PDF superior An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica

An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica

An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica

Thc new species is referred to the genus Bufo on the basis of the follow­ ing characteristics : tensor fasciae latae muscle not elongate; adductor longus musclc present; adductores mandibulae externus superficialis and posteriori sub­ externus present; eight procoelous presacral vertebrae; cervical and second ver­ tebrae not fused; sacrum and coccyx not fused; sacral diapophyses expanded; coccyx biconcave and not expanded; quadratojugd meets maxillary; sphenethmoid ossified, single; palatines contact both maxillary and sphenethmoid, no omo­ sternum; no teeth; phalangeal formula, hand 2-2-3-3, foot 2-2-3-4-3; a welLdevel­ oped parotoid gland; eggs small, numerous and pigmented; larvae with median anus, sinistral spiracle, labia laterally infO'lded, labial papillae along lateral mar­ gins only, and denticles in 2/3 rO'ws.
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Observations on the reproduction and ecology of the tropical montane toad, Bufo boldridgei Taylor in Costa Rica

Observations on the reproduction and ecology of the tropical montane toad, Bufo boldridgei Taylor in Costa Rica

ditch, representing perhaps three or four complements. No adults were seen. By April 8, a large batch of eggs representing an estimated 30 complements was found in a single puddle, again with no adults present. On April 14, however, no new eggs nor adults were seen in the ditches. Many eggs, but no adults, were found in a different ditch on April 17, and on April 19, massive reproductive activity had commenced at many sites. At this time, two puddles were selected for intensive study, where it was possible to follow the initial, peak and diminishing reproductive activity described below. By April 2 6, ac­ tivity had ceased at the study puddles, but continued unabated at other sites. The same conditions obtained on April 28 and May 5, but on May 1 1, only seven toads were observed near the breeding puddles which were filled with eggs and larvae. On May 18, most eggs had hatched and only one female was observed on the road. Nonethel�ss, on May 2 5, considerable reproductive activity and many fresh eggs were found, mostly at the western edge of rhe study zone. Only one puddle near the intensive study area contained a few toads. On June 1, three males were found in a puddle, and on June 11, and subsequently, no adults were found, nor had tadpoles metamorphosed. Tadpoles metamorphosed on and about June 29 in the study puddles.
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A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

Osteology : No skeletons are available but sorne useful information has been obtained from x-rays. The holotype has a typical Bolitoglossa vertebral column, with an atlas, 1 4 trunk, 1 sa­ eral, 2 caudosacral and 40 caudal vertebrae. It is possible that the tail is regenerated ; if so, this species probably has a very long tail. MVZ 200853 clearly has a regenerated tail which has 25 caudal vertebras. The other adults have 3 8 (MVZ 200894) and 4 2 (UeR 4502) ; these are high numbers for a a small species of this genus. A juvenile (UeR 685 7) has 34 caudal vertebrae . Ribs are present on all trunk vertebrae but the last; but are also missing on one side of the next to last vertebra in UeR 4502. The transition from caudosacral to caudal vertebrae is marked by elongate transverse processes borne at the extreme anterior end of the first caudal verte­ bra which are swept strongly in an anterior di­ rection and terminate at a level equivalent to the midpoint of the last caudosacral vertebra. There is no overlap of the transverse processes of these adj acent vertebrae. Transverse pro­ cesses on the caudal vertebrae quickly regress toward the tail tip in the slender tails, and are nearly absent past caudal vertebra 1 2 to 1 5 . The processes gradually move from an anterior to a more midcentral position.
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Palmacites berryanum, a new palm fossil from the Costa Rica Tertiary

Palmacites berryanum, a new palm fossil from the Costa Rica Tertiary

The central zone presents ground tissue which is made up of more regular and larger cells, with no vestige of any ray-like orientation. It is spongy and lacunar, of an apparently softer texture and little lignified, as evidenced by the thin cell walls. The vascular bundles are more distantly placed but keep the same atactostelic orientation as in the dermal and sub-dermal areas. They in­ elude an outer layer of selerenchyma that surrounds the vascular tissues through fusion of the arms or wings of the dorsal and ventral selerenchymatous arches, thus producing a fibrous sheath. The bundles are vaginate and like those found in fully grown paIm stems. Nevertheless, it wouId be difficult to estimate whether this fossil is a young or a well devéloped specimen entirelY on the occurrence of the vaginate type bundle, as in certain palms like Loxoccocus they are present even in early. growth. Sorne bundles are corda te, the cleft or sinus being much reduced or almost flat, very much like the forms described by STENZEL (41) as the compl�nate type of bundle. According to KAUL (25 ) , this structural condition is never found in modern paIms, aIthough the genera
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A new species of stingless bee (Meliponini) from Costa Rica

A new species of stingless bee (Meliponini) from Costa Rica

The species described below is especially interesting because it occupies an intermediate position between Moure's group T<?t1'agonisca ( MO U RE, 2 ) and Ihering's group Frieseomelitta (IHERING, 1 ) . The last group has been recently reestablished by MOURE (4) , who considers both groups as subgenera of Trigonf? .

