Work in the Classroom

Top PDF Work in the Classroom:

Competencies in Education: Schools of Thought and Implications for Curricula and Work in the Classroom

Competencies in Education: Schools of Thought and Implications for Curricula and Work in the Classroom

A global wave has followed second-generation educational reforms in policies of quality: the compe- tencies approach. This model is quite recent in the field of education, and is novel approach applied to solve long-standing problems in education, which sometimes comes across as improvised. Two topics are noteworthy in the short time this approach has been used in education. On the one hand, the subject of competencies vindicates a centuries-old struggle in the educational terrain: to eliminate ency- clopedic learning in school practice; to avoid the sense that what is taught in school is school itself, thereby recognizing the need for school work to be geared towards solving problems related to the surroundings experienced by each subject–in other words, to develop competencies. On the other hand, it is important to recognize the different schools of thought that underlie the competencies approach, for some vindicate a fo- cus on the workplace or the behaviorist model, for example, whereas others shift towards the recognition of a competency as a progress, process, quality, with developments effected from constructivism and pedagogical- didactic thought. This recognition has implications for structuring curricula, but it also widely significant for the way in which teachers can interpret what they do in the classroom. The tension between knowledge and problem resolution, between grades or processual expressions of the student’s advance, are among many other interpretations that underlie this discussion.This essay dissects these subjects in order to provide curri- culum designers and teachers with an ample grounded perspective on the competencies approach.
Mostrar más

23 Lee mas

Competencies in Education: Schools of Thought and Implications for Curricula and Work in the Classroom

Competencies in Education: Schools of Thought and Implications for Curricula and Work in the Classroom

A global wave has followed second-generation educational reforms in policies of quality: the compe- tencies approach. This model is quite recent in the field of education, and is novel approach applied to solve long-standing problems in education, which sometimes comes across as improvised. Two topics are noteworthy in the short time this approach has been used in education. On the one hand, the subject of competencies vindicates a centuries-old struggle in the educational terrain: to eliminate ency- clopedic learning in school practice; to avoid the sense that what is taught in school is school itself, thereby recognizing the need for school work to be geared towards solving problems related to the surroundings experienced by each subject–in other words, to develop competencies. On the other hand, it is important to recognize the different schools of thought that underlie the competencies approach, for some vindicate a fo- cus on the workplace or the behaviorist model, for example, whereas others shift towards the recognition of a competency as a progress, process, quality, with developments effected from constructivism and pedagogical- didactic thought. This recognition has implications for structuring curricula, but it also widely significant for the way in which teachers can interpret what they do in the classroom. The tension between knowledge and problem resolution, between grades or processual expressions of the student’s advance, are among many other interpretations that underlie this discussion.This essay dissects these subjects in order to provide curricu- lum designers and teachers with an ample grounded perspective on the competencies approach.
Mostrar más

22 Lee mas

Results of a research project carried out in the primary classroom using two units of work based on the task based approach

Results of a research project carried out in the primary classroom using two units of work based on the task based approach

There were many pupils who put these techniques into practice and because they were able to study vocabulary in a systematic and organized way, this could have contributed to a better learning vocabulary, and because of that, to a better READING COMPREHENSION. For example, in the Unit of Work ‘Animals’ a table was being elaborated throughout the Unit (in the form of a Mural for the whole class; also each one of them, individually, made their own tables). In this table, as shown at the beginning of this article, they had to take notes on the different characteristics of the animals which were being studied, that is, name, class, physical description, habitat, food and abilities. This table was a guide for the pupils to be able to process and assimilate all the information they were receiving. This information would enable them to carry out the Final Task: A Quiz.
Mostrar más

