PDF superior Authority control ontologies in the field of linked open data

Authority control ontologies in the field of linked open data

Authority control ontologies in the field of linked open data

Esta situación se puede evitar con una nueva aproximación a los datos abiertos enlazados que supere su concepción como meros conjuntos de datos creados y mantenidos por separado, entre los que se establecen enlaces para enriquecer los posteriores procesos de búsqueda y descu- brimiento de información. Hay que adoptar una visión más integral y amplia de linked open data en la que además, y como norma general, se definan relaciones entre diferentes vocabularios controlados, así como entre ontologías o esque- mas de metadatos. Sería necesario por tanto definir las correspondencias entre los elementos de Mads/RDF con la ontología GND y ésta a su vez con skos. Incluso habría que plantear la definición de equivalencias con otros esquemas y ontologías
Mostrar más

5 Lee mas

The Landscape of Ontology Reuse in Linked Data

The Landscape of Ontology Reuse in Linked Data

Phase 1: Static statistics for ontology elements and ontologies. For each ob- served element in the harvested vocabularies we have recorded the following static information: (a) type of element (class, object property or datatype property); (b) ele- ment identifier (URI); (c) vocabulary in which the observed element (either locally defined or reused in any fashion) appears. This field contains the vocabulary prefix assigned in LOV; and (d) whether the element is Local, Imported, Referenced or Ref- erencedByImport in the vocabulary where it has been observed according to the clas- sification shown in Fig. 2. This figure also includes an explanatory example together with the statements we can deduce for the example according to the abovementioned definitions. In addition, for each ontology we recorded the following static informa- tion: (a) imported ontologies; (b) original ontologies with elements referenced; and (c) original ontologies with elements referenced by means of (at least) one intermediate owl:imports statement. We consider this type of reuse as a more specific case of the reused by referencing elements.
Mostrar más

11 Lee mas

AUTHORIS: a tool for authority control in the semantic web

AUTHORIS: a tool for authority control in the semantic web

EAD was found to be second in the number of errors produced, with 16 errors of omission of place and date in conferences involving corporate authority. In the transformation to EAD we found 12 records that did not include the terms of relation or designators specifying “issuing body” or “funding body” in the access points of the main entry. A total of 13 EAD records were incomplete and generated confusion, as they did not mention in the description whether an online resource and its printed counterpart were catalogued. These errors can be attributed to the number of fields used by the archive rules and the heterogeneity of cataloguing procedures. The rest of the formats – MARC 21, Dublin Core, FRAD, RDF, OWL, XBRL and FOAF – showed fewer than 20 errors in total, indicating that their transfers are carried out with quality and that they serve for usage with Linked Data (Figure 8).
Mostrar más

18 Lee mas

A linked data approach to sentiment and emotion analysis of twitter in the financial domain

A linked data approach to sentiment and emotion analysis of twitter in the financial domain

Linked Data is another valuable resource that can provide financial analysts with an integration of available data sources in their activity [5]. Linked Data can provide a wide array of opportunities in the financial field. As reported by O’Riain et al. [6], depending on the information consumer needs, the integration and augmentation of financial information can lead to a significant benefit for financial and business analysis in tasks such as competitive analysis, fraud detec- tion or figures comparison. It is also worth mentioning the recent trend towards open government and eGovernment data initiatives for public sector informa- tion, statistics data and economic indicators. The current status is promising, with a large volume of financial and economic data sets already available. Several researchers have shown this potential for different use cases, such as cross-lingual query of financial and business data from multiple sources [7,8], using social me- dia in investment decisions [9,10] or enriching corporate financial reporting [11]. The aim of this article is the application of a Linked Data approach to ex- pressing sentiments and emotions about financial concepts, which financial ana- lysts can use to combine opinions expressed in different social media sites.
Mostrar más

12 Lee mas

Is there a social life in open data? The case of open data practices in educational technology research

Is there a social life in open data? The case of open data practices in educational technology research

