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Signalment risk factors for cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (Alabama rot) in dogs in the UK

Signalment risk factors for cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (Alabama rot) in dogs in the UK

Table 2: Multivariable logistic regression results for variables significantly associated with diagnosis with cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (CRGV) in dogs in the United Ki[r]

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Spatio-temporal patterns and agro-ecological risk factors for cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (Alabama Rot) in dogs in the UK

Spatio-temporal patterns and agro-ecological risk factors for cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (Alabama Rot) in dogs in the UK

Table 2: Characteristics of the high and low risk clusters of cases of cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (CRGV) 7. in dogs in the United Kingdom (January 2012 – May 2017) as i[r]

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Description of the use of plasma exchange in dogs with Cutaneous and Renal Glomerular Vasculopathy

Description of the use of plasma exchange in dogs with Cutaneous and Renal Glomerular Vasculopathy

In dogs, reported causes for TMA include HUS (30) and CRGV (2–5), with the latter being first reported in the USA in 1988 and initially referred to as “Alabama Rot” (2, 3). In the outbreaks reported in the USA, most of the dogs affected were greyhounds who developed a variable degree of the disease, including cutaneous lesions, localized specifically to the limbs, and AKI. Not all dogs developed AKI and some patients developed AKI before the cutaneous lesions could be identified, making the clinical presentation heterogeneous (2). It is unclear whether the previously reported “Alabama Rot” represents the same disease as the CRGV that is affecting dogs in the United Kingdom or whether a different etiopathogenesis exists. Possible differential diagnoses for the underlying cause of AKI include Leptospirosis which can be tested for by serology, PCR and histopathology of renal and hepatic tissue (5). Not all clinical presenting features in patients with leptospirosis are comparable with the presentation of CRGV cases (e.g., skin lesions are not normally reported with leptospirosis). Another differential could include an adverse drug reaction causing skin lesions and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. However, CRGV cases develop skin lesions first and typically have not had any exposure to drugs until after these lesions appear. Another known cause leading to TMA in dogs other than CRGV is HUS, though skin lesions have previously never been reported in canine HUS. In human HUS, the most commonly reported forms are caused by E. coli or Shigella dysenteriae Shiga toxin or by Salmonella or Campylobacter infections, which can be identified by fecal culture (5). To the authors’ knowledge, there appears to be no other obvious differential diagnosis for the combination of clinical signs in the cases presented in this study. No underlying causative agent has been identified in dogs with CRGV despite a detailed investigation that included the search for immune-complex deposition, viral (canine circovirus) or bacterial disease presence (Shiga toxin, E.coli, Leptospira) (2, 3, 5) albeit performed in relatively small numbers of cases and with the caveat that chronology may be of importance in terms of sampling and identifying these factors. Other causes, such as ADAMTS-13 deficiency, complement-activation or detection of toxins responsible for TMA in people have not been investigated thus far.
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Ifosfamide-induced Nephrotoxicity in Children: Critical Review of Predictive Risk Factors

Ifosfamide-induced Nephrotoxicity in Children: Critical Review of Predictive Risk Factors

Taken together, the data appear to indicate that the most consistent predictive risk factor for renal toxic- ity is the cumulative dose of ifosfamide. This factor is proved to be related to both the incidence and the severity of proximal tubulopathy in almost all of the studies that have analyzed the different risk factors. It is unclear whether there is a safe threshold above which the risk of developing renal toxicity increases significantly. Although many studies indi- cate a cumulative dose of 60 g/m 2 as the cutoff point,

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Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

Abstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obe- sity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary fi nding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches, including evaluation of gene–environment interactions and epigen- etic mechanisms of inherited and acquired increased risk, are needed to explain the increasing incidence of renal cell cancer.
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Emerging Epidemics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran: Operational Aspects, Management and Implemented Control Approaches

Emerging Epidemics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran: Operational Aspects, Management and Implemented Control Approaches