27 Lee mas

Promoting LGBT Equality in the EFL classroom

Promoting LGBT Equality in the EFL classroom

we would ask the students to divide themselves in groups of 4 or 5 people so that there are three different groups in the class. Then, each group will have a letter addressed to them by someone asking for advice. We have previously told the students that they own a blog in which people submit questions in order to seek for advice with their relationships, or general matters. Each group has to agree in the same solution for the person that has written to them. Everyone in the group has to give his or her opinion in the matter as it is an activity in which we want to encourage team work, as well as the importance that everyone is equal in it. There are three texts (annex 3). The first one is written by a 16-year- old guy who has recently noticed that he pays more attention to other guys at his school, specifically when he is in the lockers' room changing clothes to go to his football training. He has been feeling like this for over a year, and he doesn't know what to do. He is not too sure if he is gay because he also likes girls in his school. He does not know if he is bisexual or he is just being curious. This case is important as we are directly introducing the topic of biphobia into the classroom. Discrimination towards bisexual people is even worse than those who are homosexual as a result of society being binary, people are expected to either be homosexual or heterosexual. That is why bisexual people have more difficulty in finding social acceptance (Instituto de la Mujer y para la Igualdad de Oportunidades 2015, 14).
Mostrar más

69 Lee mas

The advance in communicative strategies for the teaching english in the classroom

The advance in communicative strategies for the teaching english in the classroom

In another context, Lowe (2003), through his work for the European Council that was seeking to follow-up on the CA since the 1960s, saw his approach first flourished between 1970 and 1990. At that time, in England teachers taught on the basis of functional curriculum, which emphasized communicative functions. Audiolinguistics influenced communicative functions because teachers continued to expose students to repetitive teaching. The first phase of the CA was more focused on the use of language to perform functions, advice such as request something and apologize. Around 1980, the first phase of CA development, suffered a setback resulting in a reform influenced by Krashen's theory of learning of the late 1970s. According to Krashen (1982), there is a distinction between the acquisition and the learning of a language. Krashen argues that the grammatical structures of a second language are learned, while the acquisition of a language is an unconscious process that develops as the individual uses the language for communication.
Mostrar más

47 Lee mas

An effective social interaction in the classroom

An effective social interaction in the classroom

The student view about learning arose as a central theme in the outcomes. There was a division among students on how learning occurred and what should be the interactions inside the classroom. Hurst et al. (2013) suggested one reason for this may be that in most classrooms, the predominant direction of communication occurred from teacher to students, and that influenced student’s perceptions of learning. Furthermore, students were expected to sit for hours taking notes, yet they are supposed to produce orally (Hurst et al., 2013), in that sense is difficult to think that they would perceive learning as an active process. That could be connected with students answers that learning only occurs as a transmition of knowledge from the teacher. Contrariwise, there were a significant number of participants that thought that learning occurs with others as a construction of meaning. That is to say, students that performed the work are the ones that were learning (Hurst 1998). In this scenario, Royston-Muirhead (2016) and Hurst et al. (2013) pointed at the role of the teacher inside the classroom, more specifically at the pre-
Mostrar más

20 Lee mas

Using cooperative work strategies to enhance student's participation in a 6th grade EFL classroom

Using cooperative work strategies to enhance student's participation in a 6th grade EFL classroom

This study was based on the importance of teachers learning how to work with groups of students, and trying to take advantage of collective work with them. Thus, this research intended to answer the relation between participation and cooperative work in a specific classroom; constantly considering the complexities and singularities each classroom may present. In addition, the idea of having cooperative work techniques in a classroom is related to preparing students for real life situations, such as having to work along with different peers in scholastic situations or, ultimately, their professional careers. As well, this study was carried under the expectation of finding proper methods to conduct a research that is objective and helpful to the educational practice.
Mostrar más

19 Lee mas

Collaborative action research in the chilean EFL classroom

Collaborative action research in the chilean EFL classroom

Isabel: With the class that I’m in high school with, which is a tenth grade and it’s the advanced group. So, it gives me a little bit more like freedom or space to make them talk and they are used to answer to questions from the teacher and that is the only speaking part that they have normally. But, what I try to do is to make them work in groups, so that they can…hmmm for example, one activity was to write a full review so they wrote the full review, but then I made them present. So, in that way you make them speak by reading a bit what they produce and I think that is the step before making them speak like freely, or maybe going to discussions, or those types of tasks. So, trying to make them speak little by little more in the class, but with things that they have done, not just asking them questions about opinions or have you ever... when you are introducing a topic because in that way they are, you always have the same students participating and then you lose the participation of other students that do not dare or do not want to raise their hands and answer those questions. Jessica: Or just repeat what was already said.
Mostrar más

127 Lee mas

First language in the classroom: the forbidden fruit?

