Secondly, the comparative analysis was developed in three sections. At first, each of the following sub variables: News, Ads, Social Pages, Sports, and Reports were compared according to the frequency and percentage of their anglicisms, but taking into account each variable individually. In addition, some possible causes of the obtained results were discussed after each analysis. Next, the same kind of study was elaborated by contrasting the variables National Newspaper “El Universo”, Local Newspaper “El Mercurio”, and Tabloid “El Extra”. Finally, the last section was related to the highest and lowest frequency of the use of each anglicism.
I now want to expand on Harding and Riley ’s thought (2002), about language varies over the centuries. It varies from situation to situation, on a personal level, and in day-to-day communication. For example, we do not speak in the same way in a court room, a bar, at church, on the phone, at work, at a football match or to our friends, doctors, husbands, wives, bosses and children. A language cannot be accounted for by a uniform set of rules which are always valid and always applied in the same way. Using a language involves a wide range of activities which are governed by social conventions and the social context in which the participants find themselves.
According to the Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts, the word “ mail ” is an abbreviation for the word “ e-mail ”, and its use is unnecessary because there are other words in Spanish that can be used such as “correo” ó “correo electrónico”. . Whereas, the Wikipedia Dictionary (2010) states that in English “ mail ” is not only a system of sending messages through the computer network”, it is also “a method of transmitting information and tangible objects, where in written documents, typically enclosed in enclosed in envelopes and also small packages are delivered to destinations around the world”. The Wiktionary Dictionary (2010) states that this Anglicism comes from Middle English male, from Old French male “bag, wallet, of Germanic origin. This anglicism has not been included in the DRAE yet, however it may be in a near future due to its wide use.
Anglicisms is every word or own way to speak of the employed English tongue in another, at present the use ofanglicisms and foreign sounding forms, has taken in Spanish the characteristics of a danger of invasion, the operations of loans, adoption of elements among different tongues are natural in the linguistic dynamics, they obey to commercial, political, cultural, or artistic needs, when they are justified the resultant forms are accepted and they legitimize in the own language, but is not admissible the capricious or abusive use of foreign expressions, because injures the communicability of the code that one or more than three hundred fifty million Spanish- speaking in the world and the bases of our traditional idiosyncrasy.
complex containing a variety of stores and often restaurants and other business establishments”. Merriam Webster dictionary 2001 defines mall as “ a public area often set with trees or bushes or flowers and designed as a promenade for leisurely strolling or as a pedes trian walk”. The author of the article “Seis” (see table number three, page 21) considers that a mall is a part of a parallel world. The context: “..en el mundo paralelo de internet y los malls.. ”, the word appears as the noun defined by Random House dictionary, but it also matches some aspects of the Merriam Webster definition. Since the noun malls appears in its original English form, no morphological changes have been applied to it. There was an expression used by Ecuadorians in the past, to talk about these shopping centers, as the one mentioned in the context above. They called them centros comerciales. Nowadays that term is not a very popular one. Instead “mall” gains more popularity every day. There is an expression composed of Spanish words that can replace it: centro comercial. For this reason, its use does not enrich Spanish at all.
Watzlawick, Helmick and Jackson (1967) suggest that the study of human communication can be subdivided into the same three areas of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics for the study of semiotic (the general theory of signs and languages). Applied to the framework or human communication, then the first of these three areas can be said to cover the problems of transmitting information and is, therefore, the primary domain of the information theorists. Their concern lies with the problems of coding, channels, capacity, noise, redundancy, and other statistical properties of language. These problems are primarily syntactical ones, and he is not interested in the meaning of message symbols. Meaning is the main concern of semantics, while it is perfectly possible to transmit strings of symbols with syntactical accuracy, they would remain meaningless unless sender and receiver had agreed beforehand on their significance. In this sense, all shared information presupposes semantic convention.
Something that is considered very important is the thing that people creates new expressions every moment they need to use new words or slangs. In our society and nowadays, there are many anglicismsusedin everyday life; they use them at school, at work, in their houses, when they dialogue or talk about sports, etc. Why is it commonly used? No one is completely sure about it, but linguistics from our country think that they appear because of globalization, immigration. It seems that they have acquired accent like people who travel to Spain, or expressions (slangs, anglicisms) from people who travel to north American countries, when they return, family, relatives, friends, etc, try to imitate their expressions, and this spreads out and is not a long time a new anglicism is created.
