PDF superior A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

Se describe una nueva especie de salamandra pletodóntida de una localidad a la orilla del Río Quirí, un pequeño tributario del Río Grande de Orosi cerca de Tapantí, Provincia de Cartago, Costa Rica. Bolitoglossa gracilis es una especie pequeña, delgada, de coloración llamativa que parece ser principalmente arbórea. La nueva es­ pecie es un miembro de una comunidad de sala­ mandras bastante diversa. En su morfología es más parecida a B. dim inuta, una especie simpá­ trica más pequeña y a B. subpalmata de mayor tamaño y alopátrica. Además, se considera que la especie descrita originalmente como Bolito­ glossa diminuta debe mantenerse en este géne­
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A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica [Spanish]

A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica [Spanish]

En Mesoamérica P. speciosa Mett. ex Kuhn de Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú es la única especie conocida con lámina 1-pinnado pinnatífida y con las pinnas basales equiláteras, pero esta nueva especie puede diferenciarse por el pecíolo y raquis pajizo a pardo-amarillento (vs. pardo oscuro a atropurpúreo), escasamente escamoso en la base (vs. densamente escamoso); pinnas con los segmentos basales reducidos 1/4-1/2 del tamaño de los restantes (vs. segmentos basales del mismo tamaño que los otros), estos no falcados o escasamente así (vs. falcados), el ápice de las pinnas mucronado (vs. agudo); nervaduras en una serie paralela a las costas y las cóstulas con las venas marginales libres (vs. nervaduras en varias series de areolas en las costas y cóstulas).
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Variation in altitudinal populations of the salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, on the Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica

Variation in altitudinal populations of the salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, on the Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica

' This report has been extracted and revised from a dodoral dissertation submitted to the University of Southern California under the direction of Dr. Jay M. Savage. My field studies in Costa Rica were partially supported by a grant from the Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society. Initial studiés related to this work were a:ccomplished during my affiliation with the Depar­ tamento de Biología; Universidaél de Costa Rica.

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New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

Elytra l.20-1.36 (1.28) times longer than wide, 1.48-1.62 (1.52) longer than pronotum; sides almost straight and parallel on basal two-thirds, rather narrowly rounded behind; striae not impressed, punctures small, shallow, spaced by less than diameter of a puncture; interstriae two times wider than striae, punctures two-third width of strial punctures, mostly uniseriate; interstriae 10 acutely elevated to sternum 3; declivity rather steep, convex; strial and interstrial punctures as on disco Vestíture consisting of interstrial rows of spatulate bristles, mostly on declivity, bristles as long as distance between rows, slightly closer to one another within a row; minute hairlike setae in rows on striae and interstriae.
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A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

plants recorded for the genus belong to the Poaceae family and especially to the genus Chusquea (DeVries 1987). The new species, Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, possesses white wing coloration which is unique to the genus, i.e. all of the previously described species have brown and grayish brown wing coloration. The female is undiscovered. Here, we describe the male of this new species. The male genitalia is also illustrated.

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A new cumacean (Crustacea) genus from beaches of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

A new cumacean (Crustacea) genus from beaches of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

female in general body shape and details of appendages, although smaller and with less elongate pseudorostral lobes (Fig. 4A). Eyelobe more truncate. Carapace dorsal crest with only two or three serrations (Fig. 4B). Antenna 1 similar to that of female (Fig. 3F). Antenna 2 highly modified into clasping structure; article three longest; distal articles with several short setae along ventral margin and armed distally with two recurved setae; flagellum not distin­ guishable (Fig. 4C). Exopod present only on pereopod 1. Two pairs of pleopods, each with elongate peduncle and very short rami; inner ramus without external process. Pleopod two with several rows of outwardly-directed scales on posterior surface of peduncle (Fig. 4D).
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A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

some brown spots (Fig 1A). Around the eyes, there is a translucent light cream mask. A pink spot extends from behind the rhinophores to the anterior part of the cardiac area. There is another pink spot in front of the rhinophores with two opaque white spots to the sides. The cardiac area is opaque white in color. The anus is opaque white with a small stalk. Rhinophores are dark cream with light apices and some cen- tral dark brown spots. The inter-rhinophoral crest is opaque white with a few cream spots. The digestive gland within the papillae is chocolate brown. The background color of the papillae is light cream with some large brown and opaque white spots. The smaller papil- lae on the digestive gland are yellow. There are some green reflective specks distributed homogenously on the body. Dorsally, the foot
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Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