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Iran could be considered as an emerging disease that is rapidly increasing and expanding its traditional geographical range to new foci. Sixteen registered emerging epidemics have occurred since 1998 in different provinces. Various risk factors, including agricultural development, earthquake, movement to endemic areas, construction of buildings near colonies of rodents, sleeping outside, cross-border movements, and poor sanitation, play crucial roles in the expansion of the disease. The mentioned risk factors can lead to the gradual or sudden emergence of new CL epidemics, and long-lasting endemic foci can also erupt into epidemics. This paper reviews the emerging epidemics published between 1998 and 2019 in Iran with particular emphasis on the operational aspects of control and related risk factors caused by anthroponotic CL (ACL) and zoonotic CL (ZCL). The competent surveillance system should be extended to all high-risk areas to facilitate controlling the emerging epidemics of ACL and ZCL in the affected areas.
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Risk factors for FEV<sub>1</sub> decline in mild COPD and high-risk populations

Risk factors for FEV<sub>1</sub> decline in mild COPD and high-risk populations

One limitation of this study is that the follow-up period was only 1 year. The process of pathophysiological changes in COPD is long, from normal lung function to emphysema and/or chronic airway inflammation. It would be more mean- ingful to extend the investigation time to understand the exact magnitude of lung function decline and verify the predictive effect of risk factors on lung function decline in the long term. Inflammatory biomarkers may show significant changes with disease progression. It is assumed that continuous follow-up in these two populations may provide additional insight into the pathophysiological development of COPD in order to explain the reasons of differences in FEV 1 decline between mild COPD patients and high-risk population.
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Risk factors for the difficulties in general activities across the day in Chinese children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Risk factors for the difficulties in general activities across the day in Chinese children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

with the QCD total score, only two factors, any psychiatric comorbidities and parent–child interaction activities, were significantly associated with the QCD subscale scores for all five time domains throughout the day in the univariate linear regression analyses; the other one factor, the ADHD inattention subtype, was significantly associated with QCD subscale scores for three time domains (morning time, school time, and evening time) in the univariate linear regression analyses. Additionally, the lifestyle of the father, parenting style, and education level of the mother were significantly associated with the QCD subscale score for at least one time domain in the univariate linear regression analyses. The results of these univariate linear regression analyses are summarized in Table 4.
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Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome) in four related male English springer spaniels

Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome) in four related male English springer spaniels

In all four ESS dogs, it was thought that the clinical changes induced by exercise were considerably dispropor- tionate to the intensity of the effort, even when factoring in additional elements, such as environmental temperature, humidity, and the like. As a result, our speculation was that these dogs likely: 1) had an underlying myopathy with the potential to cause EIH, yet not sufficiently severe to meet the stringent criteria for classic MH; that 2) hyperthermia and or changes in skeletal muscle somehow gave rise to second- ary disease processes, in which a DIC-like consumptive coagulopathy was prominent; and 3) this in turn resulted in gastrointestinal ischemia, diarrhea with or without blood loss into the gut lumen, and seizures. The delayed elevation of CK activity in one patient (case 4) provides supporting evidence for a primary myopathic process, possibly with a component of reperfusion injury (consistent with the observed delay in increased CK activity in serum), with a secondary cascade of changes (perhaps triggered by hyperthermia or key molecules released from affected myofibers) impacting on numerous body systems. However, CK elevation can be associated with muscle damage, and may not be associated with primary muscle disease. Therefore, the cause of the increase in CK from 1,815 U/L before the seizure to 16,882 U/L after the seizure may have been multifactorial. A weakness of the
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Histopathologic characteristics of biopsies from dogs undergoing surgery with concurrent gross splenic and hepatic masses: 125 cases (2012–2016)

Histopathologic characteristics of biopsies from dogs undergoing surgery with concurrent gross splenic and hepatic masses: 125 cases (2012–2016)

