PDF superior A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

Bolitoglossa subpalmata (type locality: La Palma, Provincia de San José, Costa Rica) may be the closest relative of B. epimela. The two can be distin­ guished by the larger adult size, less fully webbed hands and feet, and generally stockier habitus of subpalmata. B. epimela has, in general, fewer maxillary teeth and, as is evident from the accompanying graph (Fig. 2 ) , a narrower head than B. subpalmata (only small subpalma�a similar in size to adult ePimela have been graphed) . The differences between the two species are not marked, however, and most proportions are similar. B. subpalmata is highly variable in coloration and occasionaI individuals are found that resemble the color of B. epimela. Although the two species have Iimbs of similar length, the Iimbs of B. subpal­ mata are stockier than those of B. ePimela. On the basis of these characters it seems that the two species are fairly closely related, but definitely distinct. B. subpalmata is found in the Turrialba region at high elevations on Volcán Tu­ rrialba, and to the best of our knowledge has never been taken near Peralta or at elevations as Iow as 1000 meters.
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Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Larva (Figs.11-15, 31-38): Five larval instars present. Last instar length 11.6 mm- 12.0 mm (n=4) (penultimate instar: 6.38 mm; range: 6.1-6.5 mm; n=5), dorsoventrally flat- tened. Head prognathous, yellowish with dark brown sutures; epicranial suture not present; frontoclypeus and labrum brown, more than twice as long as wide; two stemmata; C1 and C2 approximate, F1 at middle of frons, AF1 and AF2 located dorsally on adfrontal area; labrum with six setae on each side externally and three setae on each side internally, medially setose; mandible with two rows of serrations. T1-3 and A1-10 integument smooth, all segments with medially located dorsal and ventral sclerotized plates, prothoracic shield twice as wide as other dorsally sclerotized plates, setae with concol- orous pinacula, intersegmentally constricted. Prothoracic shield yellow with clear platelets; T1 with two L setae anterior to spiracle. A1 and A7 with D1 on membrane or on margin of pinac- ulum, L1 and L2 on same pinaculum, L1 more than seven times as long as L2 on all segments. A8 D1 and D2 approximate on pinaculum, SD1 approximate to spiracle, spiracle six times larger than other abdominal spiracles, dorsally located, two L setae on same pinaculum. A9 with D1 just anterior to SD1 sometimes located on membrane and not on pinaculum, 1 L setae.
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A new species of anole lizard, genus Norops (Squarnata: Polychrotidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

A new species of anole lizard, genus Norops (Squarnata: Polychrotidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

Comparisons: N. pandoensis is a member of the fuscoauratus species group. Lizards of this group are small to moderate in size, have small head scales, small dorsal scales, mostIy smooth ventrals, long tails that are round to subcylindrical in cross-section. Members of this group usually have an inscriptional rib for­ mula of 3: 1 (Etheridge, 1965) as is the case with N. pandoensis.

5 Lee mas

New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

the genus Odontostilbe using EIGENMANN' s key to the Cheirodontinae (4) Orig­ inal descriptions of the 1 1 nominal species of Odontostíibe were examined and specimens of O. fugitiva (SU 36606) , O. pulchra (IUM 1 5 126, property of CAS; ANSP 7018 1 ) ; O. paragllayensis (IUM 17202, property of CAS) and O. madeirae (ASNP 39194-209) were kindly loaned to me by Dr. James E. B5hlke for the purpose of closer examination. On the basis of these specimens and literature d�scriptions of others, P. terrabae differs from all known species of Odontostilbe in having more maxillary teeth ( 3-6, usually 5 vs. 1-3, usually 2 ) , more mandibular teeth (7-10, usually 9 vs. 4-8, usual1y 5-7) and a longer posterior lobe of the maxillary. With respect to characters other than the lateral line, the new species shows a stronger resemblance to the Panamanian pseudo­ cheirodon affinis than to memb::rs of the South American genus Odon/ostilbe. Dr. Horace G. Loftin (in li/t.), indicated that sorne specimens of P. affinis from previously uncollected western Panamá also had a complete lateral lineo Dr. Loftin kindly suggested that 1 borrow his specimens which had been donated to the U. S. National Museum. Two very similar species, Compsura gorgonae and P. affini!, both with variable pore counts, were found to make up this collection and will be the subject of a future publication. Specimens of P. affluÍ! from single collections exhibit an extreme variation of from 9 to 33 lateral line por::s. This wide variation is not characteristic of all popwations but occurs in popula­ tions throughout the range of the species.
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A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica [Spanish]

