Working memory

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Lexical Knowledge and Working Memory in Second-Generation SpanishEnglish Bilinguals

Lexical Knowledge and Working Memory in Second-Generation SpanishEnglish Bilinguals

This study analyzed the lexical knowledge and verbal working memory of 59 English/Spanish bilinguals residing in South Florida who were born from native Spanish speaking parents, moved to the U.S. before the age of 10 from a Latin American country (or born in South Florida), and attended school mostly/totally in English. When comparing the lexical knowledge of all 59 participants, statistically significant differences were observed in all the administered tests except for the Verbal Fluencywith the letter A, which did not demonstrate statistical significance. It is evident that their lexical knowledge was higher in English (L2) than in Spanish (L1). In the verbal working memory section, two measures were statistically different: Digits forward and Sentence repetition, with a significantly better performance in English, suggesting a better verbal working memory capacity in English. This better performance in English probably is associated with a diversity of factors, including school language (mostly/totally in English), and daily use of Spanish and English, as they considered that the use of the English was about twice of the Spanish (63% vs 37%).
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2003 Ardila Language representation and working memory with bilinguals

2003 Ardila Language representation and working memory with bilinguals

Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The ability to repeat words in an unknown language has been observed to predict success in learning that language. Conversely, decreased digit span and inability to repeat pseudowords have been related with failure in L2 acquisition. Not only digit span, but also ‘‘word span’’ and ‘‘semantic span’’ should be considered in WM analysis. In addition to the phonological system, a semantic system is proposed in the WM model for language. In bilinguals, brain activation patterns during WM tasks have been observed to be more complex when using a L2. Processing information in L2 is more demanding, and WM may be less efficient. It can be conjectured that language understanding defects in L2 are at least partially due to this decreased efficiency of WM in its phonological as well as in its semantic subsystem. Learning outcomes: The reader will be introduced to the basic assumptions of WM. It will be emphasized that WM is significantly involved in the ability to learn a L2. Cross-linguistic differences in digit span will be analyzed. It will be concluded that despite digit span and word span are affected by different variables, ‘‘semantic span’’ may be similar across languages. Words in a L2 function as low frequency words, and hence, semantic search takes longer and WM is less efficient. It will be concluded that in addition to the ‘‘phonological system,’’ the WM model should include a ‘‘semantic system,’’ involving a ‘‘semantic store’’ and a ‘‘semantic search’’ process.
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Autism and Faux Pas  Influences of Presentation Modality and Working Memory

Autism and Faux Pas Influences of Presentation Modality and Working Memory

People diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulties on Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks involving social situations, such as ‘faux pas’. The objective of this study was to find the modality of presentation (visual, verbal, or mixed) that yields the best understanding of a ‘faux pas’, and the possible influence of other variables, including intelligence (IQ), age, and working memory. Thirty autistic children and 30 neurotypical children, all aged 7 to 12 years old and comparable in age and IQ, participated in this study. They were asked to resolve nine ‘faux pas’ stories (three per modality). Significant between-groups differences were found in the visual (t = 2.99, p = .004) and verbal modalities (t = 2.64, p = .011), such that the neurotypical (NT) group had higher scores than the ASD group. The ASD group’s comprehension was better via the mixed modality than the verbal modality (t = 2.48, p = .019). In addition, working memory had a bigger impact on Faux Pas understanding in cases of autism than in typical development (R 2 explained between .19 and .28 of variance in Faux Pas test outcomes), and could therefore explain some of the difficulties previously reported in this area. Future research should include a measure of working memory and a control among the stimuli presented to test for group differences in faux pas understanding.
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30 Lee mas

P300 amplitude is insensitive to working memory load in schizophrenia

P300 amplitude is insensitive to working memory load in schizophrenia

Working memory (WM) refers to a set of cognitive pro- cesses that actively hold and manipulate information in the brain for subsequent behavior in the short term [1]. Event Related Potential (ERP) waveforms have been pro- posed to be markers of cognitive demands during the execution of WM tasks in both normal [2] and schizo- phrenic (SZ) subjects [3]. More specifically, the P300 component is considered to reflect the activation of wide- spread fronto-parietal networks, possibly including the anterior cingulate cortex [4,5], involved in attentional and mnemonic processing resources. In normal subjects, this potential has been observed to decrease its amplitude with increasing memory load in WM tasks [6].
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Memoria de trabajo y aprendizaje: aportes de la Neuropsicología. Working memory and learning: contributions of Neuropsychology

