The mathematical model here envisaged from the ground up, was succes- fully applyed to a real case situation, were a typical scenario on a productive plant was presented. It was proved the fact that it is possible the use of process indicator metrics to calculate the productivitybonus, by the use of this model. As it has been expossed the model requires, ﬁrst of all, to deﬁne a set of speciﬁc metric indicators; from those, the variables: LCX (limit control) and M (goal), are taken as input parameters. The actual achiviement value results of the indicators ξ came from the actual measure of the process performance during a period of time (a month in this ex- ample). As is was shown, it is required to set a free parameter Φ (amount b of money), that represents a ﬁxed quantity that has to be established by any organization. This model furthermore could be set to take as inputs another kind of metrics from diﬀerent items such as work attendancy as stated here; however there could be some other entries such as sales, safety, etcetera.
Comparisons on the influence of fertility on productivity are difficult because environmental determinants such as rainfall, solar radiation, temperature and vapor pressure deficit may confound the interpretation of nutrient avail- ability on productivity (Mead, 1984). Therefore, some low nutrient availability sites (e.g., Golden Downs) may exhibit greater productivity than high nutrient availability sites (e.g., Tekapo). This confounding effect may be removed by fitting the fertility parameter ( f N ) using Eq. 1 to known values of gross primary productivity and climatic and water balance data (Table 2). Based on this approach, we found the highest fertility ratio for Tekapo (i.e., f N equal to 0.92 and 1.17 for the control and fertilized mini-plot, respectively) compared to Golden Downs (i.e., f N equal to 0.48 and 0.62 for the control and
Seasonal maize management has been based on the use of radical and progressive innovations. For millennia, producers have innovated the way they manage maize through selection and improvement, and by transmitting orally and empirically to new generations the experience of new technologies, practices or products that have been the most useful and adaptable to their environment and conditions of life. However, these agricultural systems are situated in an earlier time of historical development which, within the imaginary of progress, emphasizes their inferiority with regards to the knowledge of trained experts in the western tradition (Lander, 2000). This disrepute does not have scientific backing. Empirical data found (Tables 4 and 5) reveal that radical and progressive technologies interact in maize management, with the latter predominating, expressed by the GETP value that, on average, was 41.6 units greater than the IATR. In addition, significant statistical differences were found between the yield averages of producers of low and high GETP (t=2.8103, p=0.0064).
This paper present a model to calculate the heat lost through a window including the effect of curtains or blinds. For its experimental validation, it has been designed and constructed a test bench, with which the thermal behavior of a room insert into the building with one wall and window exposed to outside climatic conditions is simulated. Its main characteristics of design, measurement system, experiences implemented during a year of measurements and corresponding uncertainty analysis results of each variable, with which calculating the final uncertainty in the results are shown.
nanocomposites (NCs). Mixture preparation, and test and measurement equipment were described. Balazs model extended to monomer/polymer/clay composites obtained free energy . Minimizing free energy and calculating chemical potentials of the three components, phase diagrams (PDs) for monomer/disc and monomer/polymer/ disc mixtures were built. Comparing PDs, effects of nanodisc size, polymer molar mass and interaction parameters were studied on mixture stability and morphology. The PDs were calculated vs. polymer length, disc aspect ratio diameter/thickness and polymer molecular mass, for monomer/disc and polymer/disc mixtures at a number of discs compositions. Mixture morphology was discussed and conclusions, obtained from experiments on mixtures of clays and epoxy monomer, or disc and styrene polymer of high molecular mass, were compared, showing quali- tative agreement. Equations were generalized to polymer/disc blends to examine the effect of small monomer on miscibility, and apply it to epoxy resin and disc mixtures . The influence of the curing temperature of clay/epoxy NCs on morphology, mechanical properties and free volume was reported .