5 Lee mas

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

Most of the diagnostic features of P. porrasi might be described as neotenic char- acters that are expressed early on in other relat- ed members of the group. For instance, Porras et al. (1981) stated that juveniles of P. nasutum differ from adults in that they are “noticeably brighter in color and more distinct in pattern than are the adults” (pp. 99). All adult P. porrasi collected by us are also brightly col- ored and banded. Juvenile P. nasutum are also characterized by the following combination: usually with head markings, pale vertebral line present, well defined dorsal blotches, and a conspicuous cream to yellowish coloration in the tip of the tail, features that are also present in juveniles of other terrestrial pitvipers (Solórzano 1990, Solórzano et al. 1998). All these characters are present in adult P. porrasi of both sexes. Thus, it seems that retention of neotenic characters was a byproduct of the process of speciation that resulted in P. por- rasi. Speciation through neoteny might not be an uncommon pattern, as several examples of neotenic lineages are known among lower ver- tebrates (Chippindale et al. 2000).
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A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

Ground color of alcohol-preserved speci­ mens pale straw color. Five large brown bars or oblique blotches on upper body; markings most intense along midline of body, usually reaching dorsal midline as paler brown "saddles", but only last bar extending onto lower sides and ventrum. First and second bars each often appearing as elosely approximated double bars. First bar below first dorsal and anteriormost rays of second dorsal fin. Second bar below posterior half of second dorsal fin. T hird bar under anterior one-third of third dorsal fin. Fourth bar centered below third dorsal fin. Fifth bar most intense, forming circular blotch on caudal pedunele and basal scales of caudal fm. Several dark markings on head: an oval spot behind eye and more diffuse blotch below eye, a dusky patch mostly along border of preoper­ ele and more prominent blotch on lower oper­ ele, scaled area at base of pectoral rays dusky. Proximal half of orbital tentaele dark.
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A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

Descripción: . Envergadura del ala an- terior: 24 mm. Superficie dorsal del ala ante- rior: Blanca. Ápice y subápice con una banda café oscura de 3 mm de ancho formando un án- gulo de ca. 90˚. Margen costal con una banda café amarillenta; más ancha hacia el área basal. Punto café oscuro en la intersección de M2 con la celda discal. Patrón de la superficie ventral del ala visible dorsalmente. Superficie ventral del ala anterior: Blanca. Margen costal café amarillento, más pálido cerca del ápice. Área marginal del subápice con una franja café roji- za de 3imm de ancho. Banda transcelular y
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A new aquatic snail of the family Amnicolidae from Costa Rica

A new aquatic snail of the family Amnicolidae from Costa Rica

No close relationship with other American genera of amnicolids is apparent. If the left terminal lobe of the verge is interpreted as an enlarged, modified flagellum, this in combination with the spiral sculpture of the shell and the paucispiral operculum could be used to suggest an alliance with Cochliopina. Spiral sculpture and a flagellate verge are characters that appeat to have evolved independent1y in several generic lines within the family, and a paucispiral operculum is a generalized feature. Thus no reliance may be placed on relationships suggested by the use of these characters. Further­ more, the conical imperforate shell of Rachipteron is quite unlike the depressed­ he1icoid shell of Cochliopina.
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Rediscovery of the strange Costa Rica toad, Crepidius epioticus

Rediscovery of the strange Costa Rica toad, Crepidius epioticus

I n 1875, Edward Drinker COPE ( 3 ) described as CrepidiuJ eplOtlcuS a peculiar toad collected by William M. Gabb from the Atlantic slopes . of Cerro Kámuk (Pico Blanco) , Provincia de Limón, Costa Rica. The single known speci­ men was taken at an elevation of approximately 5000 feet ( 1 524 meters) in the Wet Subtropical Forest Zone of HOLDRIDGE ( 7 and 8 ) . The holotype was 3 5 mm i n standard length (snout-vent) and differed markedly f rom all other members of the family then known in the New World in having extensively webbed fingers and toes, combined with a unique pattern of cranial crests and absence of tympana and ostia pharyngea. Subsequent to its original collection, the species has never been retaken and the type specimen has be en lost or destroyed
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New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