Memoria de trabajo y aprendizaje: aportes de la Neuropsicología. Working memory and learning: contributions of Neuropsychology

Currently working memory is a concept that has achieved scientific consensus to conceive it as a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of necessary information for complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning and reasoning (Gathercole, Alloway, Willis & Adam, 2006; Baddeley, 1986; Just & Carpenter, 1992). The technological and scientific advance in neuropsychology has enabled many contributions, discoveries that enable the knowledge and experience integration from different disciplinary fields. The study of the functional organization of working memory, with the advent of neuroimaging techniques has made it possible to understand the complex web of connections and relationships it has. We propose a review of the evolution of the concept of working memory to better understand a system that is credited with significant impact on learning.
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23 Lee mas

Remote Effects of Hippocampal Sclerosis on Effective Connectivity during Working Memory Encoding: A Case of Connectional Diaschisis?

Remote Effects of Hippocampal Sclerosis on Effective Connectivity during Working Memory Encoding: A Case of Connectional Diaschisis?

Accumulating evidence suggests a role for the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in working memory (WM). However, little is known concerning its functional interactions with other cortical regions in the distributed neural network subserving WM. To reveal these, we availed of subjects with MTL damage and characterized changes in effective connectivity while subjects engaged in WM task. Specifically, we compared dynamic causal models, extracted from magnetoencephalographic recordings during verbal WM encoding, in temporal lobe epilepsy patients (with left hippocampal sclerosis) and controls. Bayesian model comparison indicated that the best model (across subjects) evidenced bilateral, forward, and backward connections, coupling inferior temporal cortex (ITC), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and MTL. MTL damage weakened backward connections from left MTL to left ITC, a decrease accompanied by strengthening of (bidirectional) connections between IFC and MTL in the contralesional hemisphere. These findings provide novel evidence concerning functional interactions between nodes of this fundamental cognitive network and sheds light on how these interactions are modified as a result of focal damage to MTL. The findings highlight that a reduced (top-down) influence of the MTL on ipsilateral language regions is accompa- nied by enhanced reciprocal coupling in the undamaged hemisphere providing a first demonstration of ‘‘connectional diaschisis.’’ Keywords: dynamic causal modeling, effective connectivity, magnetoencephalography, temporal lobe epilepsy, working memory
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12 Lee mas

Differences in working memory between gifted or talented students and community samples: A meta-analysis

Differences in working memory between gifted or talented students and community samples: A meta-analysis

the Academic Search Premier databases, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), MeDline, PsychArticle and PsychInfo using the terms “working memory” AND (gifted *) OR “talented student” OR “high ability students.” The search was restricted to material published in English, Spanish, and French, and no temporal limitation in the publication of the articles was applied. The fi rst search, conducted on November 23, 2016, yielded a total of 1,173 publications. The duplications were automatically deleted on January 1, 2017, leaving a total of 973 documents. A screening was carried out through by reading the titles and abstracts to select the articles that met the inclusion criteria, which were previously designed. In addition, other search strategies included (a) a review of titles and abstracts of articles suggested by the databases, (b) contact with the authors, (c) Google Scholar, and (d) the ability to track the bibliographic citations in the articles. The search procedure lasted 2 months, from November 2016 to January 5, 2017. Selection and exclusion criteria
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Memoria de Trabajo y vocabulario: Un modelo de interacción entre los componentes del modelo de Baddeley y el sistema de información verbal. Working Memory and vocabulary: An interaction model between Baddeley’s memory systems and the verbal.

Memoria de Trabajo y vocabulario: Un modelo de interacción entre los componentes del modelo de Baddeley y el sistema de información verbal. Working Memory and vocabulary: An interaction model between Baddeley’s memory systems and the verbal.

