PDF superior A new species of stingless bee (Meliponini) from Costa Rica

A new species of stingless bee (Meliponini) from Costa Rica

A new species of stingless bee (Meliponini) from Costa Rica

HIND TIBIA (Fig. 2 ) : Length 3 times its width; shape claviform and slightly inflated, with posterior distal extremity rounded; corbicula short and shallow, restricted to apical one-fourth; rostellum2 composed of 2 1 strong bristles, about as long as half width of flagellum; inner surface with a distinct raised pu­ bescent area and a relatively wide glabrous ciepres'sion along posterior margin; posterior margin with simple and plumose hairs.

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A new species of anole lizard, genus Norops (Squarnata: Polychrotidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

A new species of anole lizard, genus Norops (Squarnata: Polychrotidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

Comparisons: N. pandoensis is a member of the fuscoauratus species group. Lizards of this group are small to moderate in size, have small head scales, small dorsal scales, mostIy smooth ventrals, long tails that are round to subcylindrical in cross-section. Members of this group usually have an inscriptional rib for­ mula of 3: 1 (Etheridge, 1965) as is the case with N. pandoensis.

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A review of the geographlcal distribution of the genus Anantheris Thorell (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with description of a new species

A review of the geographlcal distribution of the genus Anantheris Thorell (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with description of a new species

montré l' existence d' un couloir de distribution. avec des formes en gradient... Notre premiere réaction á l' égard du matériel de Costa Rica a été de proposer une nouvelle espéce ..... Seule. l'étude d'un matériel beaucoup plus important, associé a l'étude de son écologie, pourra montrer l'existence ou non de véritables formes indépendantes." In their monograph on the scorpions of Costa Rica, Francke and Stockwell (1987) accepted my 1982 decision and redescribed the Ananteris from Costa Rica
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A new species of Trapania (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) from the Pacific coast of Central America

A new species of Trapania (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) from the Pacific coast of Central America

A partir de dos ejemplares recolectados en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica y Panamá, se describe una nueva especie Trapania inbiotica sp. nov., la cual se distingue por tener el cuerpo blanco con manchas rojas y rin6foros blan­ cos con algunas manchas amarillas pequefias. La rádula está compuesta por 28 filas de dientes donde cada diente tiene de 21-25 dentículos y una cúspide cónica y larga situ­ ada cerca del lado exterior. Dos o tres de esos dentículos localizados en la parte interna de la cúspide son más pequefios que los otros. También están presentes de 1-3 dentículos en la parte externa de la cúspide. La armadura labial está compuesta por uncinos muy irregulares.
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Three new species of Elaphoglossum Schott ex J. Sm. (Dryopteridaceae) from the pacific of Costa Rica

Three new species of Elaphoglossum Schott ex J. Sm. (Dryopteridaceae) from the pacific of Costa Rica

In all molecular analyses, section Elaphoglossum consists of two well supported subclades, each of which corresponds to a subsection. Only subsection Pachyglossa was recognized by Mickel and Atehortúa (1980), but Skog et al. (2004) pointed out that molecular analyses supported the distinction between two clades: Platyglossa Christ and Pachyglossa. Both names were first published by Christ (1899), but their morphological definitions must be modified regarding changes of species belonging to each subsection (Rouhan et al., 2004). Moran, Garrison and Rouhan (2007) indicated that no known macromorphological or anatomical characters distinguish these two clades; however, three perispore characters are synapomorphic for subsect. Pachyglossa: the presence of cristae, spines and perforations.
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Sicydium adelum, a new species of gobiid fish (Pisces: Sicydiidae) from Atlantic slope streams of Costa Rica

Sicydium adelum, a new species of gobiid fish (Pisces: Sicydiidae) from Atlantic slope streams of Costa Rica

Early descriptions relied heavily on the extent of squamation on the occipital region and belly, the length of dorsal fin spines and pectoral fin, and, in the case of Sicydium vin­ cente Jordan & Evermann and S, plumieri (Bloch), perhaps on juveníle characters. It ís now known that these characterístics vary to a large degree wíth the age and sex of the fish. Differences in coloration are still important. Scale counts, pectoral ray counts and especially variations related to dentition, are used in the present study to describe a new species, syn­ topic with Sicydium altum Meek along the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. The new species is remarkably similar in coloration, yet smaller and differing strikingly in dentition.
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Two new species of cichlid fishes, Cichlasoma sajica and C  diquis, from southeastern Costa Rica

