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Avian influenza and wetlands

Avian influenza and wetlands

20. Compared with 54 countries reporting 1,470 outbreaks to the OIE in 2006, 30 countries reported 638 outbreaks in 2007 (OIE 2008). In 2007, six European countries (Poland, Hungary, Germany, the United Kingdom, Romania and the Czech Republic) reported sporadic and relatively isolated outbreaks in poultry that were quickly controlled. Outbreaks in domestic birds were also reported in European parts of Russia and in Turkey. Infected wild birds were reported in Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic, and birds at a rehabilitation centre were affected in Poland. In the Middle East and central Asia, poultry outbreaks occurred throughout 2007. Some 350 outbreaks were reported in Egypt and Bangladesh alone. Poultry (and in some cases captive birds) were also affected in India, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Israel with most outbreaks occurring between February and April, and again between October and December. In Africa, HPAI H5N1 was reported in domestic birds in Togo, Ghana and Benin and is considered to have become endemic in Nigeria (OIE 2008; UN System Influenza Coordinator & World Bank 2007). Again, as in 2006, poultry outbreaks continued across southeast Asia. Sporadic cases in wild birds were reported in Japan and Hong Kong, PR China. By the end of 2007, the virus was considered to be endemic in poultry in Egypt, Indonesia and Nigeria, and possibly endemic in Bangladesh and China (UN System Influenza Coordinator & World Bank 2007).
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STRP draft Resolution and guidance on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

STRP draft Resolution and guidance on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

As well as providing conditions for virus mutation and generation, agricultural practices, particularly those used on wetlands, can enhance the ability of a virus to spread. The role of Asian domestic ducks in the epidemiology of HPAI H5N1 has been closely researched and found to be central not only to the genesis of the virus (Hulse-Post et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2005), but also to its spread and the maintenance of infection in several Asian countries (Shortridge & Melville 2006). Typically this has involved flocks of domestic ducks used for ‘cleaning’ rice paddies of waste grain and various pests, during which they are exposed to wild ducks using the same wetlands. Detailed research (Gilbert et al. 2006; Songserm et al. 2006) in Thailand has demonstrated a strong association between the HPAI H5N1 virus and abundance of free-grazing ducks. Gilbert et al. (2006) concluded that in Thailand “wetlands used for double-crop rice production, where free-grazing duck feed year round in rice paddies, appear to be a critical factor in HPAI persistence and spread”.
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Ramsar COP10 DR 21 Draft Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

Ramsar COP10 DR 21 Draft Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

27. As well as providing conditions for virus mutation and generation, agricultural practices, particularly those used on wetlands, can enhance the ability of a virus to spread. The role of Asian domestic ducks in the epidemiology of HPAI H5N1 has been closely researched and found to be central not only to the genesis of the virus (Hulse-Post et al. 2005; Sims 2007), but also to its spread and the maintenance of infection in several Asian countries (Shortridge & Melville 2006). Typically this has involved flocks of domestic ducks used for ‘cleaning’ rice paddies of waste grain and various pests, during which they can potentially have contact with wild ducks using the same wetlands. Detailed research (Gilbert et al. 2006; Songserm et al. 2006) in Thailand has demonstrated a strong association between the HPAI H5N1 virus and abundance of free-grazing ducks. Gilbert et al. (2006) concluded that in Thailand “wetlands used for double-crop rice production, where free-grazing duck feed year round in rice paddies, appear to be a critical factor in HPAI persistence and spread”.
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Resolution XI.12 Wetlands and health: taking an ecosystem approach

Resolution XI.12 Wetlands and health: taking an ecosystem approach

18. ALSO RECOGNIZING the importance of the cross-sectoral mechanisms (including the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds) developed in response to the threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1; WELCOMING the global momentum to build the capacity and understanding of wetland managers, biologists and human and animal health practitioners during the international response to this disease; ALSO WELCOMING the establishment of the multi-stakeholder CMS/FAO Scientific Task Force on Wildlife and Ecosystem Health (as retitled in CMS Resolution 10.22), of which the Ramsar Convention is a member; and DESIRING to further strengthen capacity and broaden communication and cooperation among those organizations involved in wetland health monitoring and management;
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World Wetlands Day 2011, Green Celebrations in Pakistan