Costa Rica, Heredia: La Selva Biol. Sta, Puerto Viejo, 50 m, fogging: Virola koschnyi (7 Enero, 1994, FVKI 1 7/02) (INBio-OET) 19 [INBio]; fogging: Vítex cooperi (5 Enero, 1994, FOT/16112) (INBio-OET) la [INBio). This is the first lowland record of this species. Previous collections are from Tapanti (1300 m), Costa Rica, and Chiriqui (1400 m), Pan ama (twice). The lowland differ from fue highland populations (Fig. 20) by being smaller (1.6 mm vs 2.0 mm) and by having slightly larger, closer eyes. The Slze difference can probably be explained by the positive correlation between altitude and body size wmch has been demonstrated for many other Costa Rican species of tms genus (lordal 1998); the slightly larger eyes might be an allometric artifact of being smaller. The aedeagus of this male and of males from Chiriquí, Panama, are identical (rather similar to the aedeagus of S. punctifer Wood, see figs lOf-g in Jordal 1998); consequently the lowland population is most probably of S. piceus. More material, however, might provide evidence for a new species.
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A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

The genus Pediobius Walker is a large and cosmopolitan group, with the majority of species occuring in the northern temperate regions. Relatively few species have been recorded from the Neotropical region, where Pediobius is thought to be largely replaced by Horismenus Walker (Boucek 1988). So far eight species of Pediobius have been recorded from this region, but some of the records need to be checked (e.g. P. furvum (Gahan), an African species (Kerrich 1973) recorded from the Bahamas and Bolivia by De Santis (1979)). The host spectrum of Pediobius is large, with larvae developing as primary or second- ary parasites in eggs, larvae or pupae of other insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and occasionally other insect orders) (Boucek 1988). The new species described below has been reared from a prepu- pa (larva) of Epilachna mexicana Guèrin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Two previously described species of Pediobius also have Epilachna species as hosts: P. amaurocoelus
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Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

about 12 papillae with a longitudinal branch of five papillae posteriorly and another of three papillae below posteroventral border of eye. Three longitudinal rows: a row of four papillae behind angle of mouth; a double curving row on the lower preopercular arm, 19 small papil­ lae with a parallel row of five widely-spaced larger papillae below. Postorbital series - An oblique row of four papillae on nape behind posterodorsal margin of eye. Interorbital series (not visible on lateral view) - Six papillae crossing the mid interorbital space; one isolated papilla on anterodorsal margin of eye and another on posterodorsal margin of eye. Preorbital series - An oblique row of 15 papil­ lae on side of snout below posterior nostril, curving down to maxilJa; two larger isolated papillae closely anterior to oblique row. Mandibular series - A double series of a row of 11 small papillae aboye a parallel row of five larger papillae; a longitudinal row of five papil­ lae on each side of isthmus (not visible on lat­ eral view of Fig. 2). Oculoscapular series - Five papillary tracts of di verse orientation along oculoscapular sulcus; an oblique row of 6 papillae immediately below sulcus near pos­ terodorsal comer of preopercle. Opercular series - An oblique curved row of five papillae on mid-opercle and a transverse row of 21 papilJae near anterior margin of opercle.
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Evermannia erici, a new burrowing  gobiid fish from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

Evermannia erici, a new burrowing gobiid fish from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

closer than about 5 m from the extreme b'orders of the large wet patch. Average density of fishes was estimated at 1 O/m2 . The openings to the burrows were just wide enough to permit the fish to enter and led vertically 3 cm down to an enlarged cavem about 2-3 cm in diameter and slightly compressed (Fig. 2). The entrance tunnel and cavem were situated in a layer of fine sand 5- 7 cm deep overlying a course sand and gravel layer. It is not clear how the burrow system was kept from collapsing in the saturated sand substrate. Fish were observed excavating burrows by entering head first, retreating tail first wi th the tail vibrating vigorousIy and depositing sand, then repeating the process. Numerous fish were observed outside of the burrows feeding and occasionally exhibiting courtship behavior. Feeding is accomplished by repeatedly taking large mouthfuls of sand from the margins of the shallow furrow being occupied. The sand is apparently sifted for small interstitial organisms such as crustaceanS and polychaetes and upon separation was continuously passed out the gill opening as in sorne other substrate-sifting fishes. Apparent courtship behavior involved the male erecting its fins and presenting a lateral display to the female while vibrating his body and rapidly shifting his position close to the female. This behavior was observed between a pair of fish in a 2 m long trough with one hole near each end. A male was in the vicinity of each hole and the female apparently lacked its own burrow. After considerable display by the male, the female entered the male's burrow and left head first about a minute later. Several females were seen in small depressions without entrances to burrows . Excavated burrows r ev e a l e d males, females and immature specimens. Juveniles were most frequent in the u p p e r p a rt of the colony. As water temperatures increased fish activity decreased and many fish retired to their burrows. Water temperature, estimated at 30 C at this time, was cooler than expected due to a slight surface flow to the lower littoral zone.
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A new species of cichlid fish, Cichlasoma ryhtisma, from the Río Sixaola drainage, Costa Rica

