In their studies, these authors offer a number of suggestions for the teaching-learning of foreign languages inPre-primary School. We also find recommendations and suggestions for language teaching which examine in detail the evolutionary characteristics of young learners, the most appropriate methodological resources for approaching the foreign language, the adaptation of narrative resources to this age-group and the planning of projects on early language acquisition. Due to its relationship to this investigation, it is important to make reference to the work done by López Rodríguez (2001) regarding the difficulties rural schools find in their attempt to teach Englishin a suitable manner. The study analyses the fact that boys and girls of different levels share the same classroom and puts forward a proposal for the use of a modular programme for teaching the foreign language. This author suggests the use of a single book, called «module», which can be used for the entire group of activities that are specific to each level. The author’s investigation tries to show that in rural schools, education can and must be carried out in a different manner.
The Early Years Foundation Stage Statutory Framework (2012: 7) establishes that the main early learning goals of all subject areas are listening, attention, understanding and speaking for it is precisely at this stage that the listening and speaking skills become the foundation on which literacy is built on. More precisely, the Department for Education and Skills document Letters and Sounds (DfES, 2007: 2) specifies that during Phase One, young children should be provided with speaking and listening activities to find easier learning to read and to write later on, because “listening underpins all language development ” (Spooner & Woodcock, 2013: 4). Linse (2005: 25) stresses that the listening and the speaking skills are the foundation for reading and writing: “You need to hear a word before you can say it. You need to say a word before you can read it. You need to say a word before you can write it”. Likewise, ear-training in the EFL pre-primary classrooms has effects on the other skills. On the basis of all this, it is reasonable to think that the earlier children start developing the aural and oral communication skills inEnglish at school, the better. In this regard, it is never too soon to start training the children's ears to actively listen to and speak inEnglish.
Abstract: This study examines CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) science education in two bilingual (Spanish/English) schoolsin Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), a region which has recently implemented «Bilingual or Plurilingual Projects» under the provisions of the new «Integral Plan of Foreign Language Teaching in Castilla-La Mancha». By taking a critical sociolinguistic ethnographic perspective, the article explores how CLIL is understood and accomplished in an actual science classroom through English as the medium of instruction. This empirical approach serves as the framework to reflect upon the pedagogical transformation of traditional core areas, such as science, and the ideologies circulating among science teachers regarding their own practice. By looking into interactional events in situated classroom practices, the analysis sheds light on three key issues: 1) the role of language(s) in the process of meaning-making negotiation; 2) the way content is organised, taught and acquired through English; and 3) how teachers and students construct both academic and linguistic knowledge. From a CLIL perspective, the study examines daily teaching and learning practices and how teachers struggle to appropriate this methodology to integrate content and language while facing multiple institutional, pedagogical, logistics and behavioural challenges in the science classroom. Data comprise CLIL science interactions in two 1st grade of compulsory secondary education (CSE) classrooms at two state-funded private bi/ plurilingual schoolsin La Mancha City (pseudonym), as well as semi-structured interviews carried out with the science teachers involved in the bilingual programme. For this purpose, the CSE lens contributes to better understand how CLIL science education works by establishing links between language policies, teachers’ ideologies and situated practices in relation to wider social processes.
At last, the implications related to how feedback is dealt to the students will also be a matter of discussion of this work. Assisting every students’ requirement may turn to be impossible in big classes. Feedback is important for both, students and teacher; however, it has to be planned in a way that saves time and unnecessary work. This study puts forth that a little more than half of the students, 51.60%, show disagreement with the fact that they cannot benefit from a good feedback, though the difference with the ones who feel that the class lacks this benefit, is not big. The reason for this little margin between the ones who agree and the ones who disagree is simple to explain, the teacher can only answer so many questions due to the lack of time common in large classes, so the students who have questions with no answers, feel as if they were left aside, growing a negative feeling towards the teacher’s way to work out the students’ doubts. Truscott (1999) and Krashen (1994) have discussed the effect of feedback in students. It must be given out the appropriate way to avoid the students’ self-limitation in their participation because of possible public embarrassment, but it cannot be left on the side.