We carry out an explicit calculationof the vacuum polarization tensor for an effective low-energy modelof monolayer graphene in the presence of a weak magnetic ﬁ eld of intensity B perpendicularly aligned to the membrane. By expanding the quasiparticle propagator in the Schwinger proper time repre- sentation up to order (eB) 2 , where e is the unit charge, we ﬁ nd an explicitly transverse tensor, consistent with gauge invariance. Furthermore, assuming that graphene is irradiated with monochromatic light of frequency ω along the external ﬁ eld direction, from the modi ﬁ ed Maxwell equations we derive the intensity of transmitted light. Corrections to this quantity, both calculated and measured, are of the order of (eB) 2 / ω 4 . Our ﬁ ndings generalize and comple- ment previously known results reported in the literature regarding the light absorption problem in graphene from the experimental and theoretical points of view, with and without external magnetic ﬁ elds.
Type 5 noise barrier was tested in free field as well. In practice, a 0,4-m high pipe element and a barrier element of the same height – both mounted upon a 2,1-m high noise barrier – were compared. Height of the barrier, the source and the distance of the receiver were identical with those in the model configuration.
The objective of the first chapter is to evaluate the impact of dual labor market in- stitutions on the investment in firm specific human capital and productivity. Empirically this is done by estimating the impact of mass-layoffs on subsequent wages in Spain, differentiating between workers holding permanent and fixed term contracts at the time of displacement. The main empirical finding is that permanent contract (PC) workers suffer larger and more persistent wage losses than their fixed term contract (FTC) coun- terparts. Wage losses for PC workers stem mainly from the loss of pre-displacement firm tenure, while this source is not important for FTC workers. This is taken as evidence of the difference in the accumulation of job specific human capital between the two type of contracts. The wage loss gap due to the difference of investment in firm specific human capital is estimated to be 6% after the first quarter of displacement. A search and match- ing model à la Mortensen and Pissarides allowing for endogenous accumulation of firm specific human capital and the existence of the two type of contracts is developed. The model shows that firms always offer fixed term contracts if they are allowed to do so. The employee’s decision of investment in human capital depends on the expected dura- tion of the contracts, and hence on the expiration rate of FTC and firing costs. Calibrated to the Spanish economy the model predicts that only PC workers invest in firm specific human capital, while FTC workes do not. This implies that PC workers are on average 12% more productive than FTC. The model suggests that aggregate labor productivity would increase due to the investment in firm specific human capital of FTC workers if the employment protection law for FTC workers was more stringent (i.e. lower maxi- mum duration of this type of contract).
The city of Cali (3º30' N, 76º30' W) is located in the equatorial circulation zone. It has an air quality and meteorological monitoring network, with instruments for measuring particulate matter (PM10) and other atmospheric pollutants. We show here the results of the Mie scattering modelcalculationof the extinction and backscatter coefficient, as well as scattering diagrams, applied to particles typical of aerosols in the air above Cali, as determined from the in situ data provided by the monitoring network. The extinction and backscatter coefficients were calculated for a range of particle sizes between 0 to 4 µm, with a resolution of 0,001µm, and for Nd:Yag laser of 532 nm wavelength. This work will be significant for lidar techniques in the modeling and determination of physical and chemical properties of the type of pollutants present in the region of study.
The first three factors are the pressure, humidity and temperature conditions. Due to the conditions of the environment where the measurements where taken, neither the pressure nor the humidity were controlled, therefore references will be made only to the variation of measurements with the temperature since this was the only controlled factor. The second factor of influence detected during the measurement process is the assembly and the placement of the devices that are part of the measurement chain. Uncertainty components exists caused by the center of the circumaural earphone piece with the microphone used on the artificial ear AEC101.
If 8, Cla and k are measured and a value is assumed for Ip (as in Equation 18), �p may be estimated for any water column in a homogene ous phytoplankton popuIation using equations (16) and (2 1). In Table 1 , assimilation numbers are shown for the present data. These values, which will be fulIy discussed in another paper, are quite different for the Mitla (3.75 - 4.1 g gCla -1 h -1) and Chautengo (13.2 - 25.3 g gCla-1 h-1) lagoons and, in the case of Mitla, are remarkably constant. If the comportment of9 were known, no further uptake measurements would be required to apply equation (21) to any point in a lagoon, provided that Cla and k estimates are available. Whilst this approach to "whole lagoon" primary productivity estima tion seems promising, more detailed studies of the variation of 9 in these water bodies are re quired before it may be generaIly utilized.