First language in the classroom: the forbidden fruit?

To begin with, we would like to thank Dr Masatoshi Sato for giving us the opportunity to conduct our thesis project under his supervision. He demonstrated to be a highly qualified and committed professor, being always willing to teach us and help us. We are truly thankful to him for being demanding at all times, for believing in us as a team, and encouraging us to keep working and improving our project. This one-year-process has not only been an instance to learn about research methodology and our topic, but also about teamwork and collaboration. We believe we managed to keep a healthy environment, being respect for each other and commitment to this project our two main pillars. Therefore, we would like to thank each other within our group, for managing to stay together and work as a team, despite the minor differences we had a few times. We are sure that our discussion and agreement skills, which were developed throughout this process, are of enormous value for our futures. Lastly, we want to thank all the teachers and mentor teachers who were part of our learning process. Each and every one of them provided us with different learning experiences, which made us the professionals we are about to become officially.
Mostrar más

121 Lee mas

Realistic fiction for children in the efl classroom

Realistic fiction for children in the efl classroom

words. Because of this, the teacher had to interrupt the activity and talked about how to prioritize things. Children were attentive to the teacher’s advice; they had a positive response and started to write in their posters. This warm-up activity is the one that the students have found the most enjoyable by now. They had a great time watching their friend getting tangled in a web of yarn and were able to grasp the underlying purpose of the activity. While re- reading “Jamaica’s Find”, they went through the vocabulary words that were in the book, and as a group (on the whiteboard), they started the search for the best definition of each word using an inferencing graphic organizer (See Annex # 9). It was interesting to observe that most of the children had more facility to elucidate the words from the text. This group of students is particularly fond of acting. They were delighted to know that they had to role-play different situations. They were also pleased to work in groups and discuss ideas and opinions. Certainly, small grouping is something the majority of children prefer because they felt much more comfortable talking in the target language in this way, than in front of the whole class. The reflective writing exercise was very personal and they appreciated the fact of keeping it as a reminder of always doing the right thing for themselves. The class ended with the teacher’s explanation of the honesty pledges they will do as a final project. (See Annex # 10 for lesson plan # 6).
Mostrar más

117 Lee mas

Ripple Effects: the Work of Art in the World

Ripple Effects: the Work of Art in the World

political leaders, including Antanas Mockus, Edi Rama, and Franklin De- lano Roosevelt, that extend to broad bases of artist-citizens. Three theore- tical chapters follow to describe a developing, and welcoming, scholarly field of cultural agency marked by the points of contact between aesthetic and political innovation: “Schiller and Company” makes a link between aesthetic education and contemporary political theory through the debt of Habermas —political guide for many compelling interlocutors— to Schi- ller; “Gramsci Takes in Weber” claims Gramsci as the patron saint for ripple effects, because his unstoppable optimism of the will survived his pessimism of reason and held out for stages of cultural change that swell to make a revolution; and “Art and Accountability” gives a backward glance to reconnect humanists to civic education through the link of taste/judg- ment. The book ends with “Classroom Cartonera”, a personal account of drawing on theories and practices of several cultural agents to make my own intervention as a lay “artist” or teacher of a literacy program that explores classic texts through visual and performing re-interpretations. A side effect of the program has been to improve my graduate school lessons in literary theory. But the guiding intuition is that promoting broad-based critical literacy —still a solid indicator for levels of violence, poverty, and disease— will set off good ripple effects through underserved but artisti- cally activated young citizens.
Mostrar más

27 Lee mas

Introducing WEs in the EFL classroom in Secondary Education

Introducing WEs in the EFL classroom in Secondary Education

Therefore, as I have stated above, the way to introduce WEs in an ELF classroom of Secondary Education is by mixing culture and pronunciation (in which we also include vocabulary and specific grammar rules e.g. Indian English politeness). Obviously, this must be done progressively, not at once. Thus, we could start implementing WEs at the end of every three units as I have commented before. In their Student’s and/or Workbooks, there should be a section devoted to culture in which we could find this kind of activities. This would give us (not only students but also teachers) more knowledge and a wider vision of the different English-speaking countries and their particularities. After having seen that the English language has a lot of different linguistic varieties, we can conclude by stating that no language stands still. New words and expressions are always being created. There is not any government committee which decides whether a new word is acceptable or not. If people start to use it frequently, it will find its way into the dictionary or, at least, into people’s everyday words. The same should occur with World Englishes. If we start to use them, to hear them and work with them, they will be part of our lives and we will stop talking about three different circles (Kachru’s concentric circles) to talk about just one - whose name could be just “English”, without distinguishing its origin or its accent. Just “English”.
Mostrar más

51 Lee mas

Why teach literature in the English classroom?

