La proyección informativa del fenómeno rociero es tal que su difusión, merced al interés de los ciudadanos por todo lo concerniente al Rocío, trasciende más allá de los días de la romería. En la actualidad, la información rociera publicada por los medios de comunicación -habitualmente los de ámbito local- resulta de gran utilidad para conocer y comprender todos los aspectos de esta peregrinación mariana, bien sean particularidades o novedades de la romería, testimonios de fe, advertencias de los operativos de seguridad u otros detalles. Y por otro lado, también reconocemos la existencia de una comunicación institucional rociera a cargo de la Hermandad Matriz de Almonte y sus 121 hermandades filiales, reconocidas como tal a fecha de enero de 2018 (1). A los medios y canales de comunicación propios se han sumado en los últimos años las redes sociales, que han modificado singularmente la manera de comunicar de estas asociaciones religiosas con sus hermanos, devotos y seguidores, como veremos en nuestra investigación.
A lo largo de los últimos años, hemos sido testigos de cómo la violencia de género en adolescentes y jóvenes está presente en nuestra sociedad de manera continua, siendo importantes datos como los aportados por Amar y Gennaro (2005), quienes nos informan de que las mujeres entre 16 y 24 años tienen mayor riesgo de abuso por un compañero íntimo, lo que cobra gran importancia, si tenemos en cuenta que la violencia en una relación de noviazgo es un importante precursor de la violencia doméstica o violencia sexual en la pareja (Ureña, Romero, Casas, Viejo, y Ortega-Ruiz, 2015), convirtiéndose éste en un grave problema, tanto de salud, como social (Farhat, Haynie, Summersett-Ringgold, Brooks-Russell y Iannotti,2015; Shorey et al., 2015; Stepteau-Watson, 2014; Shorey, Tortolero, Wolfe, y Stuart, 2013; Bonomi et al., 2012; Martin, Houston, Mmari, y Decker, 2012; Bapat y Tracey, 2012), en el que queda demostrado que las medidas en contra de este tipo de violencia no son suficientes, unido a numerosos factores presentes en el entorno donde los jóvenes se desenvuelven (Ruiz- Hernández, García-Jiménez, Llor-Esteban, y Godoy-Fernández, 2015), tales como la disciplina negativa de los padres o de factores de riesgo en la comunidad (Novo, Herbón, y Amado, 2016; Fuente y Herrero-Olaizola, 2012).
Inthe first years of digital journalism, it seems that journalists will be able to report in real time as an event plays out, which will represent a significant change compared with what went before. However several changes have taken place, but particularly inthe way content is selected for inclusion in newspapers (Domingo, 2006; Mato, 2014; Phillips, 2011). Before the Internet emerged, the media was able to decide not to cover an event. Conversely, if a news company were to do that in this era ofsocial media, it would call into question their reliability. Mato (2014: 206) argues that the media cannot decide anymore whether an event should be covered or not: “The media entity that doesn’t want to publish something simply because does not fit with their concerns and interests, will have to do it all the same”. It would not have been understandable if The Guardian, the BBC or El País, TVE, all of them big media entities, had not published any information concerning the Egyptian Revolution or at least not as much information as they published related to it. In this sense, the media was forced by social media to pay attention to a certain topic. So, there are situations where news corporations and journalists are pushed by their audience to focus the media’s attention to an issue.
32 Inthe above plot “f-m” stands for female author and male retweeter, “m-f” male author and female retweeter and so on. As the actual distribution of followers is extremely right-skewed the logarithm of followers has been plotted instead. We can see that this variable may be influencing retweeters. Followers are not equally distributed amongst the four groups represented inthe above plot. Inthe case of female retweeting males (m-f graph) we see a clear peak at the right ofthe main one. This can mean that female users may have retweeted some male authors because of their large quantity of followers. This peak is not as notable inthe case of female retweeters and female authors (f-f graph). Another noteworthy feature is that male retweeters also retweeted other males (m-m graph) with large quantity of followers though this is more equally distributed than with female retweeters. This did not happen when retweeting female users. We could hypothesise that males are more likely to be retweeted based on large quantities of followers than females but that study is out ofthe scope of this work.