Two new species of cichlid fishes, Cichlasoma sajica and C diquis, from southeastern Costa Rica

the end of the dorsal fin base and the end of the anal fin base. The seventh bar is centered on fue caudal pedunde or lies slightly closer to the caudal fin base; this bar is very faint or absent on some individuaIs. A blotch whoUy on the caudal fin base is distinct on sorne individuals and absent from others; this blotch is usually centered on the fin base and rarely extends from dorsal to ventral margins. The blotch was not included in the vertical bar count Anterior to the first vertical bar of some males, are one or two indistinct short bars inclined toward the head. The anteriormost bar is most evident dorsally at the nape and fades out before reaching the upper margin of the gill opening. The second short bar is most pronounced below the dorsal fin origin and fades out posterior to the gill opening or may fuse with the first vertical bar. On sorne preserved material an indistinct horizontal band lies perpendicular to the third bar and extends anteriorly to the upper margin of the gill opening.
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A new species of cichlid fish, Cichlasoma ryhtisma, from the Río Sixaola drainage, Costa Rica

A new species of cichlid fish, Cichlasoma ryhtisma, from the Río Sixaola drainage, Costa Rica

Upper lateral line origin just aboye upper margin of gill opening, continuing aImost par­ allel to dorsal profile and terminating below middle soft dorsal fin-rays; pored scales 1 7-2 1 , usually 20. Lower lateral line beginning three scale rows below end of upper line and con­ tinuing to end of hypural plate ; pored scales 9-14, usually 1 1 , one or two pored scales on mid-caudal fin rays not included in count. Regan's longitudinal scale series 29-33 , usualIy 3 1 . Scales in longitudinal series from upper margin of gill opening to end of hypural complex 27-32, usually 29. Transverse scale rows between origin of dorsal fin and lateral line 5-7, u sually 6 . Transverse scale rows between origin of anal fin and lateral line 1 2- 1 3, usualIy 1 2.
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New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

tlation of characters also serves to distinguish the new form fro111 other species of Brachyrhaphis : body angulated at dorsal origin ; Sl10ut pointcd; anal fin of female ve�y long (equals head length ) ; dorsal fin rays of both sexes veey long (last rays reaching from less than eye díameter to les s than pupi1 diameter distance f rom procurrent caudal rays) ; co10rs in 1if e pa1e orange or rose-colored body and caudal fin, dorsal fin red-orange; 5-6 short scrrae on subdistal �eg­ ments of ray 4p; primary gonactínost comp1ex widely expanded; a paír of proximal and distal lateral wings on gonapophysis 4, a proximal pair on gona­ pophysis 9; gonapophyses well developed, first two witb uncini which arise low on gonapophyseal shaft; gonopodium 3 times in SL; premaxillary sym­ physis of males without bony knob; no membranous processes at tip of gono­ podium; no bean-shaped pad on tip of first ventral rayo
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A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

External morphology: The body is broad- est anteriorly, tapering to the acute posterior end of the foot. The rhinophores are smooth basally and perfoliate distally with about 13 complete or incomplete transverse lamellae. The inter-rhinophoral crest located between the rhinophores is hourglass shaped, and mod- erately convoluted (Fig 1D and 6A). A pair of short, broad, digitiform oral tentacles extends from either side of the head (Fig 6B). The smooth dorsal papillae are stout, wider in the middle, and have a short prolongation at the apex (Fig 2C). In the specimen examined, the papillae are arranged in about two rows on either side of the body, with two papillae per row. The digestive gland inserts into the papil- lae at the base and branches irregularly within the papilla. The anus is located mid-dorsally near the posterior end of the dorsum (Fig 6D). The large gonopore is located on the right side in the middle of the body. A large anal gland is present below the anus.
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A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