While this study has provided a preliminary analysis of the Open Data practices in the field of Educational Technology, a number of limitations also need to be highlighted. Firstly, the sample used for this study was selected as a small percentage of the global results retrieved in the five portals/repositories, and cannot be considered as representative of the total number of datasets. Although it was selected through a robust method (randomization), we cannot exclude that significant results were omitted. While this is a preliminary study on this topic, further research should enlarge the sample size in order to draw more robust conclusions. A second limitation concerns the use of certain keywords through Boolean operators. Despite the fact that they all use metadata for indexing and retrieving datasets, diverse repositories/portals mediate access to the datasets differently. Another limitation concerns the method used to build the codebook, as its qualitative categories were derived inductively or applied according to the researchers’ judgment when pre-defined (the FAIR principles). However, the first limitation may be slightly counterbalanced with the lack of shared ontologies to classify subareas in the sector of Educational Technology. The interrater agreement served the purpose of controlling the second limitation. Another important limitation relates to the type of data collected and the method connected to the construct of “academics’ social practices”. We extracted the data manually from the ODs and from a single academic social network site (ResearchGate), which as a quantitative method is limited to anonymous users’ parameters. Instead, the user experience could be further explored for insights on the activities, habitudes, and motivations, throughout qualitative and ethnographic approaches.
Mostrar más

17 Lee mas

Linked Open Data in the world of education. A vision of the state of the art of this technology applied to teaching and learning

Linked Open Data in the world of education. A vision of the state of the art of this technology applied to teaching and learning

In this study, we have tried to provide a current vision of the world of linked open data in the field of education. We have reviewed the applications that are aimed at implementing these technologies in the existing data repositories. We also have reviewed the support of LOD to new paradigms within the world of education. Our objective has been the state of the art of the semantic web and the techniques associated with it, the language of ontologies and other standards. Finally, we explore the areas of research on open data linked in the world of education.
Mostrar más

7 Lee mas

Combining data mining and ontology engineering to enrich ontologies and linked data

Combining data mining and ontology engineering to enrich ontologies and linked data

The approach to knowledge discovery proposed in this paper will be experimental- ly tested through confrontation against distributed, heterogeneous data sources con- necting the domains of tourism and economy. Particularly, we will apply our knowledge discovery cycle on real-world datasets to produce knowledge related to tourism in the Canary Islands, and to the way it is influenced by the economic state of European countries. These corresponding datasets will originate both from the insti- tute of statistics of the Canary Islands (ISTAC) 1 and from open datasets available on the Web regarding macro-economic indicators [19] (e.g. the ‘world bank’ datasets 2 ). Indeed, immense bases of data about global, national and regional economic condi- tions exist that have the potential to provide insights about the economic dependen- cies and future economic potential of particular regions of the world. However, these data are being largely underexploited because the large number of interconnections between these data and data from other domains, the heterogeneity of the applicable models and patterns, as well as the general ambiguity associated with these areas make it difficult to bootstrap a knowledge discovery process.
Mostrar más

6 Lee mas

Open government data in Chile

Open government data in Chile

• Finally, Linked Data is, in its essence, composable. The same features described for the extensibility allows us to create mappings between otherwise unrelated ontologies. This, in our opinion, is really the decisive factor in favor of Linked Data. It allows any mapping of public or private databases, and unlocks infer- ence engines to walk all over the data corpus and reason over everything within their reach. The open nature of the web, both philosophical and technical, en- ables seamless integration and composition of data from diverse sources. On this matter, Maali et al. (Maali, Cyganiak, & Peristeras, 2010) started working on common vocabularies to link datasets to, making them interoperate effort- lessly.
Mostrar más

40 Lee mas

OAI-PMH and Linked Open Data in the context of Hispana and Europeana. Some historical reflections

OAI-PMH and Linked Open Data in the context of Hispana and Europeana. Some historical reflections

Lo que quedaba claro era que fuera cual fuera la solución tecnológica que se adoptara ésta debería estar basada en la aplicación de una normativa por parte de todos los actores implicados, pues de otro modo los mismos actores podrían rechazar realizar gastos en una solución no normalizada, y que la solución tecnológica debía estar basada en normativas propias de la web, lo que dejaba fuera a Z39.50. Además, difícilmente se podía requerir desde la Subdirección que para crear ese sistema de control de digitalizaciones las instituciones tuvieran que echar mano de la norma Z39.50 que se aplicaba únicamente en algunos de los programas clásicos de gestión bibliotecaria, cuyo coste, por otra parte, quedaba fuera del alcance de la gran mayoría de instituciones.
Mostrar más