MATERIALS AND METHODS The eggs, larvae, and pupae were collected in Costa Rica in an oak forest near the Pan American Highway at Villa Mills, Cerro de la Muerte (San José province) (Fig. 1), and CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza) Biological Station in Cuericí (Cartago province), at elevations between 2800 and 3100 m. Larvae from E. conspersum were first collected in January 1998 at the end of the wet season and reared by Donald R. Davis (DRD). The wet season in this area extends from April through December or January. Heavy rains are common during these months, with a yearly annual rainfall of 2 812 mm (Kappelle 1996). During the dry season in the year 2000, Kenji Nishida (KN) visited the same area and began collecting additional material, by inspecting fronds and conducting extensive observations in the field. In this region, the dry season starts in December or January and ends in mid- to late April. Although the rain is infre- quent, the humidity remains high and dense fog is common in the afternoons. The annual aver- age temperature is 10.9°C, and the temperature sometimes decreases to -3°C during the dry season (Kappelle 1996).
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Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Abstract: A new species of seven-spined goby is described from !he Pacific in deep water off Isla del Coco. The species displays characteristics intermediate between amphiarnerican species of !he gemis Chriolepis and species of the Atlantic genus Varicus, botb of which also lack head pores. The holotype and only known specimen of Chriolepis atrimelum is distinguished from its congeners by !he completely scaled body, including chest and belly; !he greatly extended fu-st !bree dorsal-fin spines of tbe male; tbe long dorsal and anal fins; and the large black opercular blotch.
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A new species of cichlid fish, Cichlasoma ryhtisma, from the Río Sixaola drainage, Costa Rica

A new species of cichlid fish, Cichlasoma ryhtisma, from the Río Sixaola drainage, Costa Rica

Upper lateral line origin just aboye upper margin of gill opening, continuing aImost par­ allel to dorsal profile and terminating below middle soft dorsal fin-rays; pored scales 1 7-2 1 , usually 20. Lower lateral line beginning three scale rows below end of upper line and con­ tinuing to end of hypural plate ; pored scales 9-14, usually 1 1 , one or two pored scales on mid-caudal fin rays not included in count. Regan's longitudinal scale series 29-33 , usualIy 3 1 . Scales in longitudinal series from upper margin of gill opening to end of hypural complex 27-32, usually 29. Transverse scale rows between origin of dorsal fin and lateral line 5-7, u sually 6 . Transverse scale rows between origin of anal fin and lateral line 1 2- 1 3, usualIy 1 2.
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Angiostrongylus costaricensis n  sp  (Nematoda:Metastrongyloidea), a new lungworm occurring in man in Costa Rica

Angiostrongylus costaricensis n sp (Nematoda:Metastrongyloidea), a new lungworm occurring in man in Costa Rica

Fourteen species of the genus Angiostrongyltls, created by KAMENSKY ( 18 ) , have been described, but among these only A. cantonensis (Chen, 1935) Dougherty, 1946 has been incriminat{:d as a causal agent of disease in mano The first investigators who found this parasite in human s were Nomura and Lin in 1945 (BEAVER and ROSEN, 10) . However, because the paper was published in ]apanese, it failed to appear in the standard indexing and abstracting journals and this finding remained unknown until ROSEN ' et ajo (24, 2 5 ) , HORro and ALICATA ( 17 ) and ALICATA ( 1, 2 ) established the real importance of this work by attributing eosinophilic meningitis to this parasite. Recent studies have shown that parasitized rats are found in most tropical zones, except those of Africa and the Americas (ALICATA, 6 ) . ALICATA (3) searched unsuccessfully for A. ca�tone1ZSis in Costa Rica. However, for several years we have had the opportunity to study a clinico-pathological picture, observed mainly in children, characterized by the formation of granulomas with heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the abdominal cavity. We propose the name Angiostrongylus costarice1ZSis, n. sp. foc the etiological agent of this disease, becallse this parasite has many mor­ phological characteristics that distinguish it from the other species of the genus.
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A new corticicolous species of the genus Tubulicium (Polyporales) from southern Spain