Why teach literature in the English classroom?

Nonetheless, recent work on FL teaching in early education suggests that literature might yet have a particularly beneficial contribution to make to FL acquisition. Kokkola (2002) has conducted research along these lines among nine- and ten-year old Finnish schoolchildren, basing her study on two theoretical concepts The first is Bruner’s (1986) concept of “the narrative mode” of human thought which “leads people, in their search for meaning, to create stories, myths and rituals” (Kokkola 2002: 243). The second is Egan’s (e.g. 1988a and 1988b) view of learning as a kind of “mythic thought” whereby “complex ideas [are structured] within the framework of a story” (ibid.). Bruner and Egan are alike in arguing that stories or narratives are one of the most effective ways of structuring ideas and information (see also Fuller 1982). Egan actually suggests that mythic thought is a stage in a child’s psychological development and that “stories are one of the earliest forms of organizing schemata” and precede other systems, such as hierarchical organization (ibid. 244). Thus, because young learners are cognitively adept at narrative, Kokkola attempts to test the hypothesis that young language-learners “are likely to get on better with narrative than non- narrative” (ibid.) because narrative texts are better suited to their cognitive processes.
Mostrar más

8 Lee mas

Active Citizenship in the Classroom: Mission Impossible?

Active Citizenship in the Classroom: Mission Impossible?

Kristof starts with pairs because that is the simplest social organization. In fact, much of the early training in cooperative activity will be conducted in groups of two and three because the interaction is simpler than in larger groups. He also uses fairly straightforward and familiar cognitive tasks for the initial training for the same reason – it is easier for children to learn to work together when they are not mastering complex activities at the same time. For example, he asks them to change partners, for the new partnerships to quiz each other on simple knowledge (such as of European Union and their capitals) and tutor one another. He may change partnerships again and ask them to categorize sets of fraction by size. Later he will teach the children to respond to the cognitive tasks of the more complex information processing models of teaching as well as more complex cooperative sets. By the end of October we observed how children were skilful enough to be introduced to group investigation. During a feedback session Kristof, the teacher of Class 5, expressed the reasons of promoting cooperative disciplined activities.
Mostrar más

16 Lee mas

Collaboration between large groups in the classroom

Collaboration between large groups in the classroom

The purpose of this paper is to show how a large group of students can work collaboratively in a synchronous way within the classroom with the cheapest possible technological support. Making use of the features of Single Display Groupware and of Multiple Mice we propose a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning model for big groups within the classroom. The model the work was based on was a Multiple Classification Matrix and the application we built was for learning language (Spanish). The basic collaboration mechanism the model is based on is Silent Collaboration, in which students –through suggestions and exchanges- must compare their ideas to their classmates’, thus creating a Piagetian socio-cognitive conflict that leads to learning the contents at hand. The presented experimental work studies how easy it is to use the Software, analyzes how the conditions for collaborative learning were achieved, evaluates the achievements in learning under the defined language objectives, and analyzes the impact of Silent and Spoken Collaboration. Our main conclusion is that Silent Collaboration showed to be an effective mechanism to achieve learning in large groups.
Mostrar más

63 Lee mas

Inclusion in the Primary English classroom through gamification

Inclusion in the Primary English classroom through gamification

7 The education law also refers to the importance of inclusion in the academic context. The ORDEN EDU/519/2014, of 17 th June, by which the curriculum is established and the implementation, assessment and development of Primary Education in Castilla y León are regulated, expresses in the Article 3. General Principles that “the inclusive education will guide the educational response of the students in this stage.” (Boletín Oficial del Estado de Castilla y León. Artículo 3, 2014). Besides, in the Article 12. Pedagogical Principles it is said that “the educative action will ensure the integration of the different experiences and learnings of students and it will take into account their learning rates, promoting the ability to learn by themselves and working in teams.” (p. 44188) Moreover, “during the Primary Education stage, special attention to the student diversity, their inclusion in the classroom and in the school, their individualised work, the prevention of learning difficulties and reinforcement and support will be given.” According to the importance of a foreign language in the curriculum, we can also find some references, as in the Article 4. Objectives of Primary education, where it is considered that “one of those is acquiring, at least in one foreign language, the basic communicative competence that will let them express and understand simple messages
Mostrar más