Splenic masses are frequently encountered in dogs. They may be diagnosed in dogs that present with non-trau- matic hemoabdomen or incidentally upon imaging or surgery. Lesions in the spleen may be the result of benign (i.e. lymphoid hyperplasia, hematoma, cyst, abscess, etc.) or malignant (i.e. hemangiosarcoma (HSA), metastatic sarcoma/carcinoma, malignant histiocytosis, lymphosar- coma (LSA), etc.) processes [1–4]. Hemangiosarcoma has been reported by some researchers as the most common splenic mass in dogs [1, 5]; however, others have reported higher prevalence of benign lesions [2–4]. In contrast, the prevalence of benign versus malignant lesions has been well established in dogs with non-traumatic hemoabdo- mens. The study by Johnson et al. [5] proposed the “law of
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Systemic glucocorticoid usage in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK: prevalence and risk factors

Systemic glucocorticoid usage in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK: prevalence and risk factors

derived from these chemical and brand names that reliably identified usage for all systemic glucocorticoids within the treatment field of the VetCompass™ database (Appendix 2). Glucocorticoid case finding involved initial screening of the treatment fields of all dogs within the study population for any treatment record that may have been a SGC using these search terms. A list of animal unique identification codes for these candidate cases for SGC usage was generated and treatment data (date, drug, volume/number of tablets, dosage instructions) on all treatments of any type during 2013 were extracted from the overall VetCompass™ database to an Excel format. Duplicates from the drug field were removed and all remaining dispensing terms used were manually coded as SGC (yes/no) to create a master list of SGC dispensing terms. All treatments from every candidate dog were then classified as either SGC or non-SGC using this master dispensing term list to identify all dogs from the overall study population with at least one SGC administered or dispensed during 2013.
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World small animal veterinary association renal pathology initiative: classification of glomerular diseases in dogs

World small animal veterinary association renal pathology initiative: classification of glomerular diseases in dogs

Figure 1. Dendrogram of 89 patients based on cluster analysis evaluation of 114 parameters related to all compartments of the kidney. Evaluation was performed by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The numbered (1–8) horizontal bar shows the level of discrimination that delineates the 8 clusters identified. Cluster 1 was composed of 5 control animals with normal glomerular morphology, clinical findings, and laboratory values. Clusters 2 and 3 comprised cases with glomerulosclerosis. Interestingly, cases in cluster 2 shared more similarities to controls in cluster 1 than to cases in cluster 3, as demonstrated by the presence of a connecting link between clusters 1 and 2. Cluster 4 comprised cases of glomerular amyloidosis. Cases in clusters 5 and 6 and clusters 7 and 8 had patterns that were characteristic of
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Spinal Arachnoid Diverticula: Outcome in 96 Medically or Surgically Treated Dogs

Spinal Arachnoid Diverticula: Outcome in 96 Medically or Surgically Treated Dogs

Surgically Treated Dogs. The surgical treated dogs underwent one of several surgical techniques, which were chosen based on the surgeons’ preference. Twenty-eight dogs underwent a durectomy with removal of the arachnoid adhesions, 15 a durotomy, and 3 a marsupialization. The mean duration of hos- pitalization was 5.7 days with a median of 5 days. One dog suffered from a major perioperative compli- cation. This dog underwent a durectomy at C2-3 and experienced postoperative hypoventilation 12 hours after surgery, which made ventilatory sup- port necessary. Imaging showed formation of a com- pressive hematoma, which was surgically removed. The dog required ventilation for 7 days after revi- sion surgery and was discharged 9 days after the sec- ond surgery. Minor surgical complications included severe blood loss, requiring a blood transfusion in 1 dog, early postoperative transient neurologic deterio- ration in 22 dogs and urinary tract infections reported in 4 dogs.
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Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Macular Edema in Patients with Diabetes in Clinical Population

Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Macular Edema in Patients with Diabetes in Clinical Population