16 Lee mas

SKOS application for interoperability of controlled vocabularies in the field of linked open data

SKOS application for interoperability of controlled vocabularies in the field of linked open data

Se pretende determinar el alcance de la aplicación de SKOS en el ámbito de la web semántica. Para ello se han analizado los vocabularios controlados que aplican SKOS y que se encuentran registrados en The data hub, un catálogo de conjuntos de datos RDF. Además de establecer una tipología de vocabularios, se analizan los aspectos relacionados con el acceso abierto a los datos mediante su descarga directa, su consulta a través de un Sparql endpoint y la existencia de licencias adecuadas. Se examina el nivel de interoperabilidad existente a través de la definición de relaciones de mapeado entre vocabularios. Se concluye indicando que tesauros y clasificaciones están más integrados en el entorno de los datos abiertos, mientras que los encabezamientos de materia poseen un mayor grado de interoperabilidad.
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

Linked data and linked open data and its implementation in a digital library: the case of Europeana

Linked data and linked open data and its implementation in a digital library: the case of Europeana

y conocimiento a través de internet, sin barreras económicas y sin restricciones derivadas de los derechos de copyright (Ferreras-Fernández, 2011). Las instituciones culturales se benefician del software open source, reduciendo los costes iniciales y de mantenimiento al eliminar –en principio– la figura de los proveedores tecnológicos. El software OS faci- lita a los profesionales un mayor control sobre sus sistemas pudiendo obtener un mejor conocimiento sobre los inte- reses y expectativas de los usuarios, pues pueden adaptar los programas libremente a sus necesidades. Finalmente,
Mostrar más

6 Lee mas

Data Analytics of Electromagnetics Field Measurements in Smart Meters

Data Analytics of Electromagnetics Field Measurements in Smart Meters

Thermal effects on humans have been extensively studied and appear to be well understood. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has established guidelines to protect public health from known hazards associated with the thermal impacts of RF: tissue heating from absorbing energy associated with RF emissions [5]. Electromagnetic waves carry energy, and EMF absorbed by the body can increase the temperature of human tissue. The scientific consensus is that body temperatures must increase at least 1 o C to lead to potential biological impacts from the heat [6].
Mostrar más

7 Lee mas

GeoPGD: metodología para la implementación de juegos pervasivos georreferenciados apoyados en linked open data

GeoPGD: metodología para la implementación de juegos pervasivos georreferenciados apoyados en linked open data

Los principales temas que fueron considerados inicialmente para dar apertura a la investigación fueron: 1. Videojuegos educativos: donde gracias a la asesoría de expertos se pudo concluir los vacíos de conocimiento que se presentaban específica- mente en los Juegos Pervasivos (JP). 2. Geolocalización: ahondando en el tema se pudo identificar que la localización soporta muchos procesos de la pervasividad, en específico su expansión espacial, tanto en espacios cerrados como abiertos. 3. Mé- tricas: como cualquier otro software, es indispensable contar con validaciones de lo planteado, por lo cual en este caso es necesario medir experiencia del usuario, ade- más es de mucho interés considerar algunas métricas sobre el proceso de desarrollo planteado. 4. Metodología: en esta área se descubrió que era necesario contar con una metodología o proceso software que soportara el diseño y la implementación de los JP, de tal forma que se consideraran las características y funcionalidades especiales que estos poseen. 5. Linked Open Data (LOD), finalmente, apoyado en investigacio- nes previas, se sabe que LOD ha incrementado sus áreas de aplicación. Por lo cual quisimos aportar un valor agregado a la representación de los componentes de los JP mediante una ontología, además de la sugerencia del almacenamiento de datos del juego en repositorios semánticos.
Mostrar más

227 Lee mas

Publicación como Linked Open Data de la Nomenclatura Internacional de Ciencia y Tecnología y del Tesauro UNESCO

Publicación como Linked Open Data de la Nomenclatura Internacional de Ciencia y Tecnología y del Tesauro UNESCO