World Wetlands Day 2011, Green Celebrations in Pakistan

The honorable Chief Guest Mr. Hameed Ullah Jan Afridi, Federal Minister for Environment was given a warm welcome on his arrival. He inaugurated the World Wetlands Day 2011, Green Celebrations Campaign by releasing balloons into the air and planting an indigenous sapling along with students in the College ground. Mr. Hameed Ullah Jan Afridi addressed the students and stressed on the important role of the new generation in the future of Pakistan. Mrs. Shaista Peerzada, principal of Islamabad College for Girls and Dr. Ghulam Akbar, National programme manager, Pakistan Wetlands Programme, Ministry of Environment also emphasised the role of forests and wetlands not only in our ecosystem, but more notably in our lives.
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Responsible tourism supports wetlands and people

Responsible tourism supports wetlands and people

conservation efforts. In Australia’s Kakadu National Park (an almost 2-million hectare Ramsar and World Heritage Site), 40% of the entrance fees from around 200,000 visitors each year is provided to the Ab- original Lands Trust for disbursement to Kakadu’s traditional owners, and the re- maining 60% is used to cover the opera- tional costs of conserving and maintaining the park’s natural and cultural value. Income can be effectively used for train- ing local guides and tour operators so that they understand the key features of the wetland and can explain simple conser- vation measures to the tourists they are responsible for – and at the same time modify their own operations to minimize their impacts on the natural resource. Appropriate signage at wetlands, simple pamphlets, etc., can also demonstrate to tourists the values of wetlands and the benefits they deliver to us all.
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Notes on avian ectoparasites from Costa Rica  I  Acarina and Diptera

Notes on avian ectoparasites from Costa Rica I Acarina and Diptera

Despite interest in ectoparasites as possible vectors of human diseases, little is known about the ectoparasites of Costa Rican birds. This report is in tended to add to the knowledge concerning avian ectoparasites in the neotrop­ ical country of Costa Rica. The report is based upon collections made from September 1964, through August 1965.

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Influenza

Influenza

Existen seis diferentes tipos de pruebas de diag- nóstico rápido que detectan antígeno del virus, los cuales tienen una sensibilidad que varía de 40 a 100% y una especificidad de 52 a 100%, cuando se comparan con cultivo viral o RT-PCR. Los valores para la detección del nuevo virus A H1N1 aún no se establecen. Idealmente, la mues- tra de exudado faríngeo, nasofaríngeo, lavado nasal, aspirado bronquial o traqueal debe tomar- se en los primeros tres días del inicio de los sín- tomas. El cultivo viral es el estándar de oro, ade- más permite que el virus sea tipificado y caracterizado antigénicamente. Los medios de cultivo utilizados son huevos embrionados de gallina o el cultivo de riñón canino de Madin- Darby, el riñón de chimpancé y otros. También se puede realizar el diagnóstico por determina- ciones serológicas al mostrar un incremento de cuatro veces en la titulación de anticuerpos con- tra influenza en una segunda muestra. El suero en la fase de convalecencia debe obtenerse entre los días 10 a 21 del inicio del cuadro. Las técni- cas serológicas más frecuentemente empleadas son las de neutralización y la inhibición por he- maglutinación. 19
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Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

8. Climate change policies also have significant influences on energy policies and demands. Resolution X.24 on Climate change and wetlands (2008) stresses the need to ensure that climate change policy responses do not lead to further degradation and loss of wetlands, as well as the need for integrated coordination in developing national policies related to water management, agriculture, energy production, poverty reduction, and human health in order to ensure that sectoral objectives are mutually supportive in addressing the likely negative impacts of climate change. In some cases the implementation of measures to mitigate climate change could potentially compromise the ability of wetlands to provide options for climate change adaptation measures.
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Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

The traditional knowledge innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities relevant for the wise use of wetlands and their customary use of wetland resources, are documented, respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with a full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities at all relevant levels.