This paper focuses primarily on a description and preliminary analysisofthe first two components. The paper is organized into six sections. Following this introduction is a brief description ofthe research methodology used to gather the information presented inthe paper. In order to understand the institutional context in which the WFD-related PP processes have taken place, the third section describes the administrative organization for water resources management in Spain and the role users have traditionally played. It also offers a brief historical overview ofthe public debates that surrounded the publication ofthe Draft NHP and the BMPs inthe 1990s and the actors and arguments that emerged then and that have consolidated over time. The fourth section includes a description ofthe PP and consultation processes that are being undertaken by the River Basin Authorities (RBA) inthe process ofthe elaboration ofthe current BMPs, and ofthesocialnetworks that have arisen throughout Spain over the past decade in defense ofthe values embodied by the New Water Culture 1 . The fifth section includes an effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of these processes as well as potential best practices and future opportunities. It also suggests possible ways in which emerging socialnetworks for water ecosystem conservation are becoming alternative and potentially powerful PP arenas. The final section reflects on some unanswered questions regarding the outcome ofthe PP processes and the need to capitalize on the possibilities that have
constant power model forecast losses of 2345 Watts while ZIP Model forecast 1042 Watts. In contrast the tendency ofthe Constant Impedance Model in this case and also ofthe ZIP Model is always with a positive slope. The reason of this have been explained before. The reason why there is a shift between the ZIP model and the Z cte model for low voltages is because the existance of induction motors (big, medium or small) inthe grid. In this case we are simulating a rural grid which we assume with 12 houses. This houses have washing machines, air conditioned and fridges. These devices make the losses increase when there is an undervoltage. Nevertheless, thepresenceof this devices in a residential area is very low and thus, inthe agregate demand the slope becomes negative. This has a deeper explanation. Lets put an example. The graph that represents the washing machine is:
One limitation of this study is that, given the available evidence it is not possible to make hard evaluations ofthe relative costs of markets (both financial and in terms of service quality), relative to the previous regime of bureaucratic planning. That said, this analysis does have implications for how we understand the development of markets insocial services and perhaps more generally. Firstly, it draws attention to the difficulties of implementation. Inthe UK, as we saw, it has not always been easy to align supply with demand for specific services (a fact resulting in structural losses). The initial tendency was also towards a low trust, adversarial and potentially very costly mode of contracting at the local levels. The shift to markets, therefore, has been far from smooth or unproblematic. This in turn raises wider questions about the wider benefits and pay-offs of such change. While the new mixed economy has undoubtedly increased choice –possibly allowing local authorities to achieve a better fit between needs and services for individual clients (Evandrou and Falkingham, 1998)– and may in some areas have improved efficiency, the available evidence suggests that these gains have been attained at a high price.
mencionar que décadas atrás las tradiciones dominantes en las Ciencias Sociales han construido los modos de explicación científica. El análisis de redes sociales ARS (Social Network Analysis), también denominado análisis estructural, se ha desarrollado como herramienta de medición y análisis de las estructuras sociales que emergen de las relaciones entre actores sociales diversos (individuos, organizaciones, naciones, etc.). El análisis parte del estudio de la conducta individual a nivel micro y los patrones de relaciones (la estructura de la red) a nivel macro y las interacciones entre ambos niveles, pudiendo ser bilateral o multilateral, emergiendo una estructura denominada red social. La ARS ha sido consolidada con el apoyo de la álgebra matricial y de los grafos, que en ocasiones puede involucrar a varios conjuntos, donde se utilizan matrices de redes. La forma más directa de estudiar una estructura social es analizar los patrones de vínculos que ligan a sus miembros, buscando estructuras profundas. El autor menciona que la red es un constructo relacional, en el cual las descripciones se basan en los conceptos de vínculos (ties) que unen actores (nodes) que pueden ser personas, grupos, organizaciones o clusters de vínculos -así como de personas- en un sistema social. Los elementos de la red son los actores y las relaciones que se establecen entre ellos. Los primeros son representados por puntos en la red o nodos y los segundos por líneas. Si los actores se describen como nodos y sus relaciones como líneas entre pares de nodos, el concepto de red social pasa de ser una metáfora a una herramienta operativa analítica que utiliza el lenguaje matemático de la teoría de grafos, de las matrices y del álgebra relacional.
