The article has as objective the critical reflexive exercise on the importance of knowledge construction intourism from a scientific perspective. Some polemics and proposals from authors who approach tourism from a more conventional point of view discarding its possibility as discipline and science are reviewed along with the view of those who approach tourism from a more anti-positivist position, in which they revalue the notion oftourism as science. An anti-positivist view surpasses the positivist formal part, which offers the possibility of qualifying tourism as science that under hermeneutical, phenomenological, dialectical or critical dimensions the revaluing of scientific knowledge oftourism allows one to recognize that there are communities, themes and procedures on how to investigate, which also allow observing interventions in reality.
In 2012, in China’s major cities began appearing frequent haze phenomenon, PM2.5 was included in the detection of the atmosphere for the first time. After that, the haze pollution was continued hot and attracted the whole society’s attention. The decline in air quality and visibility caused by haze not only induced traffic paralysis, flight delays, breathing sensitive population of high disease, but also led to people’s own health concerns. According to the study estimated that in January 2013 the haze invasion, the national direct impact of traffic and health is estimated at about 23 billion yuan, resulting in emergency and outpatient health economic losses are non-haze cases of nearly 2 times (Quan et al. 2013). With the deteriorating air quality, people’s perception of their risks has touched on all aspects of life, including employment, study, tourism, business investment and so on. China Tourism Research Institute published the “China Inbound Tourism Development Annual Report 2014” pointed out that the current air quality has become a major factor restricting China’s inbound tourism (China Tourism Academy, 2014) 4 . In this part will show the impacts of air pollution on
To continue with this setting of context about the tourist texts, we would like to focus on the purpose of these kinds of texts. It is clear that the target tourist text must maintain the same functions as the source text. As we mentioned before, the main functions of tourist texts are to persuade and to inform, and the target text must transmit the same information with the same functions. In order to do this, the translator must perfectly understand all the techniques (style or metaphors, among others) and non-linguistic elements (photos or icons) used to reach these functions and he or she must transfer them properly into the target text. Even so, Kelly (1997: 36) states that “the function of the target text should constitute the translator’s main guide in decision-making” and that “the translator should attempt to produce a target text which fulfils this function to the best of her or his ability”. However, even if the target text is well adapted, the good comprehension will vary depending of the reader and his or her experience and knowledge about what it is written. For this reason, some authors like Jänis and Priiki, Reiss and Vermeer, or Neubert (cited in Kelly, 1997: 35) proposed that the ideal solution would perhaps be to produce specific texts for each target culture. In addition, as Durán (2011: 35) states:
The phenomenon of seasonality affects many economic activities but undoubtedly affects the tourismin a natural way. Allcock (1994) describes it as the tendency of tourist flows that concentrates in relatively short periods of the year; and it also notes that the widespread acceptance of seasonality as an inevitability within the tourist sector has been accompanied by a clear lack in research. Furthermore, Butler (1994) performed a review of all the literature on seasonality and realized that the focus was on the analysisof patterns of demand, the description of the seasonality in specific destinations, the negative effects on employment and investment, and policies against seasonality and its implications.
Against this backdrop, the research allowed us to define that UNWTO has significant opportunities to get involved intourism-related projects, besides an apparent lack of resources and a very limited presence on the ground. Indeed, its main competitive advantage remains its very specific expertise intourism, often lacked by other institutions, its belonging to the United Nations system and the reputation and neutrality associated to it. As UNWTO is not well-established in Uzbekistan, and often not widely known by other development actors, the key to get involved intourism-related projects in the country lies in partnering with more-established, stronger partners. UNWTO will therefore need to put emphasis on strengthening its ties with other aid actors, both on the ground and at a headquarters level, and, most importantly, work on giving visibility to its expertise and capabilities on a global level.
Regarding the elements which refer to nature and geography (Tables 1 & 4), I have identified all the nouns and adjectives that appear in the corpora as they represent the lexical diversity of my corpus, which is characteristic of the specialized discourse. The total number of adjectives and nouns is very similar in both corpora, although slightly higher in the English one. On the one hand, the Spanish corpus has 31 nouns and 10 adjectives, and, on the other hand, the English one has 36 nouns and 16 adjectives. The lexis varies from general vocabulary, such as río and cueva and river and rock, to specific one, like cotero -a cultural term specific of the Cantabria region, and which refers to a low hill with a fast slope- and tor, meaning “a prominent rock or heap of rocks, especially on a hill” (collinsdictionary.com) characteristic of Southwest England. Furthermore, I have found several instances of semi-technical vocabulary in the English corpus -and none in Spanish- being common words but with a specific meaning in their context. In our English corpus they take the form of compound nouns, as dike formations and shingle beach, and a noun with a prepositional phrase like bank of the river.