The first list exclusively for ferns from Cocos Island was presented by Gómez (1975a, 1975b) who registered 60 species of ferns and lycophytes and of them only six (10%) are endemic. After that, other authors as: Gómez (1976) described a new species of Thelypteris Schmidel and reported three species; Smith & Lellinger (1985) described other new species of Thelypteris; Adams (1992) described a new species of Asplenium L.; Rojas (1996) described a new species of Hymenophyllum Sm. and other in Terpsichore A.R. Sm.; Rojas (2001a) described a new species of Hypolepis Bernh.; Rojas (2003) described two new species of Elaphoglossum Sm.; Rojas (2004) a new variety of Trichomanes collariatum Bosch; Rojas & Trusty (2004) described two new varieties of Asplenium delicatum C. Presl and Saccoloma elegans Kaulf. respectively, also registered 80 infrageneric taxa and of them eighteen (22.5%) are endemic. Rojas (2009) described a new species of Elaphoglossum. Rojas (2011) described four new species and registered six other species. Rojas (2013a) described a new species of Stenogrammitis Labiak and Rojas (2013b) described a new species of Danaea Sm. Also Gómez (1976) registered three species and Rojas (2001b) validated the name of Cyathea alfonsiana L.D. Gómez published by Gómez (1971). In summary, 85 infrageneric taxa have been reported and of them twenty five (29.4%) are endemic.
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Pomadasys empherus, a new species of haemulid fish from the tropical eastem Pacific

Pomadasys empherus, a new species of haemulid fish from the tropical eastem Pacific

Abstract: A fifth eastem Pacific species of Pomado.sys is described from four specimens collected from two localities on the west coast of Costa Rica. The species is similar to P. branickii in a number of respects, but in general appearance most resembles P. macracanthus. It is distinguished by the coarse serrations on the preopercular margino deep body, long first anal fin spine and numerous other characteristics in which it differs from other Poma'dasys species.
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Two new species of Cleridae (Coleoptera) from a Costa Rican cloud forest

Two new species of Cleridae (Coleoptera) from a Costa Rican cloud forest

Abstrad: Two species of Clerini (Cleridae: Clerinae), Colyphus hansoni and Enoclerus (E.) puravida , are described from malaise trap samples collected in a patch of c1oudforest at Zurquí de Moravia, San Jose Province, Costa Rica. Colyphus hansoni is compared to its congeners and to the sympatric Enoclerus (Coniferoclerus) subviolaceus (Gorham). The new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of color, seta! pattem and elytral sculpturing. A sympatric, undescribed Colyphus species resembles C. hansoni in details of shape and sculpturing, and may prove to be its sister species. Colyphus hansoni has the elyra tricolorous (red, ivory and black) and thus is easily separated from the undescribed species which has the e1ytra strictly bicolorous (stramineous and black). The generic status of the latter is discussed in relation to Colyphus. The presence of sexually dimorphic tarsal claws in Colyphus is noted for the first time. Enoclerus (E.) puravida is characterized as part of a complex of several similar and possibly related species distributed in Panarna and Costa Rica. It is similar lo several other Mexican and Central American Enoclerus species lhat share small size, ant-like form, shining black or reddish elytral integument and distinctive sculpturing of the elytral base. This group, consisting of E. (E.) tubercularis (Gorharn 1882), E. (E.) gibbus Ekis 1976, E. (E.) albosignatus Ekis 1976, E. (E.) puravida and sorne undescribed species, may eventually prove io form a clade-and thus warrant elevation to subgeneric or generic status. Among described species, E. (E.) puravida is most similar to the PananlalÚan E. (E.) albosignatus, from which it differs by having the of each elytron coarsely alveoJate-¡iunctate and only incidentally and feebly costate, rather than smooth and "embossed" with !bree shalJow carinae. The two species also differ in details of coloration and pronotal sculpturing. E. (E.) puravida may be mimicking ants.
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A new species of poeciliid fish, Poeciliopsis santaelena, from Peninsula Santa Elena, Area de
Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

A new species of poeciliid fish, Poeciliopsis santaelena, from Peninsula Santa Elena, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

and in some larger individuals the spots are vertically elongated (Fig. 5). Populations from El Salvador have quite small lateral spots, but jet-black ventral spotting is well developed (Fig. 6). Nicaraguan populations from both versants resemble each other, and also have very small lateral spots; some individuals lack nearly all lateral spotting, although ventral pigment is still evident. Specimens of P. san- taelena lack both lateral and ventral spotting (the thin ventral anal to caudal line is present and shared with other species of the genus), nor do they present crossbars or other lateral markings as other Costa Rican Poeciliopsis such as P. turrubarensis, P. paucimaculata and P. elongata. Poeciliopsis retropinna, also an unmarked Costa Rican species, is distinguished from santaelena by its high number of total gill rakers (27-34) and other characteristics of members of the subgenus Aulophallus.
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Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Abstract: A new species of seven-spined goby is described from !he Pacific in deep water off Isla del Coco. The species displays characteristics intermediate between amphiarnerican species of !he gemis Chriolepis and species of the Atlantic genus Varicus, botb of which also lack head pores. The holotype and only known specimen of Chriolepis atrimelum is distinguished from its congeners by !he completely scaled body, including chest and belly; !he greatly extended fu-st !bree dorsal-fin spines of tbe male; tbe long dorsal and anal fins; and the large black opercular blotch.
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Notes on two species of stingless ground nesting bees (Trigona mirandula and Trigona buchwaldi) from the Pacific rain forest of Costa Rica