After that , the field research started . Two public high schools of the city of Cariamanga were selected. The survey aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English teaching-learning process. The students were asked an open – ended question about the effect of large classes on them which were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social. The gathered data was registered in tables, to do this, the quantitative method was taken into account. The research techniques used in this study were: Questionnaire , Note-taking. Instruments like questionnaire and tables were also applied. To analyze the results of this
and those without it. The research was carried out adopting the pre-posttest quasi experimental/control groups design. Two instruments were designed by the researcher and two research assistants. These instruments are namely Onuka Mathematics Achievement Test and Onuka English Language Achievement Test. The research was conducted on experimental and control groups. 280 students were involved in the investigation. At the beginning of each lesson a short test of the knowledge gained in the previous lesson was given. The scripts were collected and redistributed to the students after they had worked the solutions on the board, however, ensuring that no student got and marked his/her own paper. The teacher worked out the solutions on the board and then asked the student to randomly exchange their notebooks and mark strictly under his supervision with support of the research assistant. The results were organized and recorded at the end of the lesson. The teacher then proceeded to teach. The exercise lasted for eight weeks. A pre-test was given to each subject group (experimental and control) at the beginning of the investigation. At the end of the eight weeks, a post – test was administered to find out whether or not the treatment had had any effect on the students’
secondary education. As in the previous study, EFL classroom talk was identified as being very often materials-dependent and learner contributions mainly took the form of replies to teacher’s display questions about textbook materials or grammar points. Furthermore, EFL students were supposed to talk about fictitious matters that often remained quite detached from their personal concerns. As a consequence, the adoption of a “they-there-then” deictic perspective instead of a more “I/we-you-here-now” viewpoint reduced the need to mitigate the face-threatening impact of the messages. Unlike Nikula’s (2002) results pointing to the predominance of monologic teacher talk in CLIL, Nikula (2005) claimed a greater number of student-centred CLIL activities that called for the display of a wider range of pragmatic functions (e.g. express opinions, indicate agreement and disagreement and make suggestions). However, even if classroom discourse in these CLIL classrooms proved to be of a more dialogic nature as compared to the CLIL classrooms in Nikula (2002), directness still predominated not only in the teachers’ talk but also in the learners’ contributions. All in all, these findings help reinforce the notion that the interpersonal relationship forged in the classroom context is far removed from the face-to-face interaction that one might encounter in a naturalistic setting outside the classroom context.
Soureshiana, Riahipour (2010), this study focused on the influence of gender in the EFL classroom, the study was carried out in Iran at pre-university schools. The researchers wanted to see if females performed better than males, if there scores in achievement tests were different and how big the difference was. The methodology for the study was simple as they assessed test scores from the end of second semester test, which tested vocabulary, grammar, sentence function and reading comprehension. A special statistical analysis software package called SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 16.0 was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the females performed better in the tests than the males, these results show that gender is an important factor in EFL learning, they found that the effect is significant.
Firstly, Jimakorn and Singhasiri (2006) carried out a study to investigate teachers' beliefs in terms of perceptions, opinions, and attitudes towards teaching Englishin large classes. In order to access the opinions and perceptions of the teachers, it was decided to use a questionnaire. The questionnaire was piloted with the teaching staff of the Department of Language, School of Liberal Arts, KMUTT. It is composed of three parts with open-ended questions, closed-ended questions and rating scales. Part I, open- ended questions, asks for t he participant‟s personal details, gender, teaching experience, education and where they currently worked. Part II, closed- ended questions, concerns the participant‟s knowledge of their university‟s policy on class size. Facts and Opinions on Large Classes was in Part III.
teachers develop their own style of teaching according to their personality. Gower & Walters (1995) give some practical advice to follow when referring to instructions. They suggest to primary create a center of attention in the student to make sure everyone is listening and watching, to employ simple language and short expressions, and to use language at a lower level than the language being taught. Furthermore, teachers should use visual or written clues whenever possible utilizing real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. Making demonstrations if possible, illustrating what to do; break down instructions if the activity requires a series of procedures, provide simple commands in sections and check for understanding, rather than giving out all instructions at the start of the activity. It is also a good idea to target instructions in the sense of explaining the content only to the students who need it, instead of giving complete directions to the class as a whole. In addition, discipline is a very important issue in the classroom. It depends on a number of factors such as: age of students; evidently children require more discipline than adults. Usually young teenagers are considered to be the most complex when it comes to classroom control. Discipline is intimately related to the causes for learning and student motivation whether they are forced to be in class or whether they are there voluntarily. Class size plays an important role, as it is more difficult to keep an orderly atmosphere in a large class than in a smaller one.