Wor k i n g M e m o r y i s a t e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e and simultaneous processing system which, according to Baddeley’s original model has three components: the Central Executive, responsible of the information processing, and the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad and the Phonological Loop, responsible of information storage during short periods of time. The aim of this article is to test different models on the relationship among the components of Working Memory and the verbal crystallized system. 180 children of 6-, 8-, and 11-years old participated on the study. The Automated Working Memory Assesment battery, along with Vocabulary of WISC-III were administered. A Path Analysis was conducted to assess the goodness of fit of the models to the empirical data. Results showed that the Central Executive has a dual effect with the verbal system, both directly and through the Phonological Loop. This indicates that retrieval of verbal information doesn’t exclusively depends of only one of the Working Memory components.
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2014 Ardila  Working memory

Working Memory and Language Learning

The idea of working memory (WM) was proposed as an attempt to pinpoint the concept of short-term memory. WM is directly related to language learning. WM includes two different aspects: (1) the maintenance of the information; and (2) the internal manipulation of that information. Some few studies have approached the question of WM in bilinguals. In general, it has been found that bilingualism facilitates word-learning performance in adults, and there is a general bilingual advantage for novel word learning. In digit span, as a typical test of WM, both linguistic factors and also extra- linguistic factors can be distinguished. However, it is suggested that not only digit span, but also word span and semantic span should be considered as WM tests. Research using contemporary neuroimaging techniques has shown that in bilinguals, brain activation patterns during WM tasks are more complex when using L2 than L1.
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12 Lee mas

2014 Ardila  Working memory

2014 Ardila Working memory

The idea of working memory (WM) was proposed as an attempt to pinpoint the concept of short-term memory. WM is directly related to language learning. WM includes two different aspects: (1) the maintenance of the information; and (2) the internal manipulation of that information. Some few studies have approached the question of WM in bilinguals. In general, it has been found that bilingualism facilitates word-learning performance in adults, and there is a general bilingual advantage for novel word learning. In digit span, as a typical test of WM, both linguistic factors and also extra- linguistic factors can be distinguished. However, it is suggested that not only digit span, but also word span and semantic span should be considered as WM tests. Research using contemporary neuroimaging techniques has shown that in bilinguals, brain activation patterns during WM tasks are more complex when using L2 than L1.
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12 Lee mas

Escritura de textos narrativos en niños escolares : la importancia de la memoria de trabajo y la memoria a largo plazoNarrative texts writing of school children : importance of working memory and long term memory

Escritura de textos narrativos en niños escolares : la importancia de la memoria de trabajo y la memoria a largo plazoNarrative texts writing of school children : importance of working memory and long term memory

This descriptive-correlational research aims to evaluate working memory and long-term memory realted to written composition. Participants were 83 boys/girls aged between 9 to 11 of 4th and 5th grade from two public primary schools. Memory sistems were evaluated by Neuropsychological tests. Dimensions and structure of text guidelines were used to evaluate written composition. Results showed that working memory an long term memory performance were strongly related to children's good quality compositions, specially when they are coherent and cohesive. The study provide findings that may contibute to show the predictive value of neurpsychological processes in writing skills acquisition.
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Central relaxin 3 receptor (RXFP3) activation increases ERK phosphorylation in septal cholinergic neurons and impairs spatial working memory

Central relaxin 3 receptor (RXFP3) activation increases ERK phosphorylation in septal cholinergic neurons and impairs spatial working memory

cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in this region of rat brain receive relaxin-3 positive terminals/boutons. Comprehensive in vitro studies have demonstrated that a range of cell signaling pathways can be altered by RXFP3 stimulation, including inhibition of forskolin- activated cAMP levels and activation of ERK phosphorylation. In this study we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of RXFP3-A2, a selective relaxin-3 receptor agonist, altered ERK phosphorylation levels in the MS/DB of adult male rats. In addition, we assessed the neurochemical phenotype of phosphorylated (p) ERK-positive neurons in MS/DB after RXFP3-A2 administration by dual-label immunostaining for pERK and key neuronal markers. RXFP3-A2 injection significantly increased pERK levels in MS/DB, compared to vehicle at 20 and 90 min post-injection. In addition, icv injection of RXFP3-A2 increased the number of cells expressing pERK in the MS/DB after 90 min, with increases detected in cholinergic, but not GABAergic neurons. Moreover, we found that septal cholinergic neurons express RXFP3 and that icv infusions of RXFP3-A2 impaired alternation in a spatial working memory behavioral paradigm. The presence of the receptor and the specific RXFP3-related activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in MS/DB cholinergic neurons identifies them as a key target of ascending relaxin-3 projections with implications for the acute and chronic inhibition of cholinergic neuron activity/function by relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling.
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26 Lee mas