Resumen El objetivo del proyecto UNESKOS es la representación de la Nomenclatura Internacional Normalizada de Ciencia y Tecnología y del Tesauro de la UNESCO mediante tecnologías propias de la Web Semántica. Se pretende ofrecer dichos vocabularios como conjuntos de datos RDF con una estructura que facilite su consulta y reutilización según los principios Linked Open Data. La representación de ambos vocabularios se ha desarrollado aplicando SKOS. Si bien el modelado de la Nomenclatura ha resultado sencillo, el del Tesauro ha sido algo más complejo debido a su estructura de dominios de conocimiento y micro- tesauros. La consulta, tanto del Tesauro como de la Nomenclatura, puede realizarse a través de una web multilingüe que permite la búsqueda (por etiquetas preferentes y alternativas) y la navegación por la estructura de relaciones semánticas. Cada categoría y concepto se identifica mediante una URI derreferenciable que permite la negociación de contenido en múltiples formatos. También se ofrece un SPARQL Endpoint para la ejecución de consultas y la recuperación de datos RDF. SKOS se ha demostrado muy adecuado para representar vocabularios sencillos como es el de la Nomenclatura, y algunos más complejos como el Tesauro de la UNESCO. En este último se ha identificado la necesidad de definir elementos que complementen una futura versión de SKOS. El modelado obtenido es compatible con una interfaz de consulta clara y sencilla. La publicación bajo los principios de Linked Open Data permite una reutilización sencilla y ágil de los datos RDF y posibilitan el desarrollo de proyectos futuros, como la alineación con otros vocabularios mediante relaciones de mapeado.
Mostrar más

22 Lee mas

Massive open online courses in higher education: A data analysis of the MOOC supply

Massive open online courses in higher education: A data analysis of the MOOC supply

While they are a phenomenon originating in North American universities (Rodriguez, 2012; Waldrop, 2013), MOOCs do not form part of the formal university course offering and are taught via virtual education platforms that have, for the most part, been created as consortia for this purpose (e.g., Coursera, Udacity, edX, MiríadaX), which are offered by different non- and for-profit entities (Ong & Grigoryan, 2015; Pang, Tong & Na, 2014; Yuan & Powell, 2013). Some studies (Daniel, Vásquez & Gisbert, 2015; Yuan & Powell, 2013) consider the participation of the universities in the MOOC phenomenon to be the result of the technology-media convergence process and the consequence of the massification of higher education in the context of the cultural homogenization that is associated with globalization. Others consider MOOCs to be an opportunity for public universities with smaller budgets, and not the threat that was originally imagined, pointing out their benefits in terms of reaching social groups such as retirees or employees who wish to improve their technical performance, for whom these courses would be an intellectual challenge (Ong & Grigoryan, 2015). They are also seen as an opportunity to advance in lifelong learning (De Freitas, Morgan & Gibson, 2015), a view that is shared by official European bodies, which consider them to be a change agent in higher education (European Parliament, 2015; European Commission, 2013).
Mostrar más

50 Lee mas

Collaborative semantic editing of linked data lexica.

Collaborative semantic editing of linked data lexica.

One of the most prominent examples of such crowd- sourcing is the online encyclopedia Wikipedia 1 and its dic- tionary version Wiktionary. There have already been sev- eral attempts to create a structured resource out of Wik- tionary (Zesch et al., 2008a; McCrae et al., 2012b) and to apply the data contained within this resource to NLP tasks such as information retrieval (M¨uller and Gurevych, 2009) and semantic relatedness (Zesch et al., 2008b). As resources created by crowd-sharing are not typically devel- oped for machine processing, it is a priori not clear how useful such crowd-sourced resources are for NLP tasks. A topological comparative study of Wiktionary as a resource was carried out by Meyer et al. (2010). They found that Wiktionary was similar in structure to resources created by experts (in this case GermaNet and Open Thesaurus), but had fewer semantic links per resource than such resources. They also reported that there were many technical issues in Wiktionary concerning broken links and axiom violations, e.g., the indication of a synonymy between two pages in only one direction, which violates the symmetric axiom for synonymy. McCrae et al. (2012b) presented a study in inte- grating WordNet with Wiktionary, showing that there was only an approximately 25% overlap at the level of lexical entries between both resources. This suggests that combin- ing these resource may thus be very valuable.
Mostrar más

7 Lee mas

Authority Through Freedom. On Freire’s Radicalisation of the Authority-Freedom Problem in Education