The Citybranding corresponds to the creation of a representative brand that identifies the diverse characteristics of a city for its projection to the tourist market, therefore, it is necessary that said brand be in accordance with the qualities that are desired to be strengthened, since this will have a significant influence on the perception that both visitors and residents will acquire from the city and will also serve as a means of communication and brand recall. In the present study it was proposed to conceptually evaluate the generalities of the citybranding, through a bibliographical-descriptive analysisof the existing literature, which allows to know the role that the citybranding plays in the development oftourism, it was evidenced that the motive that moves the creation of a brand for a city is its potentialization in the tourist market.
On the other extreme, we have the Activities that generate the greatest relative demands. It is immediately apparent that the Health sector, according to this account, has a null contribution to the rest of the economy, and presents only the necessary demand to provide the health services it generates. This poses a problem for this type ofanalysis, as health is a fundamental input. However, it is not treated as a direct input and as such is unaccounted, thus remaining as a sector that only consumes and does not contribute inputs to the rest of the economy. This, however, does not mean that it is not important, on the contrary, it can indicate that it has a high multiplying effect if the expenses in said sector increase; for example, a quality improvement policy for the public health services would immediately translate into 100% increases on the input demand it requires.
Introduction. Hepatorenal tyrosinemia (HT1) is a treatable, inherited, metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver failure with pronounced coagulopathy. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, biochemical, and histopathological findings in a group of Mexican HT1 patients and their outcome. Mate- rial and methods. Medical records of HT1 patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 were analyzed. The diagnosis of HT1 was confirmed by detection of succinylacetone in urine or blood. Results. Sixteen non- related HT1 cases were analyzed. Mean age at clinical onset was 9 months, and the mean age at diagnosis was 16.3 months. Main clinical findings were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, cirrhosis, liver failure, tubulopa- thy, nephromegaly, Fanconi syndrome, seizures and failure to thrive. Histopathological findings were cirrhosis, fibrosis and steatosis. The HT1 group had a mortality rate of 78%. Patients who received supportive care or nutritional treatment had a 3-year survival rate of 10%. For those who underwent liver transplanta- tion, the 6-year survival rate was 60%. In most cases pharmacological treatment with nitisinone and special dietary products were not available. The leading causes of death were fulminant liver failure, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and porphyria-like neurologic crisis. Newborn screening programs in combina- tion with the availability of orphan drugs, proper monitoring, genetic counseling, and clinical practice gui- delines are needed to enable physicians to identify the disease, delay its progression, and improve patients’ quality of life. Conclusion. The devastating natural history of HT1 is still observed in Mexican pa- tients because they are not diagnosed and treated during the early stages of the disease.
Generally speaking, organizations from the public sector have been criticized for not being able to fully exploit the opportunities presented by new mediums (Schultz, 1999), especially in the marketing field (Matson, 1994). The majority of the emphasis up to this point has been on the advertising of cities as tourist destinations hotspots (Wöber, 2003). It is one of the main reasons why certain researchers claim that a lot of city managers use marketing as a means to an end; for promotional activity as opposed to a philosophy that identifies and satisfies customer needs (Warnaby and Davies, 1997). If this also applies to the internet, city manager’s may not be harnessing the full power of the internet.
Upon review of the PEATREDD+ for the 2010-2014 period, it appears the Programs have promoted innovations in institutional frameworks and implemented more sustainable productive schemes that, according to local actor’s opinions, have represented a valuable instrument to stop deforestation in forests and rainforests, but not degradation. It was found, however, that during this period of implementation, the Programs have not put in practice the intervention program conceptually proposed in the Forests and Climate Change Project and its operating guidelines. Furthermore, this review provides evidence that to ensure the long term forest cover permanence it is necessary to implement the PEATREDD+ through improvements in investments’ orientation, effective coordination among institutions, APDT and LDA operation, community and ejido 3
Fieldwork was carried out at Zumpango Lake on August 2006. Seven sampling points were selected. Six of them (1-5, 7) were distributed surrounding the lake for covering the input of water in it and the last one (6) was located at the deepest zone of the lake, close to the centre of the water body. Each sampling point was geo-referred with a GPS (Garmin, Ltd) and optical measurements such as Secchi transparency and hyperspectral reflectance were also performed. Afterwards, hyperspectral data were analyzed through a derivative method. Water samples were collected at each sampling site at the surface and at 0.5 m depth for laboratory analysisof chlorophyll concentration using fluo- rometric methods.