Paul Dickson, in his Dickson Baseball Dictionary, cites William Henry Nugent's work that claims it comes from fancy, a 19th century term from England that referred mainly to followers of boxing. According to that unsupported explanation, it was originally shortened to fance then just to the homonym fans. However, Merriam-Webster, the Oxford dictionary and other recognized sources define it as a shortened version of the word fanatic, and the word did first become popular in reference to an enthusiastic follower of a baseball team. Fanatic itself, introduced into English around 1550, means "marked by excessive enthusiasm and often intense uncritical devotion". It comes from the Modern Latin fanaticus, meaning "insanely but divinely inspired". The word originally pertained to a temple or sacred place. The modern sense of "extremely zealous" dates from around 1647; the use of fanatic as a noun dates from 1650.) However, the term "fancy" for an intense liking of something, while being of a different etymology, coincidentally carries a less intense but somewhat similar connotation to "fanatic". The word emerged as an Americanism around 1889.
In the article "El anglicismo léxico en el discurso económico de divulgación científica del español de Chile (2004) Diéguez. M". He says with his article the reports of the main results of an investigation concerning lexical anglicismsin the economic discourse in scientific news articles. The corpus was collected from different issues of Capital and Gestión magazines, published in Chile from 1997 to 2001. The research presents two steps ofanalysis, one qualitative (linguistics – descriptive and functional) and other quantitative. There were 327 lexical anglicisms analyzed. This research can be extend to other topics such as scientific, academic, journalistic, computer development, advertising, aviation, and so on. Only through a research of our language, the Spanish can be protected. The development of language policies will permit us at least be alert of the imminent presence of English in our Spanish language.
Middle English. It is used mainly as a noun and is defined as one who acts as an intermediary, such as an agent who negotiates contracts of purchase and sale (as of real estate, commodities, or securities). For example, all of the local yacht brokers were at the boat show. Syntactically, in the article “Crónica de una lotería avanzada” of the magazine Gestión, Jorge Tamariz uses the word as a noun in the following three sentences: “…ya que tendrán que pagar el préstamo adoptado al broker que provee los servicios de Forex.” “Generalmente, para que uno pueda ingresar a esta bolsa de divisas es necesario abrir una cuenta con un broker o corredor que adopta las posiciones requeridas por los inversionistas.” “La función del mismo es dar al broker una seguridad extra en caso de un fuerte movimiento en las divisas.” The author, from a morphological perspective, uses the word broker with its English spelling not written with a tilde on the letter o, contrary to bróker which is the spelling accepted by the RAE.
Pragmatic borrowing was first proposed by the Australian scholar Michael Clyne. Clyne (1977) suggested the study of "language contact at the discourse level," mentioning several aspects, such as discourse markers, preformulated discourse, and differences concerning speech rules and discourse routines. A more elaborated proposal is found in antoher work by Clyne, where the expression "pragmatic transfers" is first used. Starting from the operative concept of "communicative competence", this scholar draws attention to the fact that in different languages (even in those as closely culturally related as Germán and English)differences in discourse routines can lead to a "communication breakdown" when intention is not properly understood, and even to a "communication conflict", when the intention conveyed is just the opposite. Clyne himself illustrates that, answering an offer, the Germán Danke (schón) conveys an affirmative intention; on the contrary, the theoretical English equivalent, thanks/thank you usually has a negative intention. Therefore, the German-speaking immigrant in Australia is likely to make a communicative mistake when he uses the English thanks/thank you with an affirmative intention.
I think that the people who really understand what an anglicism is, know the damage that they can cause, not only in our country´s language but also in our culture and tradition. Before undertaking this work I thought the same as those youngsters; that the use of foreign words would help in the learning of English and that it would be an advantage to use them. In the pres and in all broadcasting media, but once I analized the theoretical background, I had the chance to read several studies about anglicisms and I was so admired by the fact that other countries such as Spain, Mexico, Argentina, and Costa Rica, defended and protect their Spanish language as a cultural heritage with such passion. Unfortunately I could not find any study on anglicism in Ecuador, but I assume that there must be some.
explained in the former paragraphs it was used that much since a singer who is known by that name was going to give a concert. On the other hand, the word market is well used since people got used to using this word when talking about marketing which translation into Spanish is mercadeo, and you know our world these days turns into business. The word club has been used lots of times as an adjective to give a name to a brand of beer, as noun to identify a group of people that do different activities in their leisure time. And the one that is also well known for adults Night Club but taking into account a definition of it from a dictionary, it defines night club as a place where celebrations are held, yet these days night clubs are places where sex is offered, and as long as I can remember to have a club when we were kids it was a way to identify ourselves from the rest of kids. It´s time to do a short description about the anglicisms found in La Portada − a weekly newspaper from our city, Azogues, within it we have found sixteen anglicisms. There is a particular one that was used more repeatedly than the others and it´s kits which its base form is kit −was used to identify a group of cloth es that students need to wear to start classes. Whoever had used that word did it because he or she was trying to get not only our attention but immigrants´ attention that live in other countries where English is spoken such as: The USA since this newspaper is sold there, too.
There are many remarkable ideas that have come from these studies which can be used to document this research. For instance the one that María Isabel González Cruz has given us about the exaggerate use of unnecessary anglicismsin Spanish language mainly by young people, especially by men. Elena Burneo López mentioned us that migration is one of the most important factors of influence on the use ofanglicisms because people learn English words in foreign countries and bring them to our country increasing their use and effects.