The neural codes of conscious perception and working memory

The neural codes of conscious perception and working memory

For example, Sauseng et al. (2005b) showed that phase synchronization in the theta frequency band between frontal and parietal regions increased during complex manipulations of elements retained in WM. Other studies show that there is even a relationship between theta phase synchronization and WM load. Indeed, theta- band coherence between frontal, temporal and parietal regions increases with WM load (Payne & Kounios, 2009) and also varied with individual WM capacity (Kopp, Schröger & Lipka, 2006). Other studies have found a phase synchronization between the beta and gamma bands: in relation to a control condition, during the retention of information in WM the coherence between fronto-parietal areas is improved at these frequencies (Lutzenberger, Ripper, Busse, Birbaumer & Kaiser, 2002; Babiloni et al., 2004). Finally, in another study Palva et al. (2010) observed that during the periods in which the subjects had to retain the information in a visual WM task, interareal phase synchronization was stable and sustained among fronto-parietal and visual regions in the alpha (1-13 Hz), beta (18-24 Hz) and gamma (30-40 Hz) frequency bands. Furthermore, they observed that phase synchrony across fronto-parietal regions was strengthened as a function of the increase in memory load.
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Generating students’ information seeking questions in the scholar lab : what benefits can we expect from inquiry teaching approaches?

Generating students’ information seeking questions in the scholar lab : what benefits can we expect from inquiry teaching approaches?

1) Compared to learning situations in which students read about experimental devices with the help of still images, the possibility of visualizing real devices (thus, dynamic images) stimulated in students significantly more “Why?” questions (medium effect size) and significantly more “What would happen if?” questions (large effect size). As expected according to Chandler and Sweller’s work (1991), the condition with still images seemed to demand more cognitive resources than the conditions of dynamic images to represent the phenomena through time. The possibility of visualizing the temporal development of a phenomenon seemed to release the working memory from the effort of adequately representing the entities (objects and events), which allowed these cognitive resources to be dedicated to causal antecedents or consequents. As causal antecedents and causal consequents imply two or more entities -the ‘cause’ and the ‘consequent’-, knowing these entities seems to be a prerequisite for looking for their relationship. Therefore, subjects ask Association questions before asking Explanation of Prediction questions. If the representation of the entities is difficult, a working memory overload could inhibit asking for other, non-descriptive questions. In our study, compared to the possibility of visualizing real devices operating along time, the text-plus-still images condition promoted the elaboration of more descriptive inferences, and inhibited predictive inferences in the construction of students’ mental representations.
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Developmental pattern of digit span in Spanish population

Developmental pattern of digit span in Spanish population

Short-term memory was fi rst considered as opposed to long- term memory, and it was characterised as a passive store which presented a limited capacity to retain information for a brief period of time (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Later on, and in contrast to previous conceptions, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed a multi-component model, named the working memory model, which emphasizes the active process of the short-term memory (see the recent book by Baddeley, Eysenck, & Anderson, 2009). Broadly, this model comprises four components: the phonological loop, which is responsible for the temporary storage of speech-based information; the visuospatial sketchpad, responsible for visual- spatial information; the episodic buffer, which is a component introduced by Baddeley (2000) in this decade and is characterised by its capacity to integrate information from a variety of sources
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The effect of a mindfulness based intervention in cognitive functions and psychological well being applied as an early intervention in schizophrenia and high risk mental state in a Chilean sample: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

The effect of a mindfulness based intervention in cognitive functions and psychological well being applied as an early intervention in schizophrenia and high risk mental state in a Chilean sample: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

The control of attention in mindfulness is one of the pillars to achieve improved psychological flexibility and therefore greater response options facing adverse stimuli. In fact, expert meditators score higher in attention tests than non-meditators or beginners [38]. On the other hand, working memory has been related to other cogni- tive domains that are impaired in schizophrenia, such as attention and planning [39], and other executive func- tions, including inhibitory control and mental flexibility [40]. As background information, while mindfulness has a major impact on working memory [41, 42], this impact depends on the time devoted to meditation, being greater in people who meditate regularly compared to beginners [42, 43]. Similarly, working memory has been related to social cognition [44]. For instance, the cogni- tive training of working memory improves social percep- tion in patients with schizophrenia [45].
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9 Lee mas

