writing process in EFL

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The process genre approach in paragraph writing of fourth grade EFL learner

The process genre approach in paragraph writing of fourth grade EFL learner

genre approach helped most of fourth-grade EFL learners develop specific writing skills which they used to plan, organise and revise structure in their paragraphs based on narratives. The implementation of the process-genre approach helped these participants understand and follow a process to write, in which a set of strategies were used, and narrative features were identified and considered as models to both write the paragraphs and constantly revise them. Participants developed writing skills such as audience awareness, use of mentor texts (narratives), colour- coding, development and organisation of ideas and error-correction (self/peer-correction). These skills, first, helped them become aware of the narrative paragraph structure (i.e., topic sentence, supporting ideas and concluding sentence) and use it in their own paragraphs. Secondly, the mentioned skills helped them put their ideas and narrative features/structure together; more specifically, the reference to mentor texts and the audience awareness helped them organise their ideas in the suggested structure with the characteristics of personal narratives (first person, personal experience narrated in past, conveying emotions and feelings). Finally, the error- correction skill helped most of the participants revise their and others’ paragraphs several times in order to correct (based on a narrative checklist and rubric) language mistakes and unclear structure prior to submission of the final version. All these aspects are the result of working under the conception of learning to write instead of writing to learn as explained in chapter 2. In this way, the present study made fourth-grade students focus on learning the necessary skills and aspects required to improve the quality and structure of their paragraph writing.
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130 Lee mas

EFL Student Case Study : WRITING IMPROVEMENT : TRAVELERS’S TALES -TEFL Program Portfolio

EFL Student Case Study : WRITING IMPROVEMENT : TRAVELERS’S TALES -TEFL Program Portfolio

In addition, the educational system experimented reforms on its organization, and the system varied content and methodology. In the sixties, English private institutes became quite popular in big cities like Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. These private institutions offered learning programs for business men and few women were registered too. In the seventies a new way of learning English became popular with Ecuadorian students who were interested, it was called foreign exchange student program. Students were able to attend their senior high school year in the United States and not only learn a foreign language; but to exchange cultural knowledge as well. This intercultural activity was very successful since young learners were exposed to English learning immersion process.
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150 Lee mas

Peer edition as a means for fostering EFL short story writing in a local private school an action research

Peer edition as a means for fostering EFL short story writing in a local private school an action research

The virtues of commenting on peers' writings has been pointed out by a number of research studies (Hu, 2005; Min, 2005; Lundstorm & Baker, 2009; Rollinson, 2005; Tsui & Ng, 2000 cited in Azizian & Rouhi, 2013). One of the advantages of PE is to help learners to understand better the way they write (Azizian & Rouhi, 2013). PE can also provide assistance and a new form of assessment during the EFL writing process in a cooperative classroom environment (Díaz, 2010). Assessing not only allows the learner to understand his/her peers’ written product, this practice can also support students’ understanding and apply cognitive skills such as reflection, analysis and review. Another asset of having the students give feedback is to reduce the workload that represents checking lots of writing in crowded EFL classrooms on behalf of the teachers (Diaz, 2010; Azizian & Rouhi (2013). Consequently, the assets of PE benefit both students and teachers regarding institutional duties and knowledge construction.
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142 Lee mas

Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

One area of the PR process that is often overlooked despite its importance is the amount of feedback that a student writer accepts or rejects after receiving a classmate’s suggestions, comments and corrections. Min (2006) acknowledged this issue when she wrote, “In contrast to the large number of studies centering on the cognitive, affective, social, and linguistic benefits of peer response/review groups, few studies have examined the extent to which peer feedback is incorporated into students’ subsequent revisions (Chou, 1999; Connor & Asenavage, 1994; Mendonça & Johnson, 1994; Nelson & Murphy, 1993; Lockhart & Ng, 1993; Tsui & Ng, 2000). Results from these studies reveal a low acceptance rate, ranging from 5% (Connor & Asenavage, 1994), 22% (Chou, 1999), less than 50% (Paulus, 1999; Tsui & Ng, 2000), to a little above 50% (Mendonça & Johnson, 1994; Tang & Tithecott, 1999)” (p. 119). Incorporating or rejecting feedback is worth exploring because how beneficial can PR be if the recipients do not accept their peer’s suggestions. There is no way to enforce a student to implement suggestions made by a peer, but if all but 10 percent of the students are making some sort of modification to their papers after peer collaboration, this should be considered a significant accomplishment of PR.
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21 Lee mas