A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica [Spanish]

Se describe Pteris herrerae A. Rojas & M. Palacios, endémica de Costa Rica. Esta es diferente de P. decurrens C. Presl por segmentos basales reducidos a 1/5-1/2 del tamaño de los siguientes (vs. 2/3-3/4), pinnas basales no bifurcadas (vs. bifurcadas), ápice de las pinnas mucronado (vs. acuminado) y ápice de los segmentos ondulado (vs. dentado). También es diferente de Pteris consanguinea Mett. ex Kuhn por pinnas deltado-lanceoladas (vs. oblon- gas), con un par de segmentos reducidos en la base (vs. sin ellos), pinnas basales sin lóbulos basicópicos alargados (vs. con lóbulos basiscópicos) y segmentos enteros a ondulados (vs. dentados).
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6 Lee mas

A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

Abstract: A new species of zephyrinid nudibranch of the genus Janolus Bergh 1884 is described from the Pacific Coast of North America and Costa Rica. J. anulatus sp. nov. differs from other species of Janolus by its external and internal morphology. J. anulatus has a brown or white body with pink, white, and brown spots, smooth papillae epithelium at the base and papillated in the distal part, unbranched digestive gland ducts, smooth jaws, and smooth rachidian and lateral teeth. The species is compared with other species from the Panamic Province and the Western Atlantic. A new extension range of J. barbarensis is documented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(4): 1295-1305. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.
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Variation in altitudinal populations of the salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, on the Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica

Variation in altitudinal populations of the salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, on the Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica

The tropical plethodontid salamander, Bolitoglossa sltbpaJmata, is well known for the striking variation it exhibits in color and pattern. Comments on this variability were included in the original description by BOULENGER ( 1 ) and later by DUNN ( 2 ) . T A YLOR (6) noted the general types of coloration present in the species and ,also described two closely related forms, B.' torfesi and B. pes­ rubra. Subsequent studies by WAKE and BRAME ( 8 ) and myself (7) pointed out that Taylor's descriptions were actually based upon variants of B. subpalmata. During my research on the ecology of B. sttbpalmata in Costa Rica 1 had the opportunity to examine specimens collected throughout the more than 750 m ( 2,460 ft. ) of elevation over which the species occurs in the Cerro de la Muerte (Cerro Buena Vista) in the Cordillera de Talamanca. The present study is an attempt to analyze color, pattern and size variation in altitudinal populations ol B. subPalmata in this region.
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11 Lee mas

A new cumacean (Crustacea) genus from beaches of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

A new cumacean (Crustacea) genus from beaches of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

The shallow-water cumaceans of the west coast of the Americas are not well known (Jones 1969); specifically, only six species have been described from the Pacific coast of the Ameri­ cas between California and Tierra del Fuego. The animal described herein was taken during a survey of the tidal flat fauna near Punta Mo­ rales on the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica (Var­ gas 1987), where it shows a seasonal abundance pattern (Vargas 1989). As will be shown below, this new species is especially significant as it has sorne of the diagnostic features of the both Family Leuconidae and the Subfamily Bodotriinae of the Family Bodotriidae.
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A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

Thus far, 26 species are known in the genus Cyllopsis Felder; and its geographic distribution is from the Southern United States to Panama. The majority of the species occurs between Guatemala and Mexico. The habitats of these butterflies are described as montane or submon- tane; a few are found in the lowlands (Miller 1974). In Costa Rica, five species of Cyllopsis have been reported, three of which are known to be endemic to the Talamancan ranges. The host

5 Lee mas

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

Costa Rica, Heredia: La Selva Biol. Sta, Puerto Viejo, 50 m, fogging: Virola koschnyi (7 Enero, 1994, FVKI 1 7/02) (INBio-OET) 19 [INBio]; fogging: Vítex cooperi (5 Enero, 1994, FOT/16112) (INBio-OET) la [INBio). This is the first lowland record of this species. Previous collections are from Tapanti (1300 m), Costa Rica, and Chiriqui (1400 m), Pan ama (twice). The lowland differ from fue highland populations (Fig. 20) by being smaller (1.6 mm vs 2.0 mm) and by having slightly larger, closer eyes. The Slze difference can probably be explained by the positive correlation between altitude and body size wmch has been demonstrated for many other Costa Rican species of tms genus (lordal 1998); the slightly larger eyes might be an allometric artifact of being smaller. The aedeagus of this male and of males from Chiriquí, Panama, are identical (rather similar to the aedeagus of S. punctifer Wood, see figs lOf-g in Jordal 1998); consequently the lowland population is most probably of S. piceus. More material, however, might provide evidence for a new species.
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Lycoperdaceae of Costa Rica  I  The genus Morganella