The means of communication that will be examined in this article is the Internet forum www.enfemenino.com. It is beyond doubt that Europeans use the Internet on a daily basis, and their exposure to this means of communication is not only work-related, but it is also used as a source of entertainment. Discussion forums are a perfect way to interact with other people, as well as to share or exchange information and publish news, among other activities. Despite the numerous studies that have been referred to above, so far not many pieces of research have focused on theanalysisof Anglicisms inthe particular context of Internet forums: for instance, Garley and Hockenmaier (2012) reported on the use of Anglicisms in a German hip hop forum; Zhang (2015) examined multilingual creativity in a Chinese microblog, Shanghai Release, involving English among other languages; Crespo-Fernández (2015) examined the use of taboo and euphemistic words in some Internet forums; Tagliamonte (2016) has recently studied the linguistic uses ofthe Internet by North American youth focusing on different linguistic aspects, such as acronyms and intensifiers. All these studies have contributed to shedding some light on this fascinating field of research, which is constantly developing as social media technologies expand inthe contemporary world. New trends and ways to interact online emerge daily, and in Tagliamonte’s and Denis’s (2008: 27) words, “[a]ll these provide yet-to-be-discovered venues in which the foremost commodity is language”.
blogs. El sitio web contendría diversos elementos con los que poder difundir información: páginas de texto, vídeos educativos, simulación en línea. También facilitaría ciertos servicios como preins- cripción médica, pedir citas, enviar preguntas, etc. Se escogió una muestra de 23 usuarios a los que se les hizo una encuesta de opinión sobre la web en cuestión. Como conclusión final exponen que la Web 2.0 puede ser de gran ayuda para las personas con diabetes, siempre y cuando la in- formación que se difunda sea actualizada con bastante frecuencia. Ese mismo año, Hesse y sus colaboradores (2010) también realizan una investigación sobre la implementación de las nuevas tecnologías en el ámbito de la salud en Estados Unidos. Según su estudio, ya en el año 2001 el United States Department of Health and
Bhatia (1993: 45) stresses the importance ofthe communicative purpose inthe definition of a genre: “the communicative purpose which the genre is intended to serve is the most important factor in genre identification.” In Bhatia (2004: 23), communicative purposes are also stressed: “Genres are recognizable communicative events, characterized by a set of communicative purposes identified and mutually understood by members ofthe professional or academic community in which they regularly occur”. Therefore, it will be necessary to explore those aspects contributing to the definition ofthe communicative purpose ofthe genre of discourse on SNSs, with special reference here, to the use made of them by university students. Bhatia (2004: 22-26) reviews different views on genre analysis and distinguishes two important features common to all of them, namely, “The emphasis on conventions”, as “Genre essentially refers to language use in a conventionalized communicative setting in order to give expression to a specific set of communicative goals of a disciplinary or social institution” Bhatia (2004: 23) and “propensity for innovation”, (…) “which is often exploited by the expert members ofthe specialist community to create new forms in order to respond to novel rhetorical contexts or to convey ‘private intentions within the socially recognized communicative purposes’”, Bhatia (2004: 24). Keeping in mind, then, the importance ofthe communicative purpose, the emphasis on conventions and the propensity for innovation, I will explore several distinctive features of Facebook in contrast to a rather different computer-mediated means of communication, i.e. email, attempting at the structural description of this SNS. When compared to email, SNSs can be characterized by reference to their users’ orientation to the following aspects: (i) Interactional versus transactional function ofthe language, (ii) interpersonal versus ideational meaning, (iii) dialogic orientation and implementation, (iv) frequent use of appraisal resources, including attitude, (meanings of affect, judgment, and appreciation), together with engagement and graduation, (v) construction of a virtual identity, by the weaving of power and solidarity relationships. The exploration of these aspects will contribute to the definition ofthe communicative purpose and the structural description ofthe genre by observing its conventional nature and its propensity to innovation.