Figure (2) shows the typical reflectivity spectrum of the pure and doped SWNTs. Notice that the reflectivity has different behavior for the doped SWNTs. In all cases the spectra displays two peaks, however, the one in the region between 0-6 eV is more intense. In the case of (6, 0) doped, the overall peaks are around 1.13 eV when the SWNT is pure and 2.5 EV when is N-doped; for (8, 0) the overall peaks are around 2.5 eV when is pure and 2.7 eV doped, finally, in the case (9, 0) the peaks are 3.9 eV in pure and 3.8 eV in the N-doped; in addition, we detected that the reflectivity decreases its intensity when the number of atoms increases and lowers the amount of nitrogen concentration. It is also clear from the figure (Fig. 2), that the reflectivity behavior is present in the whole range of visible frequency.
interaction of a given base molecule with other molecules in the chain and with the ions of the medium regulates the folding of the chain and therefore, its genus. One may assume that the concentration of ions in the medium should be monotonous functions of 1/N . Therefore, we arrive to the conclusion that the ’internal’ param- eter N , introduced by hand as a convenient variable for organizing the topological configurations, could be given the physical interpretation of representing the inverse quantity of the ion concentration of the medium [6, 9, 21].
The reliance of companies on IT has been rocketed in parallel to their search towards new business models. This is mainly due to the diversification of businesses towards new formulas based on externalization or online positioning. To assist in this scenario, new computing paradigms and development initiatives have come up. The main line of attack to give support to all the needs detected by companies focuses on providing with a solution to the alignment between the entities involved in business service provisioning and the technologies and platforms that support their business requirements. In this direction, two initiatives have proved to be of great help: the MDA approach, as a way to tackle modern software development strategies and methodologies; and the SOC paradigm, as computing paradigm. In the last few years these two elements have been part of a myriad of research initiatives, projects and proposals targeting the abovementioned problem. In that sense, the Architecture, as central artefact of any software solution, is considered, by and large, as the adequate element of choice over which the principles of service-orientation may take big advantage. Similarly, the use ofmodel-driven approaches for its specification constitutes an improvement that has been proved valid among the Software Architecture research area in the last few years.
The issues defined by the professionals consulted were: energy, environmental comfort, water, waste and construction materials (Figure 9). All of this, according to what is proposed by the different sustainable building certification methodologies: Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE), Green Globes, among others. Energy turns out to be basic theme of SC for the professionals in this study, it must ensure that projects (at different levels) consume minimal power or generate maximum energy through non-conventional renewable energies. Therefore, the professional must have knowledge in heat transfer and thermodynamics. Then, there is the environmental comfort that is of great importance, since SC professionals must achieve a healthy built environment, based on the room’s air that meets the temperature and humidity limits defined as thermal comfort, along with adequate ventilation, acoustic insulation and brightness. Lastly, the water issue is approached from a perspective of optimal resource use, avoiding contamination. On the other hand, a professional must be trained to avoid generating non-recyclable waste and devise alternatives for the reuse of waste linked to a construction project. The latter ratifies what was published by Gomez-Soberon et al. . Finally, a topic that cannot be left out is the construction materials, since the professional must be able to use them efficiently and innovate in new materials [88–90] that can improve the envelope of constructions that tends to adiabatic building.