104 Lee mas

Focusing on Effective Translation Teachers in the Classroom

Focusing on Effective Translation Teachers in the Classroom

teachers adjusted the pace of teaching with flexibility to make every part of the session worthwhile for all students. Teacher B was flexible in dealing with students’ questions in class, prioritising more relevant and important ones to keep up with the pace of the class progression. In translation practice, both teachers monitored student activity in such an effective way that students helped each other with their own translation versions and worked in groups so that each student would have an opportunity to reflect on their own practice and critique on others’ work. For Teacher A, although it was easier and more controllable to have a lecture to students in class, with the teacher talking most of the time, it was more efficient and fruitful for students to raise their own ideas and think more critically in class, with discussions and peer feedback tasks, so that students with differences in various aspects could help each other by learning from others and minimising their own shortcomings. Teacher B was flexible in controlling the pace and adjusting activities based on student reactions in class, knowing that there is no single definite or so-called “correct” answer in translation and that the essence of translation was the different opinions and thoughts given to make it closer to perfection. Since translation itself is a process which needs more flexibility, teaching and learning translation should require flexibility and creativity for both teachers and students for the purpose of achieving better outcomes.
Mostrar más

25 Lee mas

Learner autonomy in the EFL classroom.

Learner autonomy in the EFL classroom.

Teachers from Communication and Social Work have shown to promote learner autonomy to some extent, and students showed readiness to undertake autonomy as an attribute to language learning. Even though learner autonomy is promoted in different ways, there is so much more to be developed in students and teachers. Firstly, teachers do promote learner autonomy through different activities. For example, learner autonomy is fostered through the Self-Access Center, collaborative work, communicative writing, peer-assessment and the learning portfolio. Nevertheless, sometimes teachers did not think of themselves as learner autonomy promoters because of their diverse ideas on the term. Some of them believe learner autonomy does not have to do with teachers helping students become autonomous learners; therefore, some of them do not take part in the process of students becoming autonomous learners. We have demonstrated how important it is for students to have their teacher’s support all along their learning process. Not only do students feel more confident in the class, but they also feel supported. This is quite important since learner autonomy is to be learned and it cannot occur without some support from one of the key elements of education: teachers.
Mostrar más

113 Lee mas

Educational robotics: forming scientific communities in the classroom

Educational robotics: forming scientific communities in the classroom

In the context of this research, robotics was used as shown in Figure 1 (a). Since the main object was not to learn to build robots, but to work with educational robotics to learn to program computer systems. According to this, the Lego Mindstorms kit was used, specifically the EV3 model. The choice of this kit was done due to the review of scientific literature in which it was observed that in various parts of the world, the LEGO Mindstorms educational robotic kit is widely used in primary and secondary education (Kee, 2011), and in superior education (Danahy et al., 2014). This is due to their learning curve, this system hides the complexity of electronic circuits and the student focuses mainly on robot assembly and programming learning. Then, educational robotics kits seem to have found a place in the classroom for system programming and algorithm resolution. Which is favorable, since programming is a key element in the area of computational and related sciences.
Mostrar más

7 Lee mas

Students emotions in the ELT classroom

Students emotions in the ELT classroom

Because of the nature of the study it was not possible to create or develop a strategy that allowed students to deal with their emotions and take advantage of the effect or influence caused by their reactions toward certain situations where speaking was involved. The fact that the institution presented the material along with the topics , left teachers with no room to be creative in order to design or adapt their own material. Making more difficult to work on the four basic skills of language as stated by the teachers themselves. The amount of time that researchers had to collect data was affected, forcing them to use different tools to gather information from the ones in mind.
Mostrar más

96 Lee mas

Show all 10000 documents...