Resumen: Este texto explora el equilibrio de poderes en la República del Ecuador analizado a través del Social Network Analysis (SNA). Se sos- tiene que los lazos formales e informales entre los actores del sistema político pueden ser afectados como resultado de una acción de mejora dentro de una parte del Estado. El artículo relata tres elementos esencia- les: el aparato teórico del equilibrio de poder en el Estado, un resumen de las acciones de reforma en el sistema judicial ecuatoriano, y un contraste analítico entre los modelos de gobernanza del Estado ecuatoriano después de la reforma de la judicatura, realizada entre el 2010 y el 2014. Para esto, se propone comparar los modelos de balance de poder mediante un soft- ware de análisis de red social, del que se obtienen una serie de estadísticas que mostrarían la posibilidad de cambios en las capacidades de rendición de cuentas horizontal del Poder Judicial. Los datos obtenidos muestran una evidencia base de que pequeños cambios en la trama de relaciones gubernamentales tienen amplias consecuencias cuantitativas en el equili- brio de poderes, y se muestran como heurísticas de cambios en la diná- mica del poder político. Se concluye indicando que las reformas del sis- tema judicial han creado un sistema más eficiente pero la centralidad del poder, de acuerdo a los datos obtenidos, pueden generar efectos no desea- dos en la administración pública y en la estructura de control del poder del Estado.
networks. The most important task is to in- form Internet audience about the activities ofthe authorities and the formation of positive public opinion. second, public communica- tion insocial media will definitely contribute to the formation of personal image and repu- tation management PR entity. Unfortunately, the implementation of feedback you can’t call priority pages ofthe representatives ofthe executive branch ofthe Republic of Tatars- tan. However, with proper use of feedback increases the loyalty ofthe audience, it raises the credibility ofthe received information. In fact, the profile for the official becomes a personalized means of mass communication and opens up big opportunities for commu- nication with the audience.This contributes to the high speed of information dissemina- tion insocial media, as well as the absence of censorship, regulations and information ofthe interference due to thepresenceof an intermediary on behalf ofthe media . The interaction of members ofthe Government ofthe Republic of Tatarstan with the public in a modern Internet environment can’t be des- cribed as a single and successful ongoing pro- cess.Internet pages of most part of politicians don’t use almost any popularity and do not follow the format ofsocial communication. network. However, the authorities gradually learn to engage with people on the Internet. so one ofthe main problems in cooperation between authorities and the population – Is the culture of political communication, de- velopment of norms and rules of conduct inthe social.the networks for both sides, which should be based on the tradition of political communication.and it is important to take into account current realities and trends inthe field of communication of our life.
I began this project with a brief description ofthe history of our Universe as we think it is. Then, I talked about Cosmology in which using the Friedmann Equa- tion we can get information about the geometry ofthe Universe. Writing it in terms ofthe Hubble Parameter H, and introducing a cosmological constant Λ are things done in that part ofthe project. Inthe next step, a description ofthe Cos- mic Microwave Background Radiation and some information about its origin was made. The Dipole anisotropy due to Earth’s Kinematics was explained followed by a very brief description of what is said to be the intrinsic anisotropies on it. To give an end to this first part full of theoretical information, I mentioned Inflation as a theory to help solve some inconsistencies in what we were saying about the Big Bang.
The sociological tradition inherited from Dur- kheim represents society as an organised, functional system in which each element has a role or function to play inthe whole, through which it can be understood. InThe Division of Labour in Society, Durkheim pointed out that “the structure of societies where organic solidarity is preponderant” is organised as a “system of different organs, each one of which has a special role and which them- selves are formed from differentiated parts”, with them being “co-ordinated and subordi- nated to one another around the same cen- tral organ, which exerts over the rest ofthe organism a moderating effect” (Durkheim, 1997: 132). However, as Durkheim ascer- tained that the division that social labour di- verted from “its natural direction” as a pro- ducer of organic solidarity, he began to place increasing importance on values and rules, as a means of ensuring the integration of modern societies. In contrast with societies with a segmented social structure, in which a “widespread and strong” collective con- sciousness covered all individuals, who largely shared a “similar consciousness”, the differentiation process brought in its wake a greater space for individual initiative and re- fl ection. Inthe light of this, the Durkheimian interpretation ofsocial life gradually shifted towards an idea of society as an integrated system, based on some central values that the individuals should internalise through the socialisation process. This ensured continu- ity between society and the individual, be- tween the system and the actor. Parsons shared Durkheim’s view that “there is a func- tional and formal continuity between culture (values), society (roles), and personalities (the reasons for action). The role of socialisation is to ensure this continuity between social structure and personality” (Dubet, 2006: 52).