A predictive study of reading comprehension in third-grade Spanish students

A predictive study of reading comprehension in third-grade Spanish students

Background: The study of the contribution of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension is an important goal of current reading research. However, reading comprehension is not easily assessed by a single instrument, as different comprehension tests vary in the type of tasks used and in the cognitive demands required. Method: This study examines the contribution of basic language and cognitive skills (decoding, word recognition, reading speed, verbal and nonverbal intelligence and working memory) to reading comprehension, assessed by two tests utilizing various tasks that require different skill sets in third-grade Spanish- speaking students. Results: Linguistic and cognitive abilities predicted reading comprehension. A measure of reading speed (the reading time of pseudo-words) was the best predictor of reading comprehension when assessed by the PROLEC-R test. However, measures of word recognition (the orthographic choice task) and verbal working memory were the best predictors of reading comprehension when assessed by means of the DARC test. Conclusion: These results show, on the one hand, that reading speed and word recognition are better predictors of Spanish language comprehension than reading accuracy. On the other, the reading comprehension test applied here serves as a critical variable when analyzing and interpreting results regarding this topic.
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7 Lee mas

Estudi longitudinal de les funcions neurocognitives en pacients amb un primer episodi psicòtic de l’espectre esquizofrènic investigades per variables del neurodesenvolupament

Estudi longitudinal de les funcions neurocognitives en pacients amb un primer episodi psicòtic de l’espectre esquizofrènic investigades per variables del neurodesenvolupament

L’avaluació neuropsicològica en subjectes de primer brot psicòtic ha estat efectuada mitjanançant múltiples tests. Les proves neuropsicològiques aplicades als pacients i famíliars en aquest estudi formen part d’una gran bateria d’instruments psicomètrics, validats en múltiples estudis internacionals i espanyols. La bateria inclou la valoració de diversos dominis cognitius. La nostra investigació va contemplar els diferents dominis cognitius: intel·ligència, atenció, memòria, funcions executives i velocitat de processament de la informació. S’intenta establir uns dominis cognitius que valoren cada test, tot i que no existeix consens internacional sobre el domini cognitiu que valora cada test. Es pot trobar que un test el situem com a valoració de les funcions executives i de la working memory. Seguint propostes d’alguns autors com Nuechterlein et al., 2004, 2008; Kern et al., 2008; Mesholam-Gately et al., 2009 classificarem els següents dominis cognitius: intel·ligència general, atenció/atenció sostinguda (working memory), memòria/aprenentatge verbal, funcions executives i velocitat de processament de la informació.
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188 Lee mas

Assessment of different components of executive function in grief

Assessment of different components of executive function in grief

Background: Intense and complex symptoms of grief seem to be related to a series of biases and diffi culties in areas such as attention, autobiographical memory and problem solving. However, studies of neuropsychological performance have reported contradictory evidence. The role of executive function (EF) in bereaved individuals has not been systematically studied by differentiating between its components. Method: A total of 38 participants who had experienced the death of a loved one participated in this study. They were divided into two groups based on the intensity of their symptoms. They underwent neuropsychological assessments that included measures of fl exibility, inhibition, working memory and emotional decision-making. Results: Group differences were found in the parts of the emotional decision-making task that assessed decisions made under risk. Considering each participant’s level of education and emotional variables, the symptoms of grief predicted a substantial variance in their performance in the decision-making task. Conclusion: Intense symptoms of grief seem to be related to poorer emotional decision-making performance but not to fl exibility, inhibition or working memory.
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2004 Ostrosky et al Effects of Culture and Education on Neuropsychological Testing

2004 Ostrosky et al Effects of Culture and Education on Neuropsychological Testing

To determine the influence of education on the cog- nitive profile of the illiterate Maya group once mem- bers acquired basic reading and writing skills, we com- pared the neuropsychological profile of illiterate versus the profile of participants with 1 to 4 years of formal ed- ucation. We found significant differences in favor of the participants with 1 to 4 years of schooling in attention and visuoperceptual processing (visual detection, copy of a figure), visual and verbal memory (delay recall of complex figure, verbal memory), and in total NEUROPSI score. These data show that even if it is true that culture influences the development and use of certain skills (e.g., visuospatial and hand position), ed- ucation also affects cognitive test performance. Results lead us to suppose that education relates with the rein- forcement of some specific skills such as attention and memory abilities.
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