Authority Through Freedom. On Freire’s Radicalisation of the Authority-Freedom Problem in Education

of Education as The Practice of Freedom (Freire, 2005), that Freire developed these ideas and concepts very much out of the crucible of a Brazilian society struggling with the damaging legacy of Portuguese colonialism, and with its own complex internal politics. The influence of the relatively new Liberation Theology of, for example, Hélder Pessoa Câmara (Gadotti, 2004) or Gutierrez (Gutierrez, 2001) is also significant. A critique of authority is at the heart of this revolutionary approach, with regard to how authority is used (and abused) both educationally and politically. Here, Freire’s work is part of an emergent tendency in the philosophy and sociology of education, away from an approach focused almost exclusively on conceptual and analytic issues to a perspective much more grounded in the socio-political lifeworld (Irwin, 2012; Biesta, 2006; Biesta, 2013; Igelmo, 2013). But in this paradigm-shift, Freire is also developing an emphasis which we can trace in the earlier work of John Dewey (Dewey, 1973) although the latter is not an explicit influence on Freire. In Experience and Education, Dewey addresses head-on the question of authority in education and teaching, arguing for a defence of a reconstituted concept and practice of authority and arguing very much against what he sees as the over-simplification of a progressivist approach to pedagogy. Neither traditionalism nor progressivism in education, both authority and freedom in education, Dewey is clearly and polemically saying, and in this his new articulation of the problem, Dewey can be seen as anticipating the direction of Freire’s succeeding work. Freire seems to have come to similar conclusions to Dewey through a different route entirely, under the influence of Liberation theology in Latin America, and in dialogue with the radical educational theories of Ivan Illich, Erich Fromm and John Holt most especially (Gutierrez, 2001; Igelmo, 2013; Irwin, 2012).
Mostrar más

14 Lee mas

Linked Opinions: Describing Sentiments on the Structured Web of Data

Linked Opinions: Describing Sentiments on the Structured Web of Data

literals and for the entity search (with DBpedia entity references). In both cases we used Sindice search engine as back-end for the demonstration. Finally, for tests of metadata search in closed private environments we have setup a local SPARQL endpoint and used the OPAL opinion mining module in conjunction with technologies from Gi2MO project [21] to extract opinions from independent Idea Management Systems and visualise them together. The additional challenge was that the two systems had data in different languages: one Spanish and the other English. As an outcome, the opinion mining algorithm enabled us to leverage the multilingual instances to the same level but ultimately the Marl ontology in conjunction with other Semantic Web vocabularies worked as an enabler to integrate the systems and run queries over the data to aggregate all information in a single view (e.g. show all ideas with community opinions and compare aggregated opinion scores, or compare the amount of positively received ideas by idea categories etc.). All together the query experiments proved that the ontology is capable in answering all the formulated questions in test scenarios of: movie opinions, product opinions, Idea Management Systems. A common problem, that confirmed the test results of coverage experiment, was that many queries expected the direct link to text fragment of the opinion - which is not facilitated by Marl. An example of a query constructed for data serialized with Marl v0.1 during our experiments can be seen at figure 7.
Mostrar más

12 Lee mas

Linked data glossary

Linked data glossary

Data formats that may be readily parsed by computer programs without access to proprietary libraries. For example, CSV, TSV and RDF formats are machine readable, but PDF and Microsoft Excel are not. Creating and publishing data following Linked Data principles helps search engines and humans to find, access and re-use data. Once information is found, computer programs can re-use data without the need for custom scripts to manipulate the content.

25 Lee mas

Calidad de datos en Linked Data

Calidad de datos en Linked Data

Los conjuntos de datos publicados cubren una diversa gama de dominios como la geografía, las ciencias y los medios de comunicación, por nombrar algunos. Sin embargo, para lograr que la Web de datos sea una realidad, es importante tener una gran cantidad de datos en la Web disponibles en un formato estándar, alcanzable y manejable por herramientas de la Web Semántica. Más aún, no sólo se necesita tener acceso a los datos sino que además deben estar disponibles las relaciones entre los mismos para poder crear una Web de datos y no sólo una mera colección de conjuntos de datos. La colección de conjuntos de datos interrelacionados en la Web se denomina Linked Data.
Mostrar más

43 Lee mas

Show all 10000 documents...