The use ofanglicismsinEcuadorian newspapers is the result of many factors such as: migration, globalization, technology, and a well-gained universal prestige of the English language.
Some studies in reference to anglicisms have been developed in other countries. Among the most important, we can mention “La influencia mutua entre lenguas: anglicismos, hispanismos y otros préstamos” written by Dr. Anna María D'Amore (2009) from Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. This research concludes that the Spanish language have used English words throughout history, and there have been detected multiple roots, innovation, and a big amount of loanwords. Besides, Spanish and English, throughout history, have borrowed words from most major and wider spoken languages. Also, translators have spread the use of foreign terms until they become indistinguishable from the native lexis.
This research was done in Quito – Ecuador and its title is “A DescriptiveAnalysisofAnglicismsusedinEcuadorian Newspapers.”
An essential point to indicate is that in order to collect anglicisms, I accumulated twenty one newspapers (variables) by seven consecutive days. These were: National Newspaper “El Universo”; Local Newspaper “La Hora”; and Tabloid “El Extra.” In addition, the subvariables that were taken into account were: News, Ads, Social Pages, Sports and Reports. I also interviewed two linguists and four readers. Moreover, to analyze the results of this study I used scientific methods such as the bibliographic method for collecting scientific information for the Theoretical Background and the Analytic and Descriptive methods in order to do not only the descriptive and statistical analysis, but also the interpretation of the data collected through the field research.
Syntactically speaking, the word “work” is used as a noun, a verb, or an adjective in both languages, English and Spanish.
According to the Webster dictionary, “work” as a noun means an activity in which one exerts strength or faculties to do or perform something, and the word “out” is used as an adverb and a verb and the Webster dictionary defines “out” as a direction away from the inside or center went out into the garden.The combination of these words form a compound word that refer to a practice or exercise to test or improve one's fitness for athletic competition, ability, or performance. The word “workout” was found as part of a paragraph in Pacificard magazine, in an article entitled “Crossfit: corto e intense”. In the following phrase, the word is printed in bold:
noticeable mirror of culture, including, of course, contact between communities and, consequently, innovations of all kinds.
A ninth author Olivares (2009) says that anglicisms are more frequent in young people because of the wide exposure they have to the mass media, especially radio and television. For her study she used musical magazines analyzing style and socio-linguistic aspects. In her opinion, the use ofanglicisms is more frequent in young people because of the wide exposure they have to the mass media, especially radio and television. For this reason they more vulnerable to feeling the need to use anglicisms to “fit-in”, belong to a group, or to be able to communicate with short words more easily, using abbreviations and affixes that are more available in the English language.
Before the advent ofAnglicismsin our common language, there is a deep sense of concern, or rather irritation, or even indignation by many Spanish people. Indeed, the income stream to our language of countless English words at first sight seems to represent a real threat to the purity proud of the Spanish Culture and Language. Just look at the names of multiple establishments Mac Donald, Homemart, Block Buster, Burger King, Vanity Fair, Dorian Gray, Calvin Klein, advertisements like, a Professional Hair Spray All Weather; Cover Fresh Moisture Response, 50% more free and even personal names Irving Sanchez, Christopher Perez, Bryan Dominguez.
The use ofanglicismsin our country, whether written or spoken is a reality that must be studied and deeply analyzed, to get information about the way Spanish is being influenced by English in Ecuador. The focus of this research will be on the use of the lexical terms known as anglicismsin magazines that are published in Ecuador. The first objective of this study is to identify the syntactic and lexical anglicisms more commonly usedinEcuadorian magazines. The second objective is to deeply analyze the anglicisms found inEcuadorian magazines regarding syntactic, semantic, and morphological aspects. This investigation establishes three variables or different kinds of magazines: cultural, scholarly and general interest magazines, and through deep analysis, determines which of these variables contain the biggest amount ofanglicisms. The third objective of this research is to determine which anglicisms are mostly used. I investigated in the library owned by the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, for previous studies and had access to a few thesis related to the study ofanglicisms. The most relevant study for this thesis was the one perfomed by César Mauricio Martínez, about anglicismsin publicity of Quito city. With this thesis he got his bachelor degree in applied linguistics.
words seems to indicate a tendency in these language users to prefer adoption from English over the creation of new terms in Spanish.