A new corticicolous species of the genus Tubulicium (Polyporales) from southern Spain

Tubulicium filicicola was originally described as Tubulicrinis filicicola from New Zea- land by Cunningham (1963). It has small basidiospores, 6–8 × 2 µm, which are allantoid with a blunt apex, and grows on trunks of the tree fern Cyathea dealbata (G. Forst.) Sw. (Cyatheaceae). It is only known from New Zealand (Boidin & Gaignon, 1992). Tubulicium vermiculare was first found on Reunion Island (Boidin & Gilles, 1986). It also grows on ferns like Cyathea excelsa Sw. and C. borbonica Desv. (Cyatheaceae); and the very curved basidiospores measure 8.5–10 × 2.5–3(–3.5) µm. It is recorded both from New Zealand (Boidin & Gaignon, 1992) and Costa Rica (Kisimova-Horovitz et al., 1998).
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New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

tlation of characters also serves to distinguish the new form fro111 other species of Brachyrhaphis : body angulated at dorsal origin ; Sl10ut pointcd; anal fin of female ve�y long (equals head length ) ; dorsal fin rays of both sexes veey long (last rays reaching from less than eye díameter to les s than pupi1 diameter distance f rom procurrent caudal rays) ; co10rs in 1if e pa1e orange or rose-colored body and caudal fin, dorsal fin red-orange; 5-6 short scrrae on subdistal �eg­ ments of ray 4p; primary gonactínost comp1ex widely expanded; a paír of proximal and distal lateral wings on gonapophysis 4, a proximal pair on gona­ pophysis 9; gonapophyses well developed, first two witb uncini which arise low on gonapophyseal shaft; gonopodium 3 times in SL; premaxillary sym­ physis of males without bony knob; no membranous processes at tip of gono­ podium; no bean-shaped pad on tip of first ventral rayo
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A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

es and with anterior end concave to embrace protruding part of median propodeum (the so- called nucha), petiole relatively longer in male. An additional character present in Pediobius but so far undetected, which is also an apo- morphy, is the interrupted posterior margin of the prepectus (Fig. 2D). This character was introduced by Schauff (1991) in his phyloge- netic analysis of the Holarctic genera of Entedoninae and was regarded as an apomor- phy allegedly present only in the entedonine genera Alachua Boucek and Schauff, Edovum Grissell and Horismenus. Pediobius was included in the analysis but the presence of this character in Pediobius was not mentioned.
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A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

Because the methods for phylogenetic inference depend on their underlying sequence divergence model, 10 models were examined to find the one that best fits the data using ModelTest (version 2.1, Posada and Crandall 1998). The models are: Jukes- Cantor, Kimura 2 parameter, Tamura-Nei equal frequencies, Kimura 3 parameter, SYM, Felsenstein81, Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano, Tamura-Nei, Kimura 3 parameter unequeal base frequencies, and General time reversible (see references in Posada and Crandall 1998). These models were tested under four different schemes of among-site variation: 1) equal rates among all sites, 2) a proportion of sites assumed invariant while equal rates are assumed for variable sites (I), 3) rates at all sites assumed to follow a gamma distribution (G), 4) a combination of I + G (some sites invariable, those variable assume gamma dis- tribution). The resulting combination of 40 models allowed for testing four null hypothe- ses on our data: equal base frequencies, equal rates of transitions and transversions, rates equal among sites, and no invariable sites. Because all models are interrelated, ModelTest incorporates a likelihood ratio test to evaluate the goodness of fit of the data to the models. For ML analyses implemented via PAUP*, input order was randomized and glob- al swapping across all nodes was implement- ed (using the global option). The ts:tv ratio was estimated empirically from the sequences. In all analyses, shortest trees were obtained using the heuristic search option with stepwise addition and 100 random taxon-sequence addition replicates in each search. Nodal sup- port was assessed by conducting 100 heuristic non-parametric bootstrap replicates (Hillis and Bull 1993).
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A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

