From a diachronic point of view, the situation in Old English (OE) sharply contrasts with that of PDE, the latter being basically verb non-final 4 whereas the former is essentially verb-final  except in main clauses, where the verb generally moves to second position  (Traugott 1992: 274; Fischer and van der Wurff 2006: 182) 5 . This phenomenon, observed in different West Germanic languages, is the so-called V2, where the operator/verb is optionally placed in second position after initial subject or object NPs, an adverbial phrase, etc. (Stockwell 1984: 583; van Kemenade 1987: 42; Traugott 1992: 275; Fischer 1992: 375) 6 . The coexistence of these two word orders in OE has been explained by Hogg in terms of evolution, acknowledging that verb-final is much older than verb- second. This being so, what is witnessed in OE is the “shift away from [verb-final] towards verb-second, [as] when such change occurs, it seems to affect main clauses before subordinate clauses” (2002: 90; see also Fischer 1992: 371).
Science written inEnglish is generally considered to have become a well- established practice by the eighteenth century, the vernacular having replaced Latin as a vehicle of communication, the culmination of a process which started as early as 1375 (Taavitsainen and Pahta). The linguistic situation was so stable at the time that authors such as Tieken-Boon van Ostade (254) claim that “according to traditional accounts of eighteenth-century English, nothing much happened to the language during this period.” One might expect to find that some words of a classical etymology would still be used in texts dealing with scientific issues (as is also the case today), although perhaps these not equally present across all disci- plines. Indeed, even nowadays some fields of knowledge seem to be more prone to use such terms. A simple example will suffice here. In 2005 a new dinosaur fossil was discovered in Australia. After observing its characteristics palaeontologists immediately gave it a pseudo-Latin name, Spinosaurus, illustrating that Latin persists as a preference in the scientific register of this field.
Bacon’s and Boyle’s canon for style inscientificwriting, which emerged as a reaction to the medieval scholastic tradition, demands the use of clear and plain language devoid of ornamentation (Allen – Qin – Lancaster 1994). This transparent, object-centred style (Atkinson 1999), acting as a direct vehicle for the transmission for scientific observation and experimentation, seems to have tolerated the veiled presence of the author. The reasons here may lie in the necessity for authors to connect with the increasing numbers of the literate public, while complying with the ideas of the dissemination of knowledge, so central to the new science, and with the principle of reliability, another core aim of Empiricism. The linguistic mechanisms best suited to express this intimate relation between author and audience include stance adverbials, modality, second person pronouns, suasive and private verbs (Biber 1988), and directives (Hyland 2005), among others. The use of stance adverbs in particular may have been conditioned by several factors, and the social and external factors we will consider here may have influenced their degree of use inscientificwriting. First, we will consider where authors acquired their competence inscientificwriting: that is, whether the writing tradition in which they were educated had any effect on the extent of their reliance on such adverbs. Second, assuming that certain genres are closer to orality than others (Biber – Finegan 1992, Culpeper – Kytö 2000) and that, a priori, the expression of one’s attitude towards the message conveyed is more easily detected in oral than in written scientific texts, we will ask whether the degree of technicality of genres may influence language choice. In a previous study of contemporary English, Biber et al. (1999: 767) claimed that oral registers exhibit the highest number of stance adverbs, the occurrence of which is “relatively common” in “academic prose, while they show the lowest frequency in news” (Tseronis 2009). This may imply that news is somehow more objective than scientific or academic prose, which in principle might seem to be a wholly objective field with a high degree of abstraction (Monaco forthcoming). Finally, we will ask whether male and female authors may also have used these stance markers differently, in that it has been argued that women are generally more involved than men in their writing style (Argamon et al. 2003). Previous studies on sex differences in a variety of aspects of scientificwriting (Crespo 2011; Crespo – Moskowich forthcoming; Moskowich – Monaco 2014) point to the relevance of distinct writing practices by men and women, each manifested in the preponderant use of specific linguistic strategies.