Fostering writing skills in students from tenth grade at a public school through creative writing strategies and the process writing approach

Fostering writing skills in students from tenth grade at a public school through creative writing strategies and the process writing approach

Then it was necessary to tackle the writing as this was the weakest skill evidenced in the diagnosis phase , if we did not face this problematic the opportunities for this group of students to express in the written form would be less fruitful given the fact that they would not have the possibility to interact by means of the written language and, to express feelings, points of view, topics of personal relevance and texts related to the field of their interests as The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) expresses they will be able to do in the expected level the students should have by the end of the secondary school, also from the point of view of citizenship and globalization if the population of students do not write in EFL, it will be less probable for them to participate in a democratic way in decisions if they imply to write in English which is a nowadays need.
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131 Lee mas

Exploring students’ EFL writing through the implementation of writing for learning approach Julio Abel Sánchez

Exploring students’ EFL writing through the implementation of writing for learning approach Julio Abel Sánchez

This study also emerges from a personal interest; work on writing processes, and see the changes to occur during the process in students' writing. Harmer (2007, P. 113) say “many students either think or say that they cannot, or do not want to write. This may be because they lack confidence, think it’s boring or believe they have “nothing to say”.” Thus as a teachers we need to engage them, from early levels, with activities which are easy and enjoyable to take part in, so that writing activities not only become a normal part of classroom life but also present opportunities for students to learn how to write and learn English.
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74 Lee mas

Factors that affect and encourage  EFL learning process in “Centro de Idiomas Garham"

Factors that affect and encourage EFL learning process in “Centro de Idiomas Garham"

In this chapter, specific information about the setting, the subjects and the instrument used to carry out this research is provided. First of all a survey research was used since the purpose of this thesis is to identify what the factors that affect and encourage adult students learning a second language are. This research methodology involves collecting information by using questionnaires or interviews. As Nardi (2006) says, “Doing survey research is a skill, an art and an intellectual process involving collaboration, patience and creativity.” Survey research is a quantitative method and is the most appropriate for this research because as Nardi (2006) claim, “Quantitative methods involve writing questions for surveys and in-depth interviews, learning to quantify or count responses, and statistically analyzing archival, historical or own data. Questionnaires are ideally suited for respondents who can read, measuring people´s attitudes and opinions, and when we want to get a very large number of respondents too difficult to observe with qualitative methods.” It is important to mention that qualitative methods involve observing the behavior of a specific group of people in their natural setting. In this case, a questionnaire divided in two parts was given to the subjects in order to determine what their motivations and boundaries while learning a second language are.
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66 Lee mas

EFL Student Case Study: WRITING IMPROVEMENT: TRAVELERS’S TALES -TEFL Program Portfolio

EFL Student Case Study: WRITING IMPROVEMENT: TRAVELERS’S TALES -TEFL Program Portfolio

In addition, the educational system experimented reforms on its organization, and the system varied content and methodology. In the sixties, English private institutes became quite popular in big cities like Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. These private institutions offered learning programs for business men and few women were registered too. In the seventies a new way of learning English became popular with Ecuadorian students who were interested, it was called foreign exchange student program. Students were able to attend their senior high school year in the United States and not only learn a foreign language; but to exchange cultural knowledge as well. This intercultural activity was very successful since young learners were exposed to English learning immersion process.
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151 Lee mas

Peer feedback and out of class blogging to develop informal writing skills in an EFL course

Peer feedback and out of class blogging to develop informal writing skills in an EFL course

argumentative writing–narrative writing offered an accessible option. Narrative writing implies, then, as suggested by Marchese and Forradelas (1991) that it “should comprehend one or various sequences at whose center exists a character defined by certain qualities […] [and] a process of transformation that modifies the initial qualities or situation of the character as they were initially presented” (personal translation) (p. 280). Basically, a narrative text involves telling a story that can be your own, and whose center, in this case, could be the writer himself or any other person about whom the writer wants to speak. Similar definitions are offered for narrative texts, such as Beristáin’s (2006), “one of the types of discourse […] and the presentation of some facts. […] It is a type of story [where] a series of events are presented [that] develop in time and derive from each other, […] offer simultaneously a relationship of consecutiveness and a logical relationship” (personal translation) (p. 352). Most, if not all, of the participants in this study were familiar with narrative texts. Additionally, attention was not paid to whether the participants’ blog entries really met the requirements of a narrative text, but basically that they told their own stories with their chosen sequence and organization.
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99 Lee mas