Not only is there an increase of borrowed English words into the Spanish language but also in other nations and languages as well. In the German language system there has been an increase in Anglicism usage in the print media. An analytical study done by Onysko (2007) Anglicismsin German: Borrowing, Lexical Productivity, and Written Code Switching, makes the bold statement, “English is a force that threatens the existence of the German language or that leads to the adulteration of German.” He makes this conclusion based on the studies of three researchers whose main focus was taken from the following magazines: Der Spiegel and Spiegel.
The word marketing has been considered as a borrowing; this word doesn‟t present any morpho logical changes and it doesn‟t have plural form.
Even though people can use the word mercadotecnia in Spanish most of them prefer to use the term marketing because they have the thought that is a fashion way to express the same idea or because they feel they will show their knowledge of English language including Anglo-terms within the Spanish Language, they even look for the way they can mix the anglicism marketing in order to create new expressions and uses for this word in Spanish language so they can validate its use, but people don‟t take into account that when they do something like that , it is not only that Spanish speakers lose accuracy in the use of their language, they also make Spanish language lose its relevance in front of the other language , which is not the dominant language for the writer and the readers. So as far as I‟m concern it doesn´t enrich Spanish Language, the use of it only makes Spanish language loses its importance as a language facing the international context.
The meanings of the word in English are varied, as seen in Merriam Webster dictionary where we find the syntactic uses of the word: an adverb which means under the surface; into or in a hiding or secret operation. (used like this in Spanish too); a noun which describes a subterranean place or channel, an underground city railway; a clandestine or conspiratorial set up for revolutionary or disruptive purposes; a movement or group secretly meeting usually in occupied countries for keeping communication, popular solidarity, etc.; it is also used to define a unofficial, unsanctioned or illegal informal group. As an adjective, underground defines something growing or functioning under the surface; produced or published outside the establishment;
This study seeks to fill this theoretical gap by presenting simple and substantive syntactic definitions of these three categories.
In his opinion, the various superficial differences found in particular languages have a single underlying source which can be used to give better characterizations of these ‘parts of speech’. These definitions are supported by data from languages from every continent, including English, Italian, Japanese, Edo, Mohawk, Chichewa, Quechua, Choctaw, Nahuatl, Mapuche, and several Austronesian and Australian languages. Baker argues for a formal, syntax- oriented,
23 influences exerted by neighboring languages: primarily Italian and German and, to a lesser extent, Hungarian. In this respect, there were strong regional differences resulting from historical divisions, Italian being dominant in the south and German in the north. Con- tacts with other Slavic languages grew particularly intense with the growing influence of the pan-Slavic ideal. Thus, in the effort to develop new terminologies, words were often borrowed from Russian and Czech as genetically related languages in preference to those from other languages. The Croatian spelling reform was carried out under a strong Czech influence. Above all, however, the nineteenth century was a period of language reform with the aim of bringing Croatian and Serbian closer together by stressing similarities and disregarding differences between the two languages - as a result, a common language, Serbo-Croatian was eventually created which became the official language of the South Slavic state that emerged after the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of the World War I.
13 Magazine according to Casatti (2006) comes from the denomination
“revista” in Spanish which means read again. The magazine in comparison to the newspaper comes with unpublished news that is more concentrated in the details of the present time. Magazines are very relevant to our study because English is an international language and there is a snobbish tendency to use this language frequently in this type of printed media. It is important to mention that media promotes this type of language to its readers. Furthermore, the most striking phenomenon in the printed media is the influence of English, because it is an international language phenomenon, and there is a tendency that most journalists use English words in their discourse to arise the audience ’s attention. Nowadays, in the written media, anglicisms are very often used, and in the specific case of Sim and Pop ’s study (2009) the most important target market in their study carried out in Rumania was women over eighteen years old. Besides, the most present domains were the musical domain, everyday life, fashion, sports and economics.
However, the especial characteristic that stands out in this study is that, almost ninety percent were obtained via Internet or e-mail.
In Spain it was done a research by Alcazar (1998) this research is related to medicine. The author states that the presence ofAnglicismsin the language is a science related to our health and is not appropriate to any linguistic superiority or almost all of the concepts associated with this topic can be expressed in English. In particular, technological advances through huge resources for both researches and the results were spread in magazines and books, in the five continents.