Taken together, the presented results lead to the following discoveries: (i) Communities within cities follow a hierarchical structure that favors social distance over geographic distance. (ii) While people liv- ing within geographic radius including several cities form a connected network, the same radius within cities leads to highly clustered components only connected through people in distant parts ofthe city. This behavior occurs across different cities and regions sizes, highlighting cities as functional entities ofthesocialnetworks (iii) The structure of communities (here related to social proximity) and not geo- graphic distance is what makes socialnetworks searchable within cities. This finding is consistent with experimental results that suggest people do use the profession or name ofthe target inthe final steps to make inferences about his/her education or ethnicity, as a hint to help routing within cities 33 .
Buenos Aires used to provide excellent courses for learning to read English, French, German, and Italian (something similar probably happened in State universities of Brazil, Chile, México, and Perú). Many people had a reasonable command of Italian and English at the reading level before arriving at the University. To be sure, English was the foreign language one had to study in high school as a second language (in Brazil the emphasis sometimes also was and still is on French), so when you arrived at the university you were already partway along the path. Inthe “philosophical curriculum” what they called “the histories of philosophy” (Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, and Contemporary philosophy) were very important too. Those were key courses in any undergraduate program at the Argentine universities (and, as far as I know, you could find a similar situation in Brazil, Chile, and México). You could take some optional courses as well (especially seminars where you could read and discuss some ofthe major philosophers in translation, such as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Leibniz, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger, and Gadamer). Greek and Latin courses were mandatory; this has changed dramatically inthe last twenty-five years, not only in Argentina: the landscape is almost identical in Brazil, México, and Chile, even though in Argentina, Brazil, and México there is still a solid tradition focused on classical studies.
Abstract: Richness, cultural dominance and use frequency of families, genera, species and use types of useful plants inthe state of Morelos (Mexico) were evaluated. A database was built with the information gathered between 1979 and 2001. A total of 608 species, 400 genera and 128 families were recorded. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were the culturally dominant families, whereas Ficus, Ipomoea and Citrus were the culturally dominant genera. According to origin and level of management, 10 groups of plants were defined that included the 104 culturally dominant species. The largest cultural dominance corresponded to Persea americana Mill. and Psidium guajava L. A total of 27 use types were recorded, among which medicinal, ornamental and edible were the culturally dominant ones. The importance of traditional knowledge in selecting useful products and its contribution to the creation of environments that promote thepresenceof these products is discussed, as well as the potential contribution that this kind of knowledge may make to sustainable development.
Measurements were carried out on the following days: 251 (8/9), 252 (9/9), 254 (11/9), 255 (12/9), 256 (13/9) and 257 (14/9). The crop was irrigated every third day, on days 254 and 257, irrigation started at 14:00 h. Typical diurnal changes of temperature profiles above the canopy are slightly unstable during the morning, are almost isothermal at noon, and show a weak inversion thereafter. The predominant wind direction was from the NW and N. Wind gusts from the W or NE were observed usually before midday, when the average wind speed was low. After 13:00 h, the wind speed increased and generally blew across the rows from the NW with enough fetch. The daily maximum temperature and the minimum daily relative humidity were between 30 to 35 °C and 30 to 40%, respectively; as measured at the weather station located nearby. The soil surface temperature measured by infrared thermometer may reach 55 °C at noon.
We studied two groups of adult subjects from both sexes, employees at Ramon Madariaga and Province Pedia- tric Public Hospitals in Posadas City , Misiones Province. One group was constituted by 87 subjects with MS, and the second group by 74 subjects without MS (Control Group). Both groups represented a similar distribution of sex and age. Weight, height and waist circumference were obtained in accordance with WHO standards. Blood pres- sure was measured with a mercury esphybgomanometer, lipids and lipoproteins were evaluated in 12-hour fast samples, in another blood sample obtained after an 8-hour period of fasting, glycemia and insulinemia were mea- sured. HOMA and QUICKI indexes were calculated. Internal Quality Control was performed with a serum pool prepared inthe laboratory, and the External Quality Control was carried out through the controls provided by the Argentine Biochemical Foundation. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoanalysis (CV=8%) in a private labora- tory at Posadas City, and for the statistical analysisofthe data, Epi Info 6.04 d and SSPS 11-5 version were used.