A new species of cichlid fish, Cichlasoma ryhtisma, from the Río Sixaola drainage, Costa Rica

Abstract: A new cichlid fish, Cichlasoma rhytisma is described from the Río Sixaola basin on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. Its most distinctive characteristic is a dar k lateral blotch bordered on each side by pale vertical bars. Series of blue-green dots and short vermiculations form horizontal lines along the flanks and create an irregular pattem around the eyes. The new species is compared in detail with the very similar e alfari, with which it is syntopic.

6 Lee mas

A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

Description. Terrestrial; rhizome 3–5 mm in diameter, ascending, with fimbriate root middle arching (wading estate type); rhizome scales 2–4 x 0.5–1 mm, lanceolate, medium rigid, brown, lustrous, concolorous, marginally denticulate to short-ciliate; tubercles absent; fronds 35–62 cm long, erect or slightly arching, perennial; stipe (7–) 10–18 cm long, pale brown to brown, lustrous, sparsely to moderate scaly, the scales 3–5 x ca. 1 mm, pale brown to sometimes dark in the center, (L.) Christ and is characterized by brown stipe and blade scales, cuneate blade base an obtuse blade apex, and veins partially and irregularly anastomosing. Tectaria x epilithica has intermediate characters between T. incisa Cav. and T. mexicana (Fée) C.V. Morton, this hybrid is easy to recognize because has 1-pinnate-pinnatifid blade and possesses rhizome scales that are intermediate in size compared to those of its parents.
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Ptycophallus costaricensis, a new freshwater crab from Costa Rica

Ptycophallus costaricensis, a new freshwater crab from Costa Rica

ABSTRACT: A new freshw.ter c r ab of the genus PI),chophallus is describcd from Costa Rica, based on the morpholo¡;y of t he gonopod. The sp e ci o. ¡ives under r(x:ks in sm:.lll strt:ams at an altitude- of approximately 1,300 m and at a median wa t<. �r tt"mperature of 16 C. 1\velve specirncns wt:re collected at Queb r.1. d a Los Tubos ano thirty-two at Río Naranjo, Santa María de Dota, both sites in the Province of San José, Distribution is appa r ently restncted to the southwt:St of Costa Rica.
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A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Costa Rica

A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Costa Rica

Colomb:a 900 miles southeast, and northern Venezuela 1000 miles east of the Costa Rican locale. Although closely allied to other American species with com­ pletely divided nasals and more than 3 5 5 scales in the mid-dorsal series, the Costa Rican specimen appears to represent an undescribed population to be known a!;

5 Lee mas

Elacatinus janssi, a new gobiid  fish from Costa Rica

Elacatinus janssi, a new gobiid  fish from Costa Rica

Color of live and preserved material similar. Ground color pale, dorsum with four longitudinal rows of brown spots subequal to pupil diameter; dorsum and sides of head with irregular brown blotches (Fig. 1). Mid-dorsal series of 1 5 spots between nape and caudal fin base; first three spots late rally elongate on predorsal regíon; spots on base of dorsal fins in pairs of closely approximated spots separated from succeeding pairs by wider and paler interspaces; last four spots on caudal peduncle less distinct. An upper dorsolateral series of 1 9 spots extending from aboye opercle to caudal base. A lower dorsolateral series of about 13 spots sometimes merging posteriorly with upper dorsolateral spots. A series of about 1 1 spots on lateral midline extending from behind pectoral fin base to caudal base .
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A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE : An adult male, snout blunt and trun­ cate, nostrils and labial protruberances conspicuous (Fig. lA) ; canthus ros­ tralis short and smoothly rounded. Snout-vent length 6.9 times the head width, 4.3 times the snout-gular fold length. Vomerine teeth 1 1 - 1 1 ; maxillary teeth 2 5-26; premaxillary teeth 4, protruding through the outer margin of the !ip. Taíl 1.02 times the snout-vent length, cylindrical in cfO'ss-section, slender, with a slight taper and but a shallow constriction at the base. Limbs long and slender, slightly overlapping when appressed to body. Snout-vent length 3.8 times that of the left forelimb, 3.6 times that of the left hind limbo Webbing of the hands and feet incomplete but well developed (Fig. lB) . Digits rounded at the extremes, distinctly flattened and extended beyond the webbing. Distal extremes of the digits with slightly developed subdigital pads. Fingers in order of decreasing length 3,2,4, 1 ; the toes decreasing in length in the order of 3,4,2,5,1.
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