Abstract: Despite its vicinity to Querétaro City, the La Cañada locality is a moderately preserved zone with deciduous tropical for- est and xeric scrub. In this floristic study, nine infraspecific taxa, 264 species, 199 genera and 76 families were recorded. Among these, Asteraceae and Cactaceae comprised the largest numbers of species. At La Cañada a high percentage of the native flora is preserved, and the majority of biological forms recorded for vascular plants. Seventeen percent of the species are endemic to Mexico and Mammillaria mathildae is endemic to the Valley of Querétaro. Five species are included in the Mexican Official Norm of Endangered Species. Two species from the El Bajío region are threatened and two species, previously collected from the locality, probably represent examples of recent extinctions from Querétaro. La Cañada is the locality with the highest recorded richness and diversity within the Valley of Querétaro, supporting 11.3% of the species of the state flora. Our results indicate that La Cañada is an important area that requires sound management for its conservation.
The second step after shaping the mesh it is configuring theoretical models and the boundary conditions to be used in the flow simulation. First, it will be set the turbulent models. This will be used in order to obtain a good approximation of the Navier Stokes equation result. The energy equation is not considered as temperature changes and heat transfer are not involved in this kind of problems. Hence, the viscous model used was, what is called “k-epsilon”, following the ANSYS user´s guide. There, it says that this model is suitable for complex problems such as strong changes in the direction of the flow lines, rapid flow analysis, turbulence swirl effect and circular flow problems (ANSYS, 2009). Then, the software provides a list of parameters to set up, as it is shown in Figure 21. Most of them were left as a default except the Near-Wall Treatment in which the Non-equilibrium Wall function option was selected as it performs better the adverse pressure gradient, flow separation and reattachment.
performance in the export maquiladora industry ofMexico ( EMI ), by sectors and states, comparing the northern border region to the rest of Mexican states during the period 1990-1999. The study is based on conditional convergence analysis applied to labor productivity. The results showed that the states with higher labor productivity were Morelos, Jalisco and the state ofMexico. The pooled least squares showed the existence of absolute divergence in labor productivity for all sectors. Finally, the econometric estimates of conditional convergence did not show any impact of the qualified labor force variable. When including the rate of growth of capital formation and real wages the results exhibit a weak conditional convergence trend. The fixed effect panel model estimates suggest favorable state conditions for labor productivity growth in the states of Nuevo Leon, Baja California and Chihuahua.
However, the dengue case definition was limited in terms of its complexity and applicability. This recogni- tion of the limitations led to a multicenter study in different countries from which a new case definition emerged. This more recent WHO classification for dengue severity is divided into “Dengue without Warning Signs”, “Dengue with Warning Signs”, and “Severe Dengue” 4 . Despite this new classification, the
Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988) presented the ‘SERVQUAL’ method for assessing service quality by classifying the quality of service received in five parts: reliability, responsibility, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. The evaluation is based on the comparison between the expectation of customers (what they want) and the real perception of them (what they get). If service is provided with a quality equal or above the expectation, clients will be satisfied (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988; 1994). However, there are some ‘SERVQUAL’ critiques. For example, it is based on a disconfirmation paradigm rather than an attitudinal paradigm, and it focuses on the service delivery process, not on the outcome (Buttle, 1996). Later, Cronin and Taylor (1992) proposed a performance evaluation model (SERVPERF), which assesses service quality considering only the perception of service performance without taking into account customers’ expectation. Several previous studies indicate that performance measurement (SERVPERF) has advantages over the comparison between the expectation and real perception (SERVQUAL) for empirical applications (Jain and Gupta, 2004; Abbas, Ghaleb and El-reface, 2012). They found that the dominant contributor to the gap score (perception – expectation) was the perception score and there is a tendency to rate expectations high. Then, SERVPERF provides a more convergent and discriminant valid explanation of the service quality construct (Jain and Gupta, 2004).
Through this article intend to raise social and academic awareness on a socially relevant subject that involves a wide international community of travelers which has being completely ignored by tourism academics and developers inMexico. Controversial topics like environmental depredation (Bocco, 2012), sexual exploitation and drug consumption are closely related to tourisminMexico so they should be approached by tourism academics in order to properly understand such complex and delicate phenomenon. As mentioned earlier, is possible to prevent many of the unwanted cultural and environmental consequences produced by this emerging form oftourism, while highlighting its potential benefits and promoting real sustainable development for mexican indigenous communities, or as claimed by Don Juanito, leader of a Wixarika family in Real de Catorce 2 “it is not okay to play around with Peyote