From the study, 9 teachers agreed that a class with10 to 15 students is appropriate for effective English teaching. This number represents 60 % of the total. Then, 5 teachers said a classroom with 16 to 25 students is appropriate; this figure accounts for the 33 % of the total. After that, 1 teacher said that the appropriate number of students is from26 to 30 representing 7 % of the total. There was no teacher claiming more than 31 students is acceptable to have a successful English lesson. Woodward (2011), establishes that large classrooms pose several problems like the noise, and too many students restricted to a small area as well as not having enough time to provide them with correct feedback assessment or any individual attention. These are good reasons to consider why most observed teachers agreed on having fewer than 16 students in a classroom. Nevertheless, there is a reasonably large group of the observed teachers who claim a larger number is appropriate instead. The reason is because although the number is high, there are ways to counter-
Moreover, Blatchford, Bassett, and Brown (2011) carried out a research to examine the effects of class size on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interactions. Six hundred students of forty nine educational institutions participated in the study. The general approach of the research was quantitative. Data was collected through careful systematic observations. The observations involved both observing when classroom-based activities started and providing a representative and systematic account of students’ behavior. The observations were done in intervals of ten seconds; there were gaps of twenty seconds between observations to record what had been observed previously. All the collected dada was analyzed by examining relationships between class size and observation measures.
45 On the contrary, the 20% of teachers who answered that there were 26 to 30 students worked at night. In the same way, 7% of teachers who indicated that classes have between16 to 25 students also worked in evening hours. In the observed public high schools with night schedules there were adult students who work during the morning, they have not completed their studies, and need a High School Diploma to enter the university. Similarly, there were young students who help their parents at home or private business and they study at night. An important aspect observed in these classes was the high amount of absent students. That fact influenced class size because there were fewer students than usually and it was not possible to observe the teaching- learning process under real conditions.
More recently, two studies identified the prevalence of DCD in children in the state of São Paulo. Joia’s study (2014), in order to identify the DCD in seven years old children, enrolled in public schoolsin the city of Araraquara, SP, and based on the DSM - IV, used the MABC - 2 to assess the criteria A, the DCDQ - Brazil to evaluate the criteria B. Criteria C and D were evaluated implicitly by the researcher and by parental and teachers report. In this study, it was found a prevalence, joining the motor test and the questionnaire, of 0.99% for severe DCD and 2.97% for moderate DCD, according to the classification of the instrument used in the study (MABC - 2). The study by Silva (2015) using the DSM - 5 and MABC-2, DCDQ-Brazil and teachers report - identified a prevalence of DCD of 7.93% in children of seven years old of public schools, in Itirapina, SP.
BENEM?RITA UNIVERSIDAD AUT?NOMA DE PUEBLA FACULTAD DE LENGUAS Facultad de Lenguas MEXICAN ENGLISH TEACHERS? NARRATIVES ABOUT THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS A THESIS SUBMITED TO THE[.]
How can our students be provided with real life contexts if technology is not brought into their classroom? What are the chances of our students to listen to real conversations, with different accents from people whose first language is English, if it is not through listening activities? This activity is not something that needs to be done once or twice a week in a language lab; it is something it is supposed to be done every day in the classroom. How do we encourage our students with varied activities to practice their language skills, if it is not through bringing videos, movies, music to the classroom? Saying that the teacher is the paramount resource of the class and that nothing else is necessary; it is turning back to a communicative approach, where the teacher is a facilitator, a prompter, a director, but not the main resource.
Aspects such as: discipline, timing, feedback, and instructions are carefully considered when teaching a lesson. This graph shows that the 100% of teachers answered they consider the aspects mentioned above to teach their lessons. It was noticeably observed because there was no sign of indiscipline by the students in spite of the number of students that sometimes exceeded 30, in contrast, all of them were paying attention to the teachers and to the classes. Gower, Phillips & Walters (2005) mention the importance of keeping discipline by establishing rapport among motivating students, giving feedback, trying to find areas of improvement in individual students´ work and using proper timing during classes.
educators, since they have the chance to make use of students’ background, experiences, and abilities, to develop interesting tasks inside the classroom in order to motivate the learners to cooperate, share knowledge, and create a friendly environment where learning take place. On the other hand, Blatchford (2003) claims, that in large classes, to keep students on activities is more complicated than it seems, due to most of the time learners behavior is not the appropriate. Besides, learners in small classes receive individual attention and feedback, which support and benefit the teaching-learning process. It will not be likely when educators have to handle a big number of students.