Lycoperdaceae of Costa Rica I The genus Morganella

Dring was reported not only under this name ( 1 0, 1 3 ) , but also as Lycoperdon ePixyloJl Berk. & Curto ( 1 ) and L. slIbincal'11atltm Peck ( 7 ) . We have been un­ able t.o callect two species previously reported for Costa Rica : Bovistd nigl'escens P�rsoÓIl ( 1 ) and Bovis/tj (fulmina/a (Bose. ) Kreisel, cited as Lycoperdol1 acumi­ naif/ni Bose. ( 1 2 ) . Nineteen species, including three new to science, are new records for the country.

7 Lee mas

A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

The genus Pediobius Walker is a large and cosmopolitan group, with the majority of species occuring in the northern temperate regions. Relatively few species have been recorded from the Neotropical region, where Pediobius is thought to be largely replaced by Horismenus Walker (Boucek 1988). So far eight species of Pediobius have been recorded from this region, but some of the records need to be checked (e.g. P. furvum (Gahan), an African species (Kerrich 1973) recorded from the Bahamas and Bolivia by De Santis (1979)). The host spectrum of Pediobius is large, with larvae developing as primary or second- ary parasites in eggs, larvae or pupae of other insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and occasionally other insect orders) (Boucek 1988). The new species described below has been reared from a prepu- pa (larva) of Epilachna mexicana Guèrin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Two previously described species of Pediobius also have Epilachna species as hosts: P. amaurocoelus
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Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

The distinctions between the genus Varicus, when first described by Robins & Bohlke (1961), and the species of Chriolepis presently known have been reduced to minor differences in the branching of pelvic-fin rays (Hastíngs & Bortone 1981) and the extent of squamation on the body. Until the discovery of C. atrimelum, no fully-scaled member of the Chriolepis- Varicus complex had ever been known from the eastern Pacifico The fíve known species of Varicus (Findley 1983) have only been taken in the Western Atlantic. Findley (1983) presented a provisional list of 10 Pacific and six Atlantíc s pecies of Chriolepis. The three authors have sug­ gested that a future consolídation of these two genera may be warranted. Birdsong et al. (1988) found that the Atlantic members of
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6 Lee mas

A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Costa Rica

A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Costa Rica

Colomb:a 900 miles southeast, and northern Venezuela 1000 miles east of the Costa Rican locale. Although closely allied to other American species with com­ pletely divided nasals and more than 3 5 5 scales in the mid-dorsal series, the Costa Rican specimen appears to represent an undescribed population to be known a!;

5 Lee mas

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

Description of the Holotype: An adult male, 305.7 mm in total length; tail length 29.7 mm, comprising 9.7% of total length; head length 23.12 mm from front face of rostral to posterior end of mandible; head width 13.83 mm at broadest point (posterior end of mandible); snout elevated, 6.68 mm in length (from front edge of supraocular to rostral); rostral greatly elevated, about 1.65 times higher than broad; internasals 1.5 times longer than wide, not sepa- rated; nostrils small, dorsally oriented; one pre- ocular; three postoculars; interocular scales 6; supralabials 9/10, 1 contacting anterior nasal, 4 and 5 are the largest; mental small, 1.1 times broader than long; canthal enlarged; no post can- thal, five to six intercanthal scales; internasals in contact; dorsal scales keeled and disposed in 23 rows in neck, 25 at midbody and reduced to 19 one head length from vent; dorsal scales in 6 rows at level of tenth subcaudal; no apical pits apparent; ventrals 143; two preventrals; anal not divided; 30 subcaudals; 24 rows of interrictals; 17 nasofrontals; one row of oculabials between suboculars and supralabials.
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A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