Anglicisms are commons words in languages such as: French, Spanish, Chinese, German, Polish, Portuguese, and Italian. There are some definitions given by experts and specialized books about it. According to Rivilla (2010) is a continual process and that it is very probable that we can find words that have not yet even been adapted to the Spanish, and perhaps will never be accepted by the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language. But by the fact of using them, we are required to be familiar with it and to interpret it correctly, attempting to replace it with its proper term in Spanish .‖ Also says that ― Carreter, F. Lázaro (1968), as mentioned by, in a work carried out by Juan Gomez Capuz in the Group Val.Es.Co – University of Valencia on The Treaty of linguistics: It defines adoption of foreign words as a linguistic element that a language takes from others, while adapting it in their primitive form, either imitating or transforming it more or less .‖
Let us not forget to mention the study done by Lopez (2005), from the University of Cadiz; regarding the adaptation of economic Anglicisms to the Spanish linguistic system. The study concentrated on a comparative analysis into the semantic study of lexical interference in both English and Spanish, all of it related to the economic terminological field. In addition, what strategies involved in the process of translating meaning from the original English terminology to the target language, which was the Spanish language. Nowadays, a growing number ofAnglicisms are being transferred into the Spanish language. Their usage seems to be catching on in Spanish speaking countries”, Lopez (2005). Because of the studies commented above, it became known the supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon economy that is dominating all over the world. To illustrate this, we see its dominance in one place in particular, that is in the Spanish speaking countries, and so because of their dominance over many cultures, they are exporting a number of linguistic terms on to other languages.
The theme basically deals with the use ofanglicismsinEcuadorian newspaper. How English influences our native language in terms ofanglicisms. This is an analysisof the English words usedin a semantic context, which searches to show the level of influence English has in the Spanish written in our newspaper. The data gathered for this project has proved that words from the English language are widely usedin our newspapers, sometimes due to necessity and other many times they are used as barbarisms, since there is a word in Spanish that translates the English one. Thereby, the purpose of this research project is to identify the most frequent English loans, as well as the social factors that influence the use of them and finally to learn about the sometimes unnecessary use of such words.
attached to something indicating its contents, from Middle French dial. (Picard) estiquier to attach, from Middle Dutch steken to stick; akin to Old High German sticken to prick — more at stick, appear in 1529, this word is an anglicis that is is not accepted by RAE. The meaning of this word in English language is, a document that serves as a certificate, license, or permit; especially a mariner's or airman's certificate, a certificate or token showing that a fare or admission fee has been paid, a means of access or passage a slip or card recording a transaction or undertaking or giving instructions (a savings deposit ticket) a summons or warning issued to a traffic-law violator, even though this word is not accepted by RAE it is usedin Spaninsh functioning as noun same as it functions in English language. In the context “Enseguida compro el ticket de regreso” , this word is used as proof of pay or a permition to access to a specific place also it has not morphology changes from one language to another, in conclusion this word has been used for long time in our language always with the same meaning as in English.
The same person strongly believes that Anglicisms have caused a great impact over Ecuadorian culture because we receive a lot of information that comes from not only newspapers, but also from other mass media. Unfortunately, he says these media have created an effect that has propagated to the entire society, and as a result of this; Ecuadorian culture and language have been contaminated by English loans. I agree with his first point of view because news agencies and newspapers have been considered as ways of penetration into Spanish speaking countries. On the contrary, I think that the use ofAnglicisms enrich our vocabulary because most of those terms do not have translation in Spanish. In addition, nearly all ofAnglicisms found in this research have a direct relation with technology, economy, science, and sports. Therefore, the uses of some Anglicisms are unavoidable.
123 don’t know that point but what happens with the humanity if all people stop and close his mouth and that’s what I think mmm that’s other reason why I love to debate, to explain, to be at forums I really like to know debate with other people about his form of thinking and I expose my opinion about that and the rules that be state. Ehh what else, or what more mmm about the new generations I think that is not the way that the old generation, old generations wants to be, to been, because to the youngers, to the kids nowadays it’s a simple life he only say they only say I need that, I need that, and the things it and the things and the opportunities are immediately mmm the costumes the respect their own respect to his body doesn’t exist or its less because don’t like him, ourselves. And the new things it is very I can say different I say in some are ridiculous because without conscience and studies or knows say things to only fly in the wind and he took and say and things that are important or things that has the reason, example some mode about nowadays emo. Emos are a people who thinks that hurts his body to, with gilletes or cut some parts of him is one form of expression and I think that is ridiculous and in some cases funny because he can`t know what are he doing but I respect that position or I respect the people who stay in these groups but I prefer to go out or to do an one step to be, to go out of their ways.