There are some methods and methodologies to evaluate businessprocess modeling, but they evaluate the functionality of an application or a modeling tool. Rosemman proposes an ontology to evaluate organizational modeling grammars identifying their strength and weaknesses . Luis Olsina and Devanshu Dhyani [8, 9] propose a methodology to evaluate the characteristics of a web application in operational phases. The structure of this paper is as follows: in section 2 the modeling concepts that comprise our approach are presented, in section 3 the modeling concepts are enhanced with a set of aspects found to be useful in building models, in section 4 the evaluation results are presented, in section 5 a product evaluation is presented, last the conclusions are discussed.
Poor individuals and small firms find it particularly difficult to enter credit markets because of asymmetric information frictions, namely, the fact that borrowers are more informed than creditors with respect to the actual ability and willingness to repay (see Bebczuk (2003a)). As small firms and consumers have less reliable accounting information (if any) and display no credit track record, they appear as more opaque in the eyes of the potential providers of funds, who prefer to do business with reputable and transparent large enterprises. As a result, creditors end up rationing credit, requiring higher returns and shortening maturities on the former groups, giving rise to financial constraints, which have been documented for both large and small companies throughout the world (see Galindo and Schiantarelli (2002) and Bebczuk et al. (2003b)). These informational barriers, compounded by the high fixed costs of screening and monitoring small scale loans and the lack of collateral to back such operations, seem to break the alleged finance-poverty nexus, as the poor mostly rely on informal credit markets, NGOs, and relatives. Consequently, a more dependable approach to determine the nexus between credit and poverty is to run micro studies on individuals and families with and without access to credit. Khandker (1998, 2003) and Barnes (2001) follow this procedure for particular microcredit programs in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe, respectively. Meyer (2002), in surveying the available evidence for Asian countries, contends that, while there seems to be an overall positive effect on income and education, results substantially differ across countries and programs in magnitude as well as statistical significance and robustness.
In the literature of optimal currency areas, it is well known that joining a union does not necessarily imply an improvement for each of its members. The main cost of joining the union has to do with leaving the traditional economic stabilization policies to supranational authorities. The theoretical argument behind this reason- ing is that stabilization decisions made at supranational levels could be optimal for the subset of countries with more homogeneous cycles but that they may be against the economic interest of countries with more atypical cycles. In the case of the European Union (EU), most of its members have left monetary decisions to the Eu- ropean Central Bank. Even for those countries that do not belong to the European Monetary Union (EMU), fiscal policies are restricted to the achievement of close-to- balance budget constraints that are imposed by the stability pact. In this context, a growing attention is being devoted to examine similarities and differences among the EU countries’ business cycles. Remarkably, the majority of empirical studies has almost exclusively focused on synchronization or comovement business cycle dy- namics. According to these studies, more synchronized countries are expected to face smaller costs of joining the Union than those countries with relatively less syn- chronized cycles. Among many others, recent academic examples are the studies of Dueker and Wesche (2003), Darvas and Szapary (2008), and the survey of de Haan, Inklaar and Jong-A-Pin (2008). In addition, relevant policymakers as Trichet (2001) when describing the increasing integration of European markets, only consider syn- chronization (correlation) to examine the degree of business cycle similarities. The attention to analyze similarities and differences in business cycle characteristics other than synchronization has been minor and mainly based on the description of some features of the cycle 1 . However, we consider that the evaluation of business cycle
Firms’ valuation is an increasingly important activity in a globalized context with more dynamic and internationalized companies in search of value creation. Internationalization is increasingly affecting developing countries that are forced to deal with international M&A and the requirements of their increasingly specialized partners, such as is the case of Colombia. Normally, the use of ad- hoc update rates is required in the process. The main goal of this work is to increase our knoledge ion the use of the discount rate in the business valuation activity in Colombia. For this purpose, an exploratory study based on a survey of 32 Colombian experts in business valuation is included. Our main conclusions reveal that Colombian experts behave similarly to international valuers, although there is a large dispersion in the estimation of the discount rate. In this way, the research carried out can be of interest not only for professionals but also for academics and managers who participate in this process to offer information about the Colombian reality in an international context.
