Hacking se define como realista de entidades, es un filósofo de la cien- cia que se centra en la práctica científica, los humanos, los científicos, in- tervienen en el mundo. Se entiende por realismo de entidades la existencia de entidades que son independientes de la mente humana, es decir, tienen una existencia objetiva. Se justifica la creencia en entidades teóricas so- lamente cuando estamos en una posición de uso de esas entidades para producir efectos. Su realismo ontológico no tiene relación con la semán- tica, ni con los realistas acerca de la verdad. La verdad para Hacking se da dentro de un estilo de razonamiento. Para este autor el mundo está ahí afuera, y existe independientemente; la forma que tenemos de conocerlo es por medio del estilo de razonamiento, de ahí que la verdad no la en- tienda como una relación de correspondencia directa con el mundo. A pesar de que el mundo se nos presenta mediado, lo interpretamos de cierta forma, lo cual no refuta su existencia objetiva e independiente. Tampoco el sujeto interpreta lo que quiere, en tanto que sujeto racional que se ade- cua a cierto estilo de razonamiento, construye la objetividad con sus pares o acepta la establecida.
Inthispaperitis proposed that the prefrontal lobe participates in two closely related but different exec- utive function abilities: (1) ‘‘metacognitive executive functions”: problem solving, planning, concept for- mation, strategy development and implementation, controlling attention, working memory, and the like; that is, executive functions as they are usually understood in contemporary neuroscience; and (2) ‘‘emo- tional/motivational executive functions”: coordinating cognition and emotion/motivation (that is, fulﬁll- ing biological needs according to some existing conditions). The ﬁrst one depends on the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, whereas the second one is associated with orbitofrontal and medial frontal areas. Cur- rent tests of executive functions basically tap the ﬁrst ability (metacognitive). Solving everyday problems (functional application of executive functions), however, mostly requires the second ability (emotional/ motivational); therefore, these tests have limited ecological validity. Contrary to the traditional points of view, recent evidence suggests that the human prefrontal lobe is similar to other primates and hominids. Other primates and hominids may possess the second (emotional executive functions) prefrontal ability, -but not the ﬁrst (metacognitive executive functions) one. Itis argued that metacognitive executive func- tions are signiﬁcantly dependent on culture and cultural instruments. They probably are the result of the development and evolution of some ‘‘conceptualization instruments”; language (and written language as an extension of oral language) may represent the most important one. The second executive function ability (emotional/motivational) probably is the result of a biological evolution shared by other primates. Ó 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
can be seen as a variant of a certain recursion given in an interesting paper of A. Schmidt  and should be compared to it. To solve the recursion we need to introduce certain combinatorial numbers linked to the Stirling numbers of first and second kind. In section 3, namely Theorem 2, we show how a particular case of Theorem 1 can be used to solve in closed form the recursion (2) and is, in some sense, a combinatorial solution of it. This solves also a particular case of Heun’s equation. In Theorem 4 of section 5 we present a generating function related to the combinatorial numbers appearing in Theorem 1.
Mexico is a large country and transportation is an important component in the cost of gas. Mexico could be importing and exporting gas. For example, if the Burgos fields in the north of Mexico live up to their expected promise, 5 Mexico could be exporting gas into Texas while itis importing LNG in the Pacific. Movements of gas within Mexico, and the cost of transporting gas, would be the equilibrating factors. Since thispaperis abstracting from such detail we will assume that the import price of gas is equal to the export price of gas. 6 Similarly, we are going to assume that in the oil market the domestic
tools of the kind found in the earliest archaeological records. The authors found that tool making is associated with the activation of diverse parieto-frontal perceptual-motor systems, but no activa- tion was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. They con- cluded that human capacities for sensorimotor adaptation, rather than abstract conceptualization and planning, were central factors in the initial stages of human technological evolution, such as mak- ing stone tools. Nonetheless, complex cognitive processes (i.e., metacognitive executive functions) seem to be crucial for further development and survival of H. sapiens. The key factor for H. sapiens late evolution seems to be the mental ability to plan and strategize, which allowed them to ﬁnd innovative solutions to the many changing environmental problems which they were exposed (Coo- lidge & Wynn, 2008). This may be one reason to account why H. sapiens survived while Homo neanderthalensis disappeared. Chang- ing environmental conditions (e.g., global climates changes) may require ﬂexible survival strategies. It has been conjectured that during the past history changing physical environment conditions resulted in a selection that gave human ancestors adaptive versa- tility to endure increasing environmental instability (Bonneﬁlle, Potts, Chalié, Jolly, & Peyron, 2004; Potts, 1996, 2004).