Type 2 diabetes with suboptimal glycemic control and long –term hyperglycemia is probably responsible for the development of DR. and also observed an association of DR with Hypertension and Anemia. Diabetes mellitus, in general and diabetic retinopathy, in particular are progressive conditions, so regular follow-up care with a physician is crucial for detection of any systemic factors that may benefit from treatment

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Risk factors for suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV-infected adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana: a pilot cross-sectional study

Risk factors for suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV-infected adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana: a pilot cross-sectional study

This study found that a high proportion of HIV-infected ado- lescents aged 13 to 18 years who are attending the BBCCCOE for HIV care are highly adherent to their ART medication regimens and achieved virologic suppression. Being male and having a history of failure to refill ART at a pharmacy were significant risk factors for suboptimal adherence among HIV/ AIDS-infected adolescents in this study population. Our data call for a prospective evaluation in a larger study to confirm our findings and investigate further why males are more likely to have suboptimal adherence than females; this may improve the design of targeted intervention strategies in this setting.
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Risk factors associated with nonvaccination rabies status of dogs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Risk factors associated with nonvaccination rabies status of dogs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

nor religion played a significant role in the vaccination status of the surveyed population. Reasons provided by respondents for why owners did not bring their dogs to the government vaccinations included owner unawareness of the event, owner was away from the household at the time of the campaigns or they considered the distance too far to bring the dog for vaccine (61%), dog ran away from technicians, the dog was new to the household, or owner thought the dog was too young (36%). None of the owners reported not presenting their dogs because they could not or would not handle the dogs. In N’Djaména, Chad, dog owners not attending vacci- nation points reported not being able to handle their animals (25%), being unaware of the campaign or lack of time to attend (19%), and dogs being too young or running away (17%). 28 In this study, 11% of dogs were reported as only
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Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. The diagnosis of PCOS based on the National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria includes clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation and exclusion of other known disorders. According to the Rotterdam 2003 criteria, PCOS is diagnosed based on the presence of two of the following three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovaries. Finally, the Androgen Excess Society 2006 criteria require the presence of hyperandrogenism (biochemical or clinical) with either oligoanovulation or polycystic ovaries. 1 The
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The Prevalence and Evolving Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer in the Arab World

The Prevalence and Evolving Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer in the Arab World

(8). A population based study by Verttipong showed that the incidence rate of CRC for patients younger than 40 years in Egypt was slightly greater than the incidence of CRC in United States for the same age group (9). The dossier by the Cancer Incidence Report in Saudi Arabia has shown that the women develop CRC much earlier than men (45–59 vs. 60-74 years) (10) (11) . Five geographic regions of Saudi Arabia have been identified with the highest age-standardized incidence rates; Eastern (100.8/100,000), Riyadh (94.8/100,000), Makkah (77/100,000), Northern (71.3/100,000), and Tabuk (66.7/100,000) regions. However, no specific reason could be pinned down for the dissimilarities in incidence rates in different regions of Saudi Arabia. Deficiency of vitamin D has been claimed to be a major risk factor for several cancers including CRC and breast malignancies (12). A report by Hussein et al. has reported that 83.6% population in Saudi Arabia suffer from the vitamin
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Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorder

Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorder

episodes and some psychiatric comorbidities (substance use, anxiety and cluster B personality disorder). Further analysis is needed to clarify if specific bipolar disorder sub- type, metabolic syndrome and comorbid eating disorder are associated to suicide. Current episode characteristics consistently linked to suicidal behaviours are: depressive episode polarity, mixed features and suicidal ideation, as well as can be expected. Even if the presence of psychotic and atypical features seems to be a possible risk factors for suicide, more research is necessary. Finally, using AD
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Gastric dilation-volvulus in dogs attending UK emergency-care veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors and survival

Gastric dilation-volvulus in dogs attending UK emergency-care veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors and survival

TITLE: Gastric dilation-volvulus in dogs attending UK emergency-care veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors and survival.. AUTHORS: D..[r]

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