As already mentioned, the data for my study have been extracted from the Corpus of English Texts on Astronomy. Astronomy texts written throughout the 18th century have been selected to look at suffixation processes in adjectives, as a means of seeing to what an extent these texts adhere to the characteristic pattern claimed for present-day scientificwriting, in which more Latinate forms are, a priori, expected. The early Modern English period saw the emergence of a need for new words to denote and describe new realities. Such a need implied an increase in affixation andin other devices to enlarge the lexicon (Adams, 1973; Nevalainen, 1999). This tendency seems to be reinforced by “an atmosphere favouring linguistic experiments” (Görlach, 1991: 138) throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that had observable effects in the eighteenth century.
In our opinion, there is still an important gap in the field, especially from a historical perspective as the phenomenon has been mostly discussed from a synchronic perspective in Late Middle English, Chaucer’s verse in particular. The present paper then analyses the origin, development and decline of pleonastic that from a diachronic point of view in the light of The Corpus of EarlyEnglish Medical Writingin the historical period 1375-1700, considering that medical writing is freer from the artificiality of verse and may offer some fresh details about the ups and downs of this pleonastic form. By the year 1475, the first phase of the vernacularization of scientificand medical writing was largely complete, to such an extent that the use of the vernacular became even more common than Latin for the rendering of scientific material (Voigts 1986: 316; 1996: 816; Pahta & Taavitsainen 2004: 12). In the absence of a national standard for these purposes, the emergence of the scientific register, shaped under the shelter of the Greco-Roman models, may shed some light on the development of these on-going changes inEnglish. In the light of this, the present paper has been conceived with the following objectives: a) to analyse the use and distribution of pleonastic that in a corpus of earlyEnglish medical writing (in the period 1375–1700); b) to classify the construction in terms of the different types of medical texts; and c) to assess the decline of the construction with the different conjunctive words.
As already mentioned (Moskowich, 2011) the CC is intended to complement other corpora which share with it their diachronic nature and their specificity. Similar computerised corpora include ARCHER, The Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts, Middle English Medical Texts (MEMT) and The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. From a chronological perspective, all sub-corpora included in the Coruña Corpus cover a gap of 160 years after the scope of the Lampeter Corpus, (1640-1740). As for domain, CEPhiT (and all the parts of CC) is more specific than the Lampeter Corpus, which represents Science in general, and also more specific than the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts, which was not conceived of as a ‘specific’ corpus. From the point of view of the content, although both CC and ARCHER contain samples of scientificwriting, they do not collide either since the latter has material extracted from the Philosophical Transactions whereas the former offers a representation of longer formats and different genres. Our aim in building the sub-corpus described here is that it will allow scholars to explore the negotiation of knowledge between authors and audience as well as to study the changing conventions as presented in different linguistic strategies.
Our 5,126 verbal forms are distributed in such a way that Germanic origin corresponds to 82.73% of all forms (4,241 tokens, either G only or G+G) and Non-Germanic origin to 16.32% (837 tokens, both NG or NG+NG). This testifies to the advance of vernacularisation inearlyEnglishscientificwriting, at least in relation to the levels of technicality observed in our texts. However, we should also point out that, with respect to the number of types of G and NG provenance, the proportion of NG types is higher. This shows that recourse to foreign terms ultimately proved necessary: lexical gaps in the transmission of scientific concepts had to be filled, but the terms used for the purpose were not yet sufficiently assimilated by the discourse community of the recipient language to be able to reanalyse them and use their components. The creation of new words out of non-native word stock is a common procedure in present-day Englishscientific language, but this was not the case in medieval times when borrowing was the preferred method (Halliday 1978). Derivative occurrences are more common in forms of a NG extraction, where they often take the form of cultural borrowings 2 .
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The CC is still a work in progress and we would like to present here, as we have been doing elsewhere, our main concerns about it, both theoretical and practical. To this end, we will first provide some issues we considered before taking the first steps. Therefore, section one will deal with principles of corpus compilation such as parameters of classification, time-span covered and representativeness. In section two we will then present some other technical and practical aspects related to the development of a search engine and other tools for the compilation and use of the CC.
In the first part of this study we present a brief overview of the concept of “science” (section 2), the inception of the scientific text and the development of scientific language from the Middle Ages onwards (section 3). The second part contains a comparative analysis of different passages from both essays (section 4). The earlier text is taken from Newton’s Opticks: or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light (first edition), published in 1704, while the more recent one is an article about an experiment published in Applied Optics in 1998, “Experimental study of the effects of a six-level phase mask on a digital holographic storage system”. Our aim, as mentioned above, is to analyse and compare the discourse used in both cases and propose some conclusions about how scientificwriting has evolved over the last three hundred years.