Quantitative tools (out of the scope of this study), such as STARS with specific indicators that seek to atomise the evaluation escape the bias created by qualitative assessment. Their weak point is the re- quired effort for reaching all the information needed, and the speci- ficity of these indicators. It would be, however, an interesting area of research in the future to integrate STARS in anempirical comparative analysis. It might be interesting to assess a singular case also based on the other discarded tools in order to check and discuss the results, and to simultaneously develop an interesting benchmark. However, the way SATs are applied can impact the results in a wide manner (Stough et al., 2017). There are SATs whose indicators are measur- ing ESD integration (e.g. AISHE) and others whose indicators are fo- cused on identifying the presence of a list of ESD elements (for exam- ple, in STARS, USAT, SUSTAINTOOL). Further research is needed to develop meaningful assessment approaches for HEIs. SATs must to choose whether their indicators are measuring ESD integration or the mere presence of ESD elements, distinguishing between integra- tion via inputs and outputs, as Stough et al. (2017) also stated.
Abstr act: Computation technologies and computer tools offer varied resources for the implementation of applications of electronic commerce (e-commerce). The current organizational models are based on nets of associations that are integrated to achieve business objectives. Therefore, the effectiveness of the commercial operation doesn't only depend on an appropriate configuration of technologies but also on efficiency in the business services. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style for distributed computation that considers the creation and administration of business services. With Web Services the services can be published in the Web and accessed by applications independently from language and technology. In this work a workflow support for the modeling and simulation of applications of e-commerce based on services and technologies Web Services is proposed. Tools are applied of processes modeling, with their integration in TIBCO that result in the modeling of a processbusiness to consumer (b-to-c), their simulation and the evaluation of metrics of performance.
In order to develop an exhaustive list of requirements, a hierarchical decomposition processfor requirement derivation is applied. At the beginning all major groups of requirements are defined, and then through successive decompositions each group is decomposed into subgroups. By repeating this process the system Requirement Tree is obtained. The tree leaves correspond to the performance variables.
Automatic evaluation methods play, as discussed before, a very important role in the context of MT system development. Indeed, evaluation methods are not only important but they are also an upper bound on the attainable success of the development process itself. In other words, improvements may take place as long as developers count on mechanisms to measure them. Otherwise, the de- velopment cycle is blind. A paradigmatic case of blind development occurred in the Johns Hopkins University 2003 Summer Workshop on “Syntax for Statistical Machine Translation” (Och et al., 2003) 6 . A team of leading researchers and motivated students devoted 6 weeks to improve a phrase- based SMT system through the incorporation of syntactic knowledge. Although they suggested a rich smorgasbord of syntax-based features, only a moderate improvement (from 31.6% to 33.2% according to BLEU) was attained, which, indeed, came almost exclusively from using the IBM 1 model word alignment probabilities to compute a lexical weighting feature function. They argued two main reasons for this result. First, they observed that syntactic parsers introduce many errors. Second, and most important, they noted that the BLEU metric, which they used for development and test, was not able to capture improvements due to a better syntactic sentence structure.
The study starts from the conceptual model of business management. The deductive method was used to determine the correlation and influence of the categorical variables of the conceptual model. Gaps were determined for each model variable. The research problem: Is the Conceptual Model of Business Management for MYPES of the Lambayeque Region empirically validated? What is the level of validation that can be achieved? What contributes to knowledge and what applicability should be given to the validated model? The general objective was to determine the empirical validation of the Conceptual Model. The hypotheses raised in the study are confirmed, demonstrated by a high correlation and level of significance, Kaiser test - Meyer - Olkin (KMO) elevated. The alternative hypotheses of the moderating variables are not confirmed. The results validated the Conceptual
171 executives and fixed-term contracts, which are considered factors internal to the company. The second set of hypotheses focuses on labour regulations, external financing and training, which are considered environmental factors. Finally, a hypothesis for the effect of corporate entrepreneurship on firm growth is proposed. Research has highlighted how human capital attributes may be viewed as a valuable company resource (Ucbasaran et al., 2008). Individuals with more or higher levels of human capital are considered to be better at identifying business opportunities and exploiting them (Davidsson and Honig, 2003). For instance, prior international business experience on the part of the manager has gained increased significance and is widely recognized as a vital asset for firms (Wang, 2008). International experience has been argued to embrace abilities to search for information, identify and evaluate opportunities, screen country markets, evaluate strategic partners and manage customs operations and foreign exchange (Fletcher and Harris, 2012; Prashantham and Young, 2011). Similarly, having managers with a wide variety of experiences and backgrounds is posited to have a positive effect on a firm’s capacity to adapt to new changes and to innovate. Managers with experience in other companies, sectors or countries may have a wider vision of strategic decision making, use a broader variety of information sources and have more widely differentiated capabilities (Lee and Park, 2006). In addition, according to Escriba-Esteve et al. (2008), “managers with these characteristics tend to make more changes in structure, procedures, and people than do chief executives promoted from within the firm”. From this perspective, Westhead et al. (2001) explain that entrepreneurial firms with diverse management knowhow and international business experience may be able to undertake more promising competitive strategies and exploit opportunities than their larger counterparts. Similarly, firms with higher market knowledge are considered to have a higher propensity (or learning capability) to gather further foreign knowledge (Andersen and Bettis, 2015; Oviatt and McDougall, 2005). Overall, the literature agrees that conducting business in international markets allows mangers to develop knowledge and specific business skills associated with the context in which they are developed (Glavas and Mathews, 2014; Johanson and Vahlne, 2003). Moreover, it has also been suggested that managers who have developed their careers in one organization can be assumed to have a relatively limited perspective when faced with an unprecedented problem (Herrmann and Datta, 2006).