Regarding anti-tumor therapies, although effective cytotoxic compounds have been identified, treatments directed to a specific target still have ample room for improvement. Taking into account the experience of our group in the study of telomerase and our expertise on drug design using computational and molecular biology tools , we decided to carry out a DBVS on hDKC1, with the aim of generating new compounds with inhibitory effect on telomerase activity for cancer treatment. The basis for performing a DBVS is the availability of the crystallized structure of the target protein. There are several studies in which the crystallized structure of dyskerin is used to explain, in a very interesting way, the interactions and processes in which it is involved. However, the authors utilized the structures coming from yeast [18,19] or archeas [20,21]. Although these structures are useful for this kind of study, the aim of our work is directed towards the development of new drugs, therefore each step must be as accurate as possible in order to avoid the appearance of hurdles along the way. Due to the fact that hDKC1 has not yet been crystallized, the need to obtain a model as close as possible to its actual structure became one of the most relevant steps of this work. To carry out this goal, among the different bioinformatic tools in existence, we selected I-TASSER which has demonstrated significant advantages in protein structure prediction, combining various techniques from threading, ab initio modeling and atomic-level structure refinement approaches . Furthermore, the Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP), a community-wide, worldwide experiment for protein structure prediction taking place every two years since 1994 , has ranked I-TASSER as the best method for automated protein structure prediction in many CASP experiments . For example, in the field of cancer research, it has been used to model the RAB38 protein (Ras related protein 38), relevant in melanoma  and RASSF2 (Ras Association Domain Family Member 2), studied in different tumor types . Similarly, in the study of malaria, a modelof M17LAP (M17- Family Leucine Aminopeptidase) was obtained and then used as a target protein in a DBVS assay . In the same way, the structure by homology of Sortase A, a protein involved in listeriosis disease, was achieved .
According to the code model, two individuals who share the same code should have no problem at communicating suc- cessfully provided there are no external distortions in the transmission of the encoded signal. Also the retrieval of the encoded meaning by the decoder should be unproblematic and complete. However, “The sociologically crucial fact that contents get transformed, distorted, lost or suppressed in most social communication cannot be explained in terms of such basic mechanism” (Sperber & Wilson, 1997: 145). It is evident that failures at communication and misunderstand- ings do occur and that the most we can expect for most ut- terances “…particularly those which form part of extended discourse, … is adequate interpretation –adequate as seen from the listener’s point of view rather than from that of the speaker” (Brown, 1995a: 3). In the same line, it is obvious that the very same utterance can be interpreted differently on two different occasions and that two individuals may interpret the same utterance differently in the same context of use.
crack without tracking algorithm or exclusion zones. The stress locking effects are solved by allowing the embedded crack in the ﬁnite element to adapt itself to the stress ﬁeld while the crack opening does not exceed a small threshold value. This solution may bias the crack orientation, but in comparison with other models, which set a global tracking of the crack, this approach performs it locally. In the authors’ opinion it is an advantage despite its limitations, and accurately predicts the experimental results. A generalised Rankine criterion is adopted with the aim of taking into account the anisotropy of the quasi-brittle materials.
In order to study larger samples and detect possible weak eﬀects, we used photometric redshifts to define a cluster membership, and compute absolute magnitudes and colors as provided by the CFHTLS data. Given its photometric redshift, a galaxy was as- signed to a cluster when it was closer than 500 kpc from the cluster center and at less than 0.08 from the cluster redshift. This corresponds to the values quoted in Table A.1 for cluster galax- ies. We were then able to search for RSs in the most luminous, the luminous, and the moderately luminous clusters. Selecting all available clusters in these three categories Fig. 17 clearly shows red sequences in each case. They are all consistent with a u ∗ − r color of 1.9, the most massive clusters exhibiting the more negative RS slope (computed with T ≤ 21 galaxies). On the contrary, the C0 clusters (no X-ray detection) only exhibit a very low number of early-type galaxies (but still consistent with u ∗ −r ∼ 1.9). These compact structures therefore appear as quite young structures, with modest early-type galaxy populations.
the normal state by means of the FP-LAPW method, in the GGA approximation, within the formalism provided by the Density Functional Theory (DFT). First, the study consisted to find the energy of the compound, the optimal volume and the bulk modulus. Also the relation c/a was optimized, where a and c are the lattice parameters of the tetragonal crystallographic cell. From these results, we perform a detailed study of electronic properties for the perovskite compound. The aim of this study is the determination of dispersion relations and Densities of States (DOS) calculation. The projection of DOS on the atomic-like orbital was also determined. From our results it is conclude that ordering of Cu and O atoms in the Cu-O 2 structural planes is relevant for the occurrence of