So, not only have the human civilization become stronger and organized, but also the ways of communication; this growing has witnessed the appearance and extinction of thousands of ways of communication. Gestures, pictograms, smoke signals, sounds from wood or pieces of stone, symbols like feathers and body painting were the beginning. We can say that they are the roots of the Languages spoken in the world because they were the seed that started to grow in the humans, that curiosity for knowing more and more every day. Such curiosity ended up in what we speak, write or listen to with one another in all our life moments: Language. This system, which was created with the purpose of communicating with others, must have had difficulties to start defining some directions to analyze not only what is said but also how it is said and where and when it is said. Therefore, here it is a brief review of Linguistics and its branches to set their relevance to this research.
Nowadays, when reading a magazine people find it very common to come across with words that are not Spanish, called anglicisms, and it can be even said that people got used to it. This situation can be due to the fact that English is the most popular foreign language in the world and it is a well-known fact that the impact of English on all the major languages of the world is of overwhelming proportions. The growing influence of English on the language of Ecuador is an example of a linguistic change under contact conditions which have been taking place at a growing pace in the past few decades and now even more due to the immigration that has affected the country, that is why every time it is more often to observe the influence of English in all types of publications and any other papers. Nevertheless, the main concern is about identifying the syntactic and lexical anglicisms more commonly usedinEcuadorian magazines.
The last analyzed variable was cultural magazines; we can figure out that this has the smallest quantity ofanglicisms with 23 occurrences, which corresponds to 7% of the total found anglicisms. Guzman affirms that there are some apocalyptic voices that raise a clamor against the deterioration of the Spanish language by the use of unnecessary anglicisms. In concordance with her point of view, I can say that there are some people who pretend to stay away from borrowings because they consider that the use of them affects and deteriorates the Spanish language. In this group of people are: writers, editors of cultural publications, as well as linguistics who are really worried about the deformation of our language. Additionally, these results evidence the low use of borrowings. This is in agreement with Alfaro who said that even though the influence of English over Spanish has been extensive and deep; every community has to avoid the use ofanglicisms and be proud of the beauty of their own language.
Another cause could be that now, all of us, are involved in this modern world; therefore, these terms are becoming more common everyday.
Regarding the comparative analysis to establish the variable with the highest number ofanglicisms, it is determined that the general interest magazines contain the highest number, with forty four anglicisms. In second place are scholarly magazines with thirty three anglicisms; and finally are cultural magazines with sixteen anglicisms. This fact, may occur because general interest magazines have a great acceptance of different social classes, ages, and even culture. In that sense, these magazines look for terms which are attractive to catch the attention, and of course get famous.
There is no equivalent word in Spanish. The term is used with its original English spelling, only in the singular form, but it has suffered some morphological changes such as adding the suffix “eros” as in rockeros, to describe musicians that play this type of music instead of saying “músicos de rock”. In English, the word rock can be used as noun or verb. It is very popular to hear the expression “you rock”, which means that the person is cool or has done something that everyone likes. The anglicism however, refers to a very specific type of music, well know world-wide, therefore the term is understood and used at all levels so it has completely replaced any Spanish translation. It is used as a noun in the following examples: “tienen la música y en especial el rock”, “el punk y rock de la nueva era”, “los rockeros de habla hispana”. It is used as an adjective in the following example: “incorporó el estilo glam rock en su espectáculo”.
Anglicisms are just one of the ways in which it has been modified, though due to the contact with that speech community, it may easily be the phenomenon that has had the most influential power of them all.
Although for some specialized fields, the introduction of words from the English language has been widely accepted, as for example, for the technological field, even more so for the branches which are most related to the media. Timofeeva (2007), found that the use ofanglicisms has improved the specter of communication within the world of websites and global business, because they have adopted terms that are now very popular amongst those who work with tools like computers, software, and internet. Although this study took only one website to carry out the investigation, it proved to be very successful, because of the generalized tendency to adapt the language to the field of expertise in which it was learned.
research aimed to contribute to studies on anglicismsin Chile and to start other similar research in different genres and discursive modalities.
In order to analyze the data, multidisciplinary theoretical and methodological criteria have been used based on pragmatics, text linguistics, discourse analysis and terminology. The corpus was collected from different issues of Capital and Gestión magazines, published in Chile from 1997 to 2001. To follow the methodological steps ofanalysis were considered two types ofanalysis: a qualitative analysis which is related with descriptive and functional language, and quantitative. To address the qualitative analysis, which describes the use and functions ofanglicismsin the textual corpus, was drawn up a list of all lexical anglicisms present in the textual corpus.