Get employees involved early in the employee self-service system design. The bane of many IT projects is a focus on cramming as many functions and features into the system as possible, without paying attention to the information requirements of the end users. Employee self-service is no exception. In some situations, simplicity in the type and amount of information that needs to be provided may be of significant value to employees, particularly if an employee is using a mobile device or has limited available bandwidth. Therefore, organizations need to pay particular attention to what information users need from a self-service system, the channels they will be using to obtain the information and how they will use the information in their day-to- day work environment. For example, providing employees with a list of internal job openings may be valuable, but the inability to segment this list into geographies, job classifications, hiring dates and the like may bring up an overwhelming list of ill- suited positions and prevent individuals from effectively using the system. Involving a range of employees from different target audiences in the design of both the infor- mation architecture and user experience can reduce the probability of overloading a user and discouraging return visits.
En los orígenes de la ciencia de la computación todo el énfasis estuvo puesto en desarrollar sistemas que automatizaran tareas que se hacían manualmente. Este era suficiente desafío. En la actualidad, se han automatizado muchas tareas y el gran desafío es cómo mejorar la capacidad de los sistemas para alcanzar nuevos requerimientos: agregar nuevas interfaces, combinar múltiples fuentes de datos en una sola, interactuar con dispositivos móviles y reemplazar viejas aplicaciones con nuevas. La tendencia de hoy es hacia un paradigma orientado a los procesos, donde las aplicaciones cubren la actividad global de la empresa y las herramientas son los BPMS (BusinessProcess Management Systems o Sistemas de Gestión de Procesos de Negocio). Los modelos actuales resultan insuficientes porque son pobres en su integración y se orientan a describir datos y transacciones. El cambio de enfoque en el modo de diseñar aplicaciones e implementar soluciones radica en:
da pesquisa e identificaram-se as fontes de dados. A segunda etapa, a execução, consiste em duas sub-etapas: identificar os critérios de seleção iniciais (intervalo de tempo, bases de dados e palavras-chave) e o uso do ProKnow-C (Knowledge Development Process–Constructivist). ProKnow-C é proposto por Ensslin et al., (2010) para construir conhecimento a partir dos interesses e delimitações de um pesquisador, de acordo com a visão construtivista. A terceira e última etapa diz respeito ao relato que é a análise bibliométrica (Chai e Xia, 2012) do portfólio. Para coletar as informações foram utilizadas bases de dados internacionais (ISI Web of Knowledge e Scopus) por serem bases de ampla abrangência e reconhecidas cientificamente, e também às quais foram testadas e demonstraram a maior contribuição quanto ao tem abordado. Com todos estes procedimentos propostos pretende-se ao final construir conhecimento no pesquisador para tratar do tema que assim desejar, neste caso o ecodesign.
which a firm decides to invest in the Czech Republic, where a dummy of 1 was assigned to firms relying on local networks (LOCNET). Three dummy variables were used for the entry mode: cooperative (COOP), greenfield (GREEN) and follow- up (FOLUP) projects. Firms are differentiated by size according to their number of employees as captured by the variable (SIZE). Further, a dummy was included for export market orientation (EXP), applied to firms that not only cater to domestic or regional CEE markets but to wider European or global markets. Also, a dummy reflects whether firms have a long-term orientation towards operating in the Czech Republic, namely when answering whether they plan to reinvest in the future (REINV). Additional dummies reflect whether firms applied for incentives (APINC), and a dummy for motives: cost-oriented firms were classified under the variable COST. The AGE of the affiliate was adopted as a numerical variable. Finally, a dummy variable was adopted to differentiate foreign affiliates by the nationality of their management team, where a value of 1 is assigned to firms with a local Czech team (LOCALM).