A seventh author Schwarzhaupt (1940) in Chile, in his study he mentions the research about anglicisms was based on written material such as newspapers and books of that time, but mostly the personal correspondence of Schwarzhaupt with people and friends from Chile. According to this research, about 70 years ago, the UK and USA were the countries that had a greater impact on the Chilean Spanish. The majority of anglicisms related to sports, clothing, and navigation came from the UK, while foreign terms used in technology, business, and the daily life of young people came from the USA, so the anglicisms started expanding rapidly into the areas of industry, commerce, communication, and mass media, especially in South America.
Studies approaching the question of grammatical abilities in the L1 and L2 are relatively lim- ited. Cuza (2012) conducted a study to examine cross-linguistic influences in the acquisition of subject–verb inversion (embedded “–wh” questions). Data collected from 17 Spanish/English bilingual participants in this study indicated lower levels of performance in Spanish. Cuza argued that these difficulties arose from the cross-linguistic influence of English, which utilizes different grammatical inversion rules. The participants in Cuza’s study were all born in the USA from native Spanish-speaking parents; 59% of the participants spoke both languages during childhood, while 35% spoke only Spanish. Their language of formal instruction in high school and university was predominantly English. Hartsuiker, Pickering, and Veltkamp (2004) studied 24 native Spanish speakers who spoke English as a L2 and found cross-linguistic syntactic priming during a dialogue card game task. In this study, participants who heard a sentence in Spanish subsequently used the same sentence construction when describing the following card inEnglish. These findings demon- strated that syntactic representation is integrated and shared among languages, shown in both language production and comprehension. Ardila et al. (2000) also found increased Spanish gram- mar-comprehension as it became more similar to English grammar. These results were shown in a mixed sample of Spanish/English bilinguals, who were US-born (second-generation Hispanic) and Latin American-born immigrants residing in the USA. In addition, language preference was directly correlated with syntactic comprehension.
El presente trabajo académico presta atención en mejorar la pronunciación, es por ello que después de haber culminado satisfactoriamente los semestres de la Segunda Especialidad, presento el trabajo académico titulado: USING OF SHEETS AS A DIDACTIC RESOURCE FOR CORRECT PRONUNCIATION ANDWRITING OF THE ENGLISHIN SECOND STUDENTS “A” AT THE SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION “INSTITUTION “MARISCAL ANDRÉS DE SANTA CRUZ “- ZEPITA – 2016, el mismo que coadyuvará a nuestra formación como docentes en el área del idioma extranjero inglés.
Taking into consideration the authors related to the incorporation of values in the second language learning process I think it is meaningful to my proposal due to the fact that they focus on how important is to develop values in the second language learning as in culture, customs, behaviors, etc. differs from their own culture and the new one. One of the teachers writes about how short stories are a focal point in the understanding their own world to understand others´ culture. Also, the other teacher writes about the importance of being a mediator between the learning by creating activities relating to the topics, the citizenship competencies and the multiple intelligences students can develop.
Even though, both feedback strategies contained information about content and form, when students received their feedback it was noticed that they focused more on grammatical form, rather than content. They expressed this preference by stating that language form is more important than content, because by writing correctly it is noticed their English proficiency level, as it is expressed in this quote: “O sea igual la organización es importante, pero si uno escribe mal… ¿de qué sirve? Si las oraciones deben estar escritas correctamente porque si uno escribe mal, entonces no sabe.” (Focus Group 1, November 2 nd , 2017).
This study evidences that the English composition course is primordial in the students’ academic writing development. It provides the methods that according to some author are appropriate for developing writing. In addition it was observable a good amount in variable feedback, an important fact in learning a second language. On the other hand students some issues as a strong influence of their L1 are present in students writing. First in terms of the mechanics and grammatical aspects and second in terms of conventions and text structure. These facts affect students’ writing products in relation to cohesion between sentences and express clear ideas, disconnecting the reader with the writing producing a lack of comprehension, since what the writer intends to express in the product is not understood by the reader. Talking about comprehension the organization inside of the body and concluding paragraph requires to be emphasized in their internal structures.