Notes on two species of stingless ground nesting bees (Trigona mirandula and Trigona buchwaldi) from the Pacific rain forest of Costa Rica

irregular and slanting (Fig. 4) , with a 1ength of about 20 to 35 cm. In one of the nest, however, the entrance burrow was vertical and very long ( 1 60 cm) . This was probab1y due to the fact that the nest had been built in a hillside of sand-stone (Fig. 8) . The turret protrudes aboye the soil surface forming a small and fragile structure ranging from 1 to 5 cm in height depending on the amount of organic debris fOLUld on the ground (Figs. 5, 7 ) . This turret is made of light brown to pa1e yellowish waxy mat�ria1, and is thin and with numerous small perforations. Its diametcr is usually 8 mm and it is more or less round (Fig. 6), but i t can a1so have an irregular shape (Fig. 7) . Be10w the ground the diameter of the burrow varies at irregular interva1s from 7 to 1 5 mm, and it is 1ined with a very thin layer of waxy material. The entrance burrow penetrates the nest cavity at one side, entering the brood chamber and ending ámong the enve10ping sheets (Fig. 4) .
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A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

Se describe una nueva especie de salamandra pletodóntida de una localidad a la orilla del Río Quirí, un pequeño tributario del Río Grande de Orosi cerca de Tapantí, Provincia de Cartago, Costa Rica. Bolitoglossa gracilis es una especie pequeña, delgada, de coloración llamativa que parece ser principalmente arbórea. La nueva es­ pecie es un miembro de una comunidad de sala­ mandras bastante diversa. En su morfología es más parecida a B. dim inuta, una especie simpá­ trica más pequeña y a B. subpalmata de mayor tamaño y alopátrica. Además, se considera que la especie descrita originalmente como Bolito­ glossa diminuta debe mantenerse en este géne­
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A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

Most of the diagnostic features of P. porrasi might be described as neotenic char- acters that are expressed early on in other relat- ed members of the group. For instance, Porras et al. (1981) stated that juveniles of P. nasutum differ from adults in that they are “noticeably brighter in color and more distinct in pattern than are the adults” (pp. 99). All adult P. porrasi collected by us are also brightly col- ored and banded. Juvenile P. nasutum are also characterized by the following combination: usually with head markings, pale vertebral line present, well defined dorsal blotches, and a conspicuous cream to yellowish coloration in the tip of the tail, features that are also present in juveniles of other terrestrial pitvipers (Solórzano 1990, Solórzano et al. 1998). All these characters are present in adult P. porrasi of both sexes. Thus, it seems that retention of neotenic characters was a byproduct of the process of speciation that resulted in P. por- rasi. Speciation through neoteny might not be an uncommon pattern, as several examples of neotenic lineages are known among lower ver- tebrates (Chippindale et al. 2000).
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A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

STAGE 25.- Tadpoles having some yolk present, although gut beginning to form; external gills lost; sinistral, ventro-lateral spiracle present; external nares present. At mid-length of tail depth of caudal musculature les s than one-third depth of tail; caudal musculature distinctly curved upwards posteriorly (Fig. 1 1 ) . Top of head, orbital region, and abdomen moderately pigmented; caudal muscu­ lature and fins, except anterior one-third of ventral fin, sparsely pigmentedá small flecks present on caudal fin. Mouth, except median anterior edge, bordered by two rows of small papilla e lateraUy and one row posteriorly; both beaks moderate­ ly developed and bearing small serrations; two upper and three lower tooth­ rows; second upper row broadly interrupted medially; first lower row slightly shorter than upper rows; second lower row as long as first and interrupted medially: third lower row short and composed of small teeth (Fig. 1 5 ) .
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A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

palpi long (third segment approximately one third of second segment) and semi-porrect. Second segment with hairs extending three to four times the segment width. Tegumen form of shield. Uncus long, curved, and undivided. Gnathos paired, tapered and not freely articu- lated. Valvae slender, arched laterally; tip gen- tly tapered and weakly dented. Aedeagus straight.

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