ABSTRACT: The current interest about inequality, heightened as a consequence of the economic crisis, is not new among authors linked to the History of Western Economic Thought. This study explores the views that leading authors of economic thought have held about inequality from Antiquity to our days. In particular, the paperis an attempt to establish a link between inequality and the triumph of private property in Western economic systems in the long term. Through the analysis of original texts and previous works of specialists in the field of economic thought, the study shows a relationship, more or less evident, between both aspects. Although criticism against the consolidation of private property and the existence of inequality abound, the former has been fully accepted and integrated into contemporary economic systems and therefore there is hardly any debate or questioning about it. On the other hand, inequality offers a different outlook. While accepting its presence as a fact, inequality generates great interest among the academy, whose members defend diverse positions regarding its origin, its evolution and today’s level of inequality. The debate on inequality, far from being exhausted, is an attractive proposal for future research and reflection.
ABSTRACT: Inthispaper, a methodology using a nonparametric model is used to forecast AC power output of PV plants using as inputs several forecasts of meteorological variables from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model and actual AC power measurements of PV plants. The methodology was built upon the R environment and uses Quantile Regression Forests as machine learning tool to forecast the AC power with a confidence interval. Real data from five PV plants was used to validate the methodology, and results show that the daily production of individual plants can be predicted with a skill score up to 0.361.
Abstract— Inthispaper, we propose an improvement to an approach to data retrieval which is performed in only one access to a bucket hash table or file. The idea behind it, is to let the system assign one digit to the record key so that the hashed new record key is "forced " to fall in a bucket according to some practical criteria. From a user point of view this forced hash procedure could be thought of as a “user-system cooperating code assignment”, since the user is free to code an object to be retrieved but the system may append s a digit to that code. For one access retrieval purposes, the new code key-digit is used to find its address. However, should the digit is not known, the retrieval process will find the key in its surrounding, provided it exists. Inthis approach itis unnecessary a bucket overflow area of any kind, since this method allows a high load factor for practical use. In the event of the hash table is nearly full, a simple procedure could be ran to extend the table size either by keeping the original digit or assigning new ones.
ABSTRACT: The Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692) have received a lot of attention from history and literature, although there are very few critical analysis of how this historical event has entered the literary field. Many works of historical fiction – considered the most suitable literary genre to talk about an historical event - have used itin their storylines; however, popular genres such as romance, crime fiction, fantasy and science fiction have also shown an interest inthis witch hunt. The main reason for this interest can be found in the lack of final conclusions as regards what really happened in Salem. The main objective of thispaperis to show how what happened in Salem has entered contemporary popular fiction with the aim of showing the interest that it still arises and to vindicate the production of more critical works about the literary construction of one of the events that most dramatically has affected the configuration of the American mind.
investigated as medicine and military applications. However, there are still parameters to consider studying the most of these systems. Experimentally, it has shown about a millionth of the pump power propagating in an optical fiber is converted into Raman scattering, thispaper proposes that the transfer of the first Stokes pumping will cease when the pump power is around a millionth of the Stokes signal. That is 10 under this proposal and taking into account the already known expression 10 , Eq. (5) becomes;
emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyze sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging itis to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choi ce to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest .
a point in a general function space and then project these points onto a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) by using the Tikhonov regularization theory. This mechanism induces a distance among the functions of the sample and therefore it allows cluster- ing algorithms to be applied to functional data. This process is completed with a strategy for dimensionality reduction consisting of a new projection onto a ﬁ nite-dimensional Euclidean space which makes the distance between the functions coincide with the Euclidean distance of the projected data. The method proposed inthispaperis an instance of a two-stage method but it allows the algorithms of this class to be reinterpreted (mainly based on it functional principal component analysis) as methods that compute the similarity measure as the distance between the projections of the data onto a Hilbert space.
In order to test for the impact of financial liberalisation, we use a dummy variable (DUM) which takes the value of zero up to 1981 and one from 1982 onwards. Financial liberalisation can influence investment through a number of channels, including changes in interest rates, but the specific hypothesis we wish to test is whether it has relaxed borrowing constraints or not. We therefore test for financial liberalisation effects in the form of shifts in the coefficients of the two variables, which only appear in the equation when borrowing constraints are binding. We also allow for a shift in the intercept (otherwise a change in the slope coefficients implies a change in the level of the dependent variable, and this might distort our estimations of the shift in the slope coefficients).