Bolitoglossa nigrescens (type locality : Boquete Road Camp between Villa Mills and San Isidro del General, Provincia de San José, Costa Rica) is known only from the holotype, which we have examined. TAYLOR (2) reported that the single known individual was an adult female. The specimen measures 45.1 mm standard length and has a broader head (standard length 6.0 times head width) and fewer maxillary teeth ( 17) than any of the type series of B. epimela. The hind limbs are also shorter (9.3 mm) than in B. epimela of similar size. The two species have similar amounts of webbing, but the hands and feet of B. nigresciJIns are thicker with subcylindrical digits and larger subterminal pads. Both are similarly colored. Color, amount of webbing, and possibly size are the only characters relating B. nigrescens and B. epimela. It appears that; a
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The ecology of the tropical Salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, in Costa Rica

The ecology of the tropical Salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, in Costa Rica

average). The smallest weighed only 25 % of the largest yet the dilference io weight 1055 between Ihese two was. less than 2%. Water content was an essential· ly constant proportion of the total weight. 1 find no basis for his conclusion Ihat ,maller salamanders contain significantly more body water tban larger ones. Five experimeots were conducted to establish the critical level of water loss in B. !Nbpalmata. All 27 anim.ls used in Ihese experiments \Vere prehydrated On super·saturated' fater paper in closed gallon ja" for 18 hours. A Thelco Pr<o ei.sion Oven (Model 6) was heated to 4 0 · C for 24 hours prior to experimen· tation to cemove excess meisture from the cabinet and then allowed te stabilize at room temperature. The insulated eabine! walls permitted air temperatures to be maintained between 22 and 24' C at an uncontrolled relative bumidity of from 50 to 58%. Before eaeh weighing on a triple beam balance (Obaus Cent· ogram, Model 3 1 1 ) Ihe speeimen was "walked" over absorbent paper to re· move excess body surEace water. Care was taken to avoid any c10acal discharge. Weights were recorded immediateJy prior to experimentation and at intervals of about 45 to 60 minutes duriog Ihe tests or at the onse! of any observed stress. Six control specimeos were rnaintained in eovered moist chambers and subjected to otherwise identical conditions.
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A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

blotches at dorsal midline and orange coloring and brown crosshatching along middle of flanks. A wide white interspace separating second and third crossbars. Third crossbar divided into two bright red bars with sorne crosshatching. Peduncular bar and caudal fin bright red, a slightly paler bar at base of caudal fin. Head mostly white with dark facial bars and red spots on upper margin of eyes and on dark bar behind eye. Small yellow spots sprin­ kled over nape and most of body, most visible at pale interspaces and on nape. AH dorsal fin elements red. Base of pectoral fin dusky yello­ wish, subproximally a large white blotch; distal three-quarters of fin with red rays abo ve, yellow rays below.
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A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

STAGE 25.- Tadpoles having some yolk present, although gut beginning to form; external gills lost; sinistral, ventro-lateral spiracle present; external nares present. At mid-length of tail depth of caudal musculature les s than one-third depth of tail; caudal musculature distinctly curved upwards posteriorly (Fig. 1 1 ) . Top of head, orbital region, and abdomen moderately pigmented; caudal muscu­ lature and fins, except anterior one-third of ventral fin, sparsely pigmentedá small flecks present on caudal fin. Mouth, except median anterior edge, bordered by two rows of small papilla e lateraUy and one row posteriorly; both beaks moderate­ ly developed and bearing small serrations; two upper and three lower tooth­ rows; second upper row broadly interrupted medially; first lower row slightly shorter than upper rows; second lower row as long as first and interrupted medially: third lower row short and composed of small teeth (Fig. 1 5 ) .
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A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

REMARKS: It appears that sexual maturity is not deve10ped in individuals of les s than 30 mm snout-vent length. Stained sections of the gonads of an adult male (USC-CR 1 393) collected in September showed that the animal was actively producing sperm, recognizable in the two-lobed testes and the vas ef­ ferentia. USC-CR 2612 possessed testes of one and two lobes. An adult female (USC-CR 1392) contained numerous ripe follicles with a large suply of vitel­ line material. The chromosome number is n= 1 3, as indicated by study of a chromosome squash preparation.
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