Osteology : No skeletons are available but sorne useful information has been obtained from x-rays. The holotype has a typical Bolitoglossa vertebral column, with an atlas, 1 4 trunk, 1 sa­ eral, 2 caudosacral and 40 caudal vertebrae. It is possible that the tail is regenerated ; if so, this species probably has a very long tail. MVZ 200853 clearly has a regenerated tail which has 25 caudal vertebras. The other adults have 3 8 (MVZ 200894) and 4 2 (UeR 4502) ; these are high numbers for a a small species of this genus. A juvenile (UeR 685 7) has 34 caudal vertebrae . Ribs are present on all trunk vertebrae but the last; but are also missing on one side of the next to last vertebra in UeR 4502. The transition from caudosacral to caudal vertebrae is marked by elongate transverse processes borne at the extreme anterior end of the first caudal verte­ bra which are swept strongly in an anterior di­ rection and terminate at a level equivalent to the midpoint of the last caudosacral vertebra. There is no overlap of the transverse processes of these adj acent vertebrae. Transverse pro­ cesses on the caudal vertebrae quickly regress toward the tail tip in the slender tails, and are nearly absent past caudal vertebra 1 2 to 1 5 . The processes gradually move from an anterior to a more midcentral position.
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The ecology of the tropical Salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, in Costa Rica

The ecology of the tropical Salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, in Costa Rica

ORGAN'S (56) procedures for determining wrvivorship produce signifi_ cantly higher results. Based upon single capture data, age specifie survivorship rates of 0.29 and 0.65, when considered in relationship to ari estimated partial potenti;!, reproductive capacity of 0.58, is not consistent with the concept, "lhe greater ' Ehe ecologieal mortality, the greater the reproductive potential of ' lhe 'pecies ... " (ALLEE el al., 1 ) . B. subpalmata has a higher average number of eggs pe! clutch than most plethodontid species known, aCGording to comparative data given by ]OHNSTON and SHAD (46) ; a characteristic of 'pecies having higb population replacement and shor! life expectancy. Tho estimated individual long­ evity of adults is unusually high. These factors would indieate lhat eggs and young have but little chanee for su�ival. The absence of any homing behavior or strong fidelity on the part of btooding adults, as compared to olher species, infers a higher mortality in eggs than possibly any other phase of lhe life cycle. As no informatian is available on the survival of eggs, the estimafed reproduetive potential is definitely exeessive. If; as assumed; the population is neither inereas­ ing nOr decreasing, the balance would be best indicated by a lower realized re' prdductive performance and an annual survivorship rate of between the calculated minimum and maximum (P = 0.09 and 0.65).
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103 Lee mas

A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

Pectoral base scaled. A triangular patch of cten­ oid scales on the basal part of the pectoral fin. Belly covered with cycloid scales. Opercle cov­ ered with ctenoid scales. Cheek and snout scales. Top of head spiny. Margin of preopercle and one-third of opercular margin spiny. Suborbital ring and nasal bones spiny. Anterior afid posterior orbital flanges well developed. Lateral line canals on suborbital ring and preo­ percle not covered by bone. Palatine teeth pres­ ent.' Number of d0rsal fin elements low: III - XIII or XIV -10 to 13. Most of the third-dorsal rays' branched in adults. Anal fin elements 11, 18-23. Pelvic rays connected by a membrane.
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A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

My wife, Lynda W. Vial, participated in all of the field work and col­ lected the original specimens we carne to recognize as being new. Jay M. Sav­ age of the Department of Biology, University of Southern California (USC-CR) , offered encouragement and editorial advice as well as collaborating in the field work. David B. Wake and Arden H. Brame, Jr., who are two of the leading authorities on Central and South American salamanders, were generous in their suggestions as well as providing data they had gathered during the course of their investigations. Benjamin H. Banta permitted me the opportunity of study­ ing the collections of the California Academy of Sciences. Specimens from the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History (KU) were loaned by Wil­ liam E. Duellman. Wilmer W. Tanner of Brigham Young University was help­ fuI with his pertinent comments. Preparation of the orcein stain squash and determination of the chromosome number was accomplished by Donald H. Humphrey of Oregon State University.
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A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

anteriorly below eye, and extending nearly to snout; lateral line continuing pos­ teriorly on doroslateral surface of body and thence on side of anterior haH of tail. Snout and top of head and body heavily pigmented. In life, snout and dorsum grayish brown, sides of body bluish gray, venter silvery blue, caudal musculature pale grayish brown, caudal fin transparent with brown flecks on proximal edges of anterior one- half of both dorsal and ventral fins. Mouth having shallow lateral fold; median part of upper lip bare; rest of mouth bordered by two raws of papillae; 'scattered small papillae median to fringing rows laterally; upper beak deep and in form of broad arch having slight1y expanded wings; lower beak massive; both beaks having short, moderately pointed serrations; tooth-rows 2/3; upper rows about equal in length; second upper row interrupted medial1y; first and second lower rows nearly as long as upper rows; second lower
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