AbstractIn classical distributed systems, each process has a unique identity. Today, new distributed systems have emerged where a unique identity is not always possible to be assigned to each process. For example, in many sensor networks a unique identity is not possible to be included in each device due to its small storage capacity, reduced computational power, or the huge number of devices to be identified. In these cases, we have to work with anonymous distributed systems where processes cannot be identified. Consensus cannot be solved in classical and anonymous asynchronous distributed systems where processes can crash. To bypass this impossibility result, failure detectors are added to these systems. Itis known that Q is the weakest failure detector class for solving consensus in classical asynchronous systems when a majority of processes never crashes. Although AQ was introduced as an anonymous version of
Abstract: The aim of thispaperis to answer two questions. The first is: are there moral dilemmas? The second is: if there are dilemmas, in what way do those who as a result violate what would normally be a moral or legal requirement do wrong and what response is appro- priate? The systematisers deny the possibility of moral dilemmas. We will argue in favor of the conclu- sion that there are moral dilem- mas. Itis morally important to become skilled in managing dilemmas because we can detect cases in which conflicts is only ap- parent. This detection can indicate fraudulent uses of the term “dilemma”, cases in which the agent is not reproach with his be- havior.
To measure the constructs of innovation, we use the questionnaire INCODE-ICB-v5 (Marin-Garcia et al. 2011a; Watts et al. 2012). The personal dimension is measured with 12 items, the interpersonal dimen- sion with eight items and the networking dimension with five items. Responses are coded between 1 and 5 (1= I need to improve a lot; 5= Excellent). The study population is composed of 506 universi- ty students distributed across three colleges – a Fac- ulty of Business Administration and two engineering schools (Industrial and Design Engineering). In order to have them fill out a web questionnaire, at the end of September e-mail invitations were sent out to all students registered in the academic year 2012-13. Students were enrolled in one of six different cours- es in the first semester. The courses are taken in dif- ferent years of the programme. The average rate of response was 66%, var ying between 56% and 100% depending on the course (see table 3).
With regard to the second research question, the implementation of the pedagogical principles for the development of pedagogy for autonomy varies considerably depending on the case (see Table 2). As has been noted, one of the premises defining the concept of learner autonomy is encouraging learners to assume increasing responsibility for their learning process and develop a pro-active role in making decisions concerned with learning (Camilleri Grima, 2007; Jiménez Raya et al., 2007). Nevertheless, except for the last case (i.e. Teacher 6), we have observed that the responsibility for learning and decision-making rests with the teacher alone. Teachers have full control over learning when determining the learning content, setting the learning objectives, choosing learning methods, and selecting learning materials and activities. These educational contexts resemble traditional approaches to language learning in which the learner’s self as a learner is constructed by others, inthis case, the teacher. Learners have no voice in deciding what to learn and how to learn it, but they simply do what the teacher tells them to do. In other words, democratic principles like voice, freedom and choice, identified by Marsh, Richards and Smith (2001), appear alien to the foreign language classroom and, consequently, learners feel alienated from the learning process.
Supposing 𝑈 𝑛 to be known, we can compute the next iteration R (x), S (ω), T (E) and W ( ɳ). Similarly we suppose sequentially that S (ω), T (E) and W (ɳ ) are known of the previously iteration, and proceed to compute R (x). With the new value of R (x), T (E) and W ( ɳ) previously, can obtain S (ω), then with both of them values R (x) and S (ω) updated, and W( ɳ ) previously, can be determined T (E). Finally we can determine W ( ɳ ) with previous values updated. The process is repeated in a suitable fixed-point iteration scheme, until reaching a state of convergences, where the results will be the new products 𝑋 n+1 , 𝑌 n+1 , 𝑍 n+1 and 𝑉 n+1 We illustrated each steps as follows:
«Ancora vi dirò una maraviglia che venne ne li anni Domini .mcclxxxviij. Uno barone era in quella terra, ch’avea fatto empiere tutte le case della Chiesa di riso, sicché veruno pellegrino vi potea albergare. I cristiani che guardavano la chiesa si n’avevano grande ira; e non giovava di pregare, tanto che questo barone le facesse isgombrare. Sicché una notte aparve aquesto barone Santo Tomaso con una forca in mano, e mise gliele in bocca e disselì: «Se tosto non fai isgombrare la mia casa, io ti farò morire di mala morte». E con questa forca si gli strinse sì lla gola, ch’a colui fu grande pena; e‘l santo corpo si partio. La mattina vegnente il barone fece isgombrare <le case de> la chiesa e disse ciò che gli era intervenuto, e cristiani n’ebbero grande allegrezza, e grande reverenza ne rendero a santo Tomaso» (cap. 172, pp. 264- 265).