Blending with M learning to enhance EFL writing

Blending with M learning to enhance EFL writing

The current paper is dedicated to the analysis of a problem observed in a basic English course in the Centro de Lenguas de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. Additionally, a pedagogical intervention is proposed in order to help these students overcome their difficulty with writing micro skills through Mobile Learning (M-Learning). This methodology in schools can and should be implemented in a more mainstream fashion since the features of smartphones, such as downloadable applications, in the English as second language classroom provide a communication environment where the teacher can propose a plan of action to help students enhance their communicative skills. This research is focused on helping developing writing skills to narrate through smartphone applications and analyzes how Basic 1 EFL students' written communication skills are shaped when using mobile applications within a process based approach.
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108 Lee mas

The effect of correction on EFL students' writing accuracy

The effect of correction on EFL students' writing accuracy

This structural view of the language has some advantages in terms of the design of programs and the preparation of materials. Moreover, a system- based presentation of the language can be advantageous in terms of the learning process itself. This is especially true for students who do not have a regular contact with the TL and may find it useful to encounter the language in a systematic and structured way as in the form of a coursebook or a study program. I share the same system- based approach to language as the English teacher mentioned above, for I believe that in order to communicate effectively, that is to be able to get your message across; you need to have at least some basic knowledge of the more structural part of the language, hence the interest of this study in the grammar category. As Tudor (2001) states, “language is a system, and mastering this system (or parts of it at least) is a prerequisite for any meaningful form of communication”. In other words, we must learn to walk before we can run.
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119 Lee mas

The impact of collaborative writing on grammatical cohesion in descriptive paragraph writing in a group of A2 Efl seventh grade learners

The impact of collaborative writing on grammatical cohesion in descriptive paragraph writing in a group of A2 Efl seventh grade learners

Electronic communication can assist the process of writing (Waschaver, Shetzer, and Meloni, 2000) and it has become an essential tool in the language classroom. Nowadays, technological advances permit teachers to innovate their lessons with a set of tools which stimulate learners’ interests. Among the variety of tools the Internet offers, wikis appeal to the participants of this study. According to Dooly (2008), wikis are pages which can be easily edited. This Web 2.0 tool allows multiple authors to co-write and co-edit to one common text, collect, and structure information that focuses on content and language at the same time. Furthermore, Dudeney and Hockly (2008) explain wikis as dynamic public web pages with multiple authors who can delete and edit information when needed. They also emphasize that wikis lend themselves well to collaborative writing. The mechanics of this tool are very simple because it is easy to see changes made to pages and by whom and when they were made, as well as to restore an earlier version of the page. These authors also emphasize that wikis permit language teachers to help learners focus on the writing process. Nevertheless, if the goal of the activity is not clear, the wiki can become unfocused. Dudeney and Hockly (2008) define three key uses for the wikis, which are: news, book reports, newspaper publication. The latter requires each member of the team to take a role in the wikipaper such as, reporter, editor, and publicity.
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91 Lee mas

Collaboration in writing assessment: insights into novice and experienced iranian EFL raters’ critical thinking and criteria

Collaboration in writing assessment: insights into novice and experienced iranian EFL raters’ critical thinking and criteria

