos

Análisis de punto de cambio dentro del control estadístico de procesos

que se encontró fuera de control estadístico? ¿también estaban fuera de control pero no fueron detectadas a tiempo? ¿de esa serie de observaciones cuál es la primera donde el proceso ha cambiado? los autores esperamos que después de la lectura de este artículo los lectores se aventuren a proponer sus propias respuestas y consideren confrontarlas con lo que ya está escrito al respecto. Con el fin de aterrizar los conceptos se ha preparado un ejemplo para la estimación del punto de cambio basado en un proceso que considera un conjunto de datos obtenidos como una serie en el tiempo y que pueden ser modelados mediante una función de distribución Gamma. Se ha seleccionado la función de distribución Gamma por ser utilizada para modelar procesos en que el tiempo entre llegadas es relevante, y debido a sus aplicaciones en diferentes áreas tal como la industria química, el control de inventarios y los estudios biológicos [3] [4], además de ser una distribución que no ha sido tan estudiada, bajo la óptica del SPC (Statistical Process Control), como lo ha sido la distribución normal. Para un conjunto de datos particular se mostrará como calcular la gráfica de control EWmA (Exponentially Weighted Moving Average) y como estimar el punto de cambio mediante la técnica del mlE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation). En las Figuras 1 y 2 se presentan ejemplos de gráficas de control. Como comentario general a las gráficas de control de Shewhart, CuSum y EWA se puede señalar que las gráficas de Shewhart detectan cambios abruptos pero no son eficientes en la detección de cambios lentos y sostenidos, en tal caso las de CuSum y EWmA funcionan mejor.
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8 Lee mas

Atomic decompositions and operators on Hardy spaces

Atomic decompositions and operators on Hardy spaces

Zhou, Weighted anisotropic Hardy spaces and their applications in boundedness of sublinear operators, Indiana Univ. Rubio de Francia, Weighted norm inequalities and related topics , Nort[r]

8 Lee mas

Python interface for object-oriented verification methods: SAL

Python interface for object-oriented verification methods: SAL

A weighted mean of all objects pcp volume is calculated for obs and fc fields. S  normalized difference between obs and fc weighted mean volumes.[r]

25 Lee mas

Computing power indices in weighted majority games

Computing power indices in weighted majority games

Power indices methodology of weighted majority game is widely used to measure a priori voting power of members of a committee. In this paper we present a computer implementation of the main power indices: Shapley-Shubik, Banzhaf, Johnston, Deegan-Packel and the Holler- Packel power indices. This computer implementation allows comparing the different indices. The system was developed for multiplataform: Linux and Windows. We compute the power indices for two examples and analyze its results.

10 Lee mas

Combining Multiple Classifiers with Dynamic Weighted Voting

Combining Multiple Classifiers with Dynamic Weighted Voting

In this paper, new methods for dynamic weighting in the framework of MCS have been introduced. More specifically, several weighting functions present in the literature have been adapted to be used in a voting system for classifier fusion. In particular, we have explored the reformulated Dudani’s distance, the inverse distance weight [7], the average distance weighting, and also the Shepard’s function [16] and a modification to it (which is based on a rank of distances).

7 Lee mas

Sample Average Approximation para resolver problemas de optimización con restricciones probabílisticas

Sample Average Approximation para resolver problemas de optimización con restricciones probabílisticas

En este trabajo se estudi´o la forma de encontrar una soluci´on a un problema de optimizaci´on con restricciones probabil´ısticas. Primerio se analiz´o el m´etodo Sample Average Approx- imation. Se explic´o c´omo funciona el m´etodo, y te´oricamente por qu´e la soluci´on que arroja converge a la soluci´on ´optima del problema inicial. Este m´etodo depende de una muestra aleatoria de tama˜no N de la variable aleatoria del problema. Si se quiere un nivel de significancia alto, entonces este N es un n´umero relativamente grande.

26 Lee mas

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