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Amenazas Y Desafíos de Influenza para México y el Mundo

Amenazas Y Desafíos de Influenza para México y el Mundo

Plan Nacional para la preparación y respuesta ante la intensificación de la Influenza. estacional o ante una Pandemia de Influenza.[r]

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Interaction dynamics of avian frugivores and plants in a Chilean Mediterranean shrubland

Interaction dynamics of avian frugivores and plants in a Chilean Mediterranean shrubland

generalist plant species, contributes more to overall nestedness than frugivore nestedness. In the latter (i.e. nestedness among columns), fruit species consumed by the specialist frugivorous species would constitute subsets of the more generalist frugivorous species. The high nestedness of this plant-frugivore interaction network in central Chile corroborates recent studies that report highly nested patterns for most seed-dispersal mutualistic networks (Bascompte et al., 2003). This contrasts with the more compartmentalized assemblage structures reported for antago- nistic food webs (Dunne et al., 2002). Similar patterns have been documented for other seed-dispersal networks in the Mediterra- nean Basin, but they differ markedly from the random structure reported for a species-richer Neotropical rainforest in Costa Rica (Jordano et al., 2003; Wheelwright et al., 1984). Although nested- ness has been shown to increase with network size, i.e. the total number of interacting plant and animal species (Bascompte et al., 2003), the small network in San Carlos de Apoquindo (26 inter- acting species and 23% fi ll) shows an unusually high and signi fi cant level of nestedness for a species-poor community. This may be related to the lack of more detailed information about the network, as some bird species were hard or impossible to capture using mist nets, such as the Rhinocryptids Scelorchilus albicollis and Pter- optochos megapodius closely related to the fruit eating S. rubecula and P. tarnii in southern temperate rainforests in Chile (Armesto et al., 1987; Johnson and Goodall, 1967). Nevertheless, species additions to the seed-dispersal network in central Chile are unlikely to change network structure, and may increase the level of nest- edness (Bascompte et al., 2003). A highly nested structure for the seed-disperal network in the Chilean matorral can provide alter- native routes for this system to respond to human disturbances to the landscape (Bascompte et al., 2003). Accordingly, generalists can supplement seed dispersal associated with specialist avian species that may go locally extinct. We suggest this may be happening for the dispersal of Aristotelia chilensis, which was in the past dispersed by Columba araucana, a bird that has not been recorded for more than 35 years in the study area (Schlatter, 1979); A. chilensis is dispersed by six other generalist species, includying the two- species of foxes, L. culpaeus and L. griseus.
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Ramsar COP10 DOC. 9 Regional overview of the implementation of the Convention and its Strategic Plan 2003 – 2008 in Asia

Ramsar COP10 DOC. 9 Regional overview of the implementation of the Convention and its Strategic Plan 2003 – 2008 in Asia

147. Some 55% of the Parties said that they had used previous copies of their National Report in implementing the Convention (Indicator 4.7.1) and although this is more than 50%, the percentage should be even higher. This is because the Report should provide a status summary of how far each Party has gone in implementing the Convention, describe the successes and challenges it faced during the process, and provide recommendations on how the Party could improve its implemention in the next triennium. This is especially important in government ministries where the Administrative Authority and/or Daily Focal Point are rotated on a fairly frequent basis, and so the National Report can act as a record of what has been done and what steps need to be taken next. Parties are therefore recommended to make greater use of their National Reports.
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A Ramsar Case Study on Tourism and Wetlands

A Ramsar Case Study on Tourism and Wetlands

The water regime in the caves has been affected by the barrages upstream in the Reka River, which have been designed to control flow volumes. On the one hand, the purpose is to ensure that the river flow downstream is maintained above the ecological minimum; on the other hand, it is to prevent flooding and provide water supplies for some areas. The Park has provided guidelines and has been actively involved in the expert group working on establishing the flow levels required to support ecosystems along the river and in the caves. The Park is also collaborating with the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia to monitor the river flow and the overall water regime in the Reka River watershed.
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Influenza: Por qu la necesidad de  una vacuna tetravalente contra la influenza?

Influenza: Por qu la necesidad de una vacuna tetravalente contra la influenza?