In the same line with teaching as an interactive process between society and classroom, considerable debate has taken place over enhancing learners’ CT abilities in EFL/ESL context in recent years. A number of researchers (e.g. Bataineh & Zghoul, 2006; Brown, 1994; Dinkelman, 1999; to name a few) claim that the classroom environment must provide modeling, rehearsal, and coaching for students to develop a capacity for informed judgments, for without CT systematically being integrated into instruction, learning is transitory and superficial. Accordingly, a body of research carried out claiming that various activities should be incorporated into classrooms to combine with reflective teaching and improve CT to enhance teaching quality. Findings revealed complementary and sometimes conflicting results in terms of the relationship between CT and such many other factors as assessment and evaluation (Ghafar Samar & Ahmadi, 2012; Stapleton, 2001), age and gender (Ramasamy, 2011; Soeherman, 2010), writing and speaking (Dantas- Whitney, 2002; Ghahramani- Ghajar & Mirhosseini, 2005), computer and technology (Burges, 2009; Tsang, 2011), assessment methods (Lynch, 2001), achievement (Birjandi & Bagher Kazemi, 2010), cognitive development (Facione, 2000), teachers’ CT (Birjandi & Bagher Kazemi, 2010; Lishchinsky, 2010), disposition (Ramasamy, 2011), and teaching CT (Choy & Oo, 2012; King, 2010; Philips, 2010). This feature, the ability to be involved in an ongoing reflection process, then turned out to be a prominent characteristic of a successful educational system. Accordingly, some other studies (Ghahremani-Ghajar & Mirhosseini, 2005; Stapleton, 2001; Stout, 1993; Twardy, 2005) were conducted to improve teachers’ CT skills, as those who are responsible to trigger and improve such students’ abilities, as well. However, according to Ghafar Samar and Ahmadi (2012), “Because the priorities in today’s classrooms include learners’ CT abilities, little attention has been paid to this skill from the teachers’ side as practitioners and mentors of these abilities” (p. 3).
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13 Lee mas

EFL Learners’ Development of Voice In Academic Writing:  Lexical bundles, Boosters/Hedges and Stance-taking Strategies

EFL Learners’ Development of Voice In Academic Writing: Lexical bundles, Boosters/Hedges and Stance-taking Strategies

(1B) How would you feel if you adopted a child and everyone started pointing at you to judge the decision you made? What would you do if you had to deal with the challenging legal processes and the people’s opinion just to have the kid you were not able to have by yourself with your partner? These are not just questions for homosexual people. Certainly, the main reason for any couple to adopt is for they cannot have biological children by themselves, and this affects homosexual couples as much as heterosexual couples since the will of having a kid transcends sexual orientation. But what makes the difference between a heterosexual and a homosexual couple adopting? It comes as no surprise that it is the people and religious organizations that are against homosexuals adopting. It can eventually become a legal and social challenge for homosexual people since these others believe that homosexuality is a sin and the child should never be exposed to this kind of behavior. It is an evidently rough process that they have to deal with, and I strongly believe that it should not be that way since they are not doing wrong to anybody. (Same Sex Marriages – Student 5)
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28 Lee mas

Self- and Teacher-Assessment in an EFL Writing Class

Self- and Teacher-Assessment in an EFL Writing Class

The study was conducted at a private language institute and lasted for one month. Although the participants were upper-intermediate learners, some of them had problems in developing a paragraph. Therefore, their teacher (the second researcher) devoted the first session to providing them with some instruction on appropriate length, format, content, and organization of a paragraph. Then during the second session, the participants were introduced to the evaluation sheet (Appendix A).The second researcher explained what each category as well as the related subcategories meant and made sure students understood what they were expected to do. After realizing how to assign scores to different components, they were given a topic to write about on the same day and were asked to evaluate their writings two or three days later, trying to be as objective as possible. This interval would help the participants to detach themselves from their writings and enable them to be more critical of them. It is worth mentioning that the topics were related to what they had studied during the week, and an attempt was made to take the participants’ interest into consideration in the process of topic selection.
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19 Lee mas

How computer technology transforms writing performance: an integration of the process/genre approach and blogs in EFL writing courses

How computer technology transforms writing performance: an integration of the process/genre approach and blogs in EFL writing courses

In terms of the blog writing, the interviewees expressed they had a wider range of learning and interactive opportunities with others. It was easier for them to read other’s written work, they were able to leave comments to each other, and writing on blogs involved having less apprehension and anxiety about completing writing tasks. Furthermore, the students might not expect too much from the instructors, as Taiwanese students often rely on the instructors to give them “the best” answers in class. In other words, they were likely to seek solutions by themselves before posting their writing samples on blogs in order to avoid making mistakes before the instructor marked those samples. Consequently, autonomous learning was encouraged. The most prominent finding was most of them mentioned the effectiveness of collaborative learning when blogging. Many of the interviewees noted that they were able to learn from their peers, and they could refer to others’ written work when they had no ideas about how to complete writing samples. In addition, their linguistic knowledge was increased when they were reading others’ writings. As a result, not only could the students’ language abilities or writing competence be developed, but their perceptions toward collaborative and autonomous learning could also be improved.
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17 Lee mas