Our results convey a doubly positive message: ﬁ rst, considering for- ests' carbon-sequestration potential can make a signi ﬁ cant difference toward stopping the destruction of the forests. Second, international co- operation can bring sound economic and environmental gains. Cooper- ation however will not arise spontaneously. For cooperation to exist, some sort of intertemporal compensating transfer mechanism is need- ed. It is important to design this transfer mechanism correctly; other- wise the agents may have an economic incentive to withdraw from it, which in turn, will lead to worse environmental outcomes. In order foran environmental agreement to be credible, time consistency is re- quired, i.e., it has to be economically optimal for all the players involved to comply with the agreement at all times. We show that applying an intertemporal decomposition of the Nash bargaining scheme allows us to obtain time consistent outcomes.
hope to keep and use during my career and life. Especial thanks to Eloy Solís, a deeply involved colleague since the early beginnings and officially my co-supervisor during the past year, for initiating me with the ‘Polycentrism’ and ‘State rescaling’ concepts (and for introducing me to Hall&Pain, Kloosterman&Musterd, Lambregts, Brenner and a long etcetera, because he is like the perfect ‘citation database’, always suggesting new interesting literature); for his patience and help with the ‘literature reviews’, ‘research hypotheses’ and ‘conclusions’ sections; for sharing with me his ability to synthesize ideas in schemes (and typologies); and for showing me all that I know about the (at the beginning so feared and loved in the end) ArcMap software. Thanks for all the moments and coffee breaks at the School of Architecture, because without them, this would have been much tougher. Honestly, thank you so much José María and Eloy! Your help and good words have meant a lot to me. Without your support I don’t know what this thesis would have turned into. A special thanks to José María Coronado. He was my first contact with the Urban and Territorial Issues during my second year at the School of Civil Engineering and although at that moment I was not aware of that, I owe to him my passion for Urban Design and my concern about preserving our heritage. Along with J.M.Ureña, he believed in me since the beginning and encouraged me with the idea of continuing my education with a PhD degree and starting this process in a foreign university (the Oxford Brookes Univ.). It was their ‘persuasion’ (at least that was my feeling at that point of my life) to explore new countries and cultures, which helped me with all that I have achieved since 2009. During these years I’ve also attended and collaborated in some of the courses which professors J.M. Ureña, E. Solís and J.M. Coronado have taught. My participation in these classes, brought me the opportunity to learn from them and what is more important, as J.M. Coronado once said to me, “to enjoy doing that”.
Tokyo 37,750,000 Shanghai 22,685,000 New York 20,685,000 Mexico City 20,230,000 Los Angeles 15,135,000 Buenos Aires 14,280,000 Paris 10,870,000 London 10,350,000 Hong Kong 7,280,000 Toronto 6,550,000 Madrid 6,529,700 San Francisco 5,955,000 Milan 5,270,000 Barcelona 4,891,249 Boston 4,490,000 Berlin 4,085,000 Sydney 4,070,000 Montreal 3,570,000 Seattle 3,475,000 Stockholm 1,510,000 * Estimation in April 2016. For Barcelona, the official population data was taken on January 1 st , 2016
STANDARDIZATION - MULTIPLE “AS-IS” In a standardization project you will chart an existing process as it is being done in different locations and review the charts with an improvement team representing the different locations. The goal is to use the best of both plus some features that are better than either.
The choice of a particular evaluation model or approach depends mainly on the purpose of anevaluation, and can be influenced by the possible consequences or other factors that influence the boundaries of an evalu- ation. Annex B shows the comparison between traditional evaluation and complexity-sensitive developmental evaluation (Patton, 2011). These differences can have a major impact on evaluation design, utility as well as influence and/or consequences. Interpersonal communica- tion and networks may also play a role. For example, in a development initiative with good interconnectedness, where learning and adaptation is part of the development process, stakeholders may find it easier to respond to (complex) issues arising from the evaluation and therefore be more ready for the evaluationprocess. As an evaluator, you need to raise some of these issues for discussion, e.g., through formal and informal, individual and group discussions, within and outside the organisation.