The infl uenza virus has accompanied humanity since ancient times causing major epidemics and pandemics as the most recent occurred in 2009 (H1N1) that caused 575,000 deaths. It is one of the most contagious diseases by its high mutation capacity (antigenic Drift and Shit) mostly affect the extremes of life (< 5 years and > 65 years). The peaks of infl uenza occur in Mexico from November to May, but on average are more often in January or February. Clinical manifestations vary according to age and comorbidities. The most effective method to prevent infection is annual vaccination. However, given the epidemiological patterns of recent years which have appeared infl uenza B Yamagata and Victoria, where there is no concordance in previous annual periods up to 50-75% of cases of infl uenza B reported. Additionally, where the impact of infl uenza B disease is most evident in children under 6 years is
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ABOUT THE CORBETT FOUNDATION

ABOUT THE CORBETT FOUNDATION

Participants were informed about the RAMSAR convention and how World Wetlands Day got representation all over the world for creation of awareness for the wetland conservation. Students were told about functional values of wetlands and also imparted with tips on bird identification. Kids were introduced to the direct and indirect benefits or services provided by the wetlands and how crucial they are for sustaining life on earth.

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Ramsar National Report to COP13 Section 1: Institutional Information - COP13NR Pakistan e

Ramsar National Report to COP13 Section 1: Institutional Information - COP13NR Pakistan e

Ramsar Regional Initiatives with the active involvement and support of the Parties in each region are reinforced and developed into effective tools to assist in the full implementation of the Convention. {3.2.} 15.1 Have you (AA) been involved in the development and implementation of a Regional Initiative under the framework of the Convention? {3.2.1} KRA 3.2.i

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Neotropical dry forest recovery and its impact on the avian community

Neotropical dry forest recovery and its impact on the avian community

The presence and activity of fauna can be evaluated using acoustic methods for those species that communicate or use sounds (Sueur et al., 2008; Aide et al., 2013). Acoustic tools include both sound recording in the field and analysis of the resulting sound recordings (Aide et al., 2013; Sueur et al., 2014; Towsey et al., 2014). Currently, several different acoustic indices are used for different purposes (Sueur et al., 2014). These include studies that use indices to monitor the presence, behavior, and activity of specific fauna, as well as indices that are used to evaluate acoustic richness, diversity, and complexity (Sueur et al., 2008; Farina et al., 2011; Pieretti et al., 2011; Depraetere et al., 2012; Pieretti & Farina, 2013; Gasc et al., 2013; Rodríguez et al., 2014). The Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI) is a tool that has been used as a general estimator of sound complexity, an estimator of the acoustic complexity of bird sounds (Farina et al., 2011; Pieretti et al., 2011), an indicator of ecosystem health (Buxton et al., 2016), and an indicator of change in avian communities (Farina et al., 2011). The ACI calculates the average of differences in sound pressure level between frequency bins and temporal steps in a spectrogram and uses sound intensities, rather than spectral features in a spectrogram, to characterize the acoustic environment (Pieretti et al., 2011). Analysis of spectral features in spectrograms can result in underestimation of the differences between frequency bins when two or more fauna sounds overlap within the same bin. This issue is addressed properly with the ACI which measures acoustic intensities instead of spectral features and reduces the likelihood of encountering two different organisms that produce the same sound intensity in the same frequency bin during the recording analysis. The ACI has been demonstrated to be a reliable index for characterizing avian communities (Farina et al., 2011; Pieretti et al., 2011). However, this is a recently developed index that has not been widely used in the Tropics.
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Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

STRATEGY 1.4 Cross-sectoral recognition of wetland services. Increase recognition of and attention in decision-making to the significance of wetlands for reasons of biodiversity conservation, water supply and quality, coastal protection, integrated coastal zone management, environmental flows, environmental integrity, flood defense, climate change mitigation and/or adaptation, food security, poverty eradication, tourism, cultural heritage, and scientific research, by developing and disseminating methodologies to achieve wise use of wetlands.
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Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza

Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza

2. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 of Asian lineage (HPAI H5N1) is a viral zoonotic disease that emerged in poultry in southeast Asia between 1997 and 2003. It has since attracted widespread media attention and the attention of decision-makers within governments and international agencies. Between 2003 and 2008, the virus spread in an unprecedented fashion across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. The disease has had major impacts on rural livelihoods linked to the keeping of domestic birds (mainly chickens, ducks, turkeys, ostrich and quail) and nature conservation, including mortality of waterbirds at many Ramsar sites and negative public attitude toward waterbirds and their habitats as a result of lack of understanding of the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the disease. There have also been major concerns as to the potential for viral change that might precipitate a human influenza pandemic, given the ongoing exposure of humans to the circulating avian virus through close contact with infected domestic birds and their products.
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