An EFL student case study of English as a foreign language in the Writing skill – TEFL program portfolio

An EFL student case study of English as a foreign language in the Writing skill – TEFL program portfolio

had to add details to the descriptions and add opinions and reflections. As soon as we finish the brainstorming process, the whole class created a writing model over a topic, then students had to write one-paragraph descriptive essay and add details to their stories. The student’s paper clearly showed the main idea for the assignment; she listed the activities that the characters performed in the story. In her descriptive paragraph she used simple sentences followed by periods and constructed on sentence after another; the structure of these sentences had many important errors. Even though she used in most of her sentences the correct verb form in the simple past tense, she presented mistakes forming the past continuous and did not used transition words. There is also an infinitive misuse, definite articles are not used at all, direct and indirect objects are confused and possessive pronouns are not been taken in account. The difference between the first sample and the present one is an improvement is this paper’s coherence and length compared to the pre test one.
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222 Lee mas

Effectiveness of Systemic Text Analysis in EFL Writing Instruction

Effectiveness of Systemic Text Analysis in EFL Writing Instruction

Teachers’ survey. The 12 teachers were divided into three groups of four people, and each group was presented with a pair of samples e.g. 1a-2a, or 1b-2b, or 1c-2c so they could give an overall assessment of cohesion and coherence within the Likert scale. An important aspect during the data collection for this part of the process was that teachers were not told that the pieces of writing had been written by the same student, so they would not have any preconceptions about which samples had been written before and after the teaching intervention. They were asked to disregard grammar, vocabulary, punctuation and spelling mistakes during the assessments, and specifically focus on aspects of cohesion and coherence. Teachers were given the opportunity to give reasons for their assessment. Their qualitative comments were grouped into four categories coded for analysis: 1) organisation of ideas, 2) clear focus on development of ideas, 3) linking between ideas through cohesive devices, 4) other reasons. Teachers’ assessments of samples were collected, organised and tabulated. As suggested when working with ordinal data (Denscombe, 2010), the quantitative data from the peer survey was analysed by working out the mode (i.e. the most common answer) as a measure of central tendency, and the range as a measure of dispersion of data. Quantitative data was contrasted to gauge any kind of progression or regression in the students’ writing performance.
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23 Lee mas

Factors that influence the English language Teaching-Learning process in ESL/EFL classrooms.

Factors that influence the English language Teaching-Learning process in ESL/EFL classrooms.

The graph above shows that all teachers being interviewed sustained employing many teaching resources on their daily teaching. For instance the graph represents the percentage of the 15 teachers as the 100% of instructors that use teaching resources in their classrooms. Based on the results it is acknowledged that educators consider teaching resources as an important tool that helps to reinforce learning. Teachers pointed out several benefits of incorporating different teaching resources in their classroom. For instance resources are of great assistance when differentiating instruction. These tools also contribute to improve students skills such as reading, writing, comprehension, listening. In addition teaching resources help learning by keeping students engaged by presenting information in different and exiting ways. Additionally Kottler & Kottler (2002), asserted that educators should be very mindful taking into account a number of specific considerations when selecting resources, approaches and methods to be used within ESL classroom, since these aspects will affect the language acquisition process and will have a direct incidence on the final results.
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86 Lee mas

Exploring academic writing and voice in ESL writing

Exploring academic writing and voice in ESL writing

However, as was seen in the above review, genre approaches as proposed by Australian genre scholars are far from perfect. They have many faults among which stand out the uncritical way in which many genre instructors implement them and their sometimes extreme focus on form. The question then remains, how can ESL/EFL writing instructors better help ESL/EFL students succeed in their undergraduate courses? It seems as though the best way to help these students is by taking a more situated approach to writing in which, instead of providing rules for organizing texts, paragraphs, and sentences, instructors teach students to be clear about situation, purpose, and audience. Also, instead of having students write only reflective pieces, instructors should teach them to first analyze the type of writing they are being asked to produce and the conventions by which their audience organizes and presents these types of texts. However, this sort of work is not easy. It requires that both writing and content instructors change their views of writers, academic writing, texts, voice, and their own roles as instructors. It also demands that instructors make a concerted effort to attain both the pedagogical and the meta-knowledge needed to effectively help students